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Annotated Bibliography on Appalachian English


(based on James B. McMillan and Michael B. Montgomery, Annotated Bibliography of Southern American English. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1989.)

Tableof Contents

  1. GENERAL STUDIES (Includes works overlapping sections 3-12 below.)
  2. HISTORICAL STUDIES
  3. VOCABULARY
  4. PHONOLOGY AND PHONETICS
  5. GRAMMAR AND SYNTAX
  6. PLACE NAME STUDIES
  7. PERSONAL AND MISCELLANEOUS NAMES
  8. FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE, EXAGGERATIONS, AND WORD-PLAY
  9. LITERARY DIALECT
  10. LANGUAGE ATTITUDES AND SPEECH PERCEPTION
  11. SPEECH ACT AND STYLE
  12. BIBLIOGRAPHIES
  1. GENERAL STUDIES (includes works overlapping sections 3-12)
    • Adams, Frazier B. 1970. Colloquial speech forms. Appalachia revisited: how people lived fifty years ago, pp. 47-49. Ashland, KY: Economy. Brief presentation of archaisms. Review: C. S. Guthrie. 1970. Kentucky Folklore Record 16.81.

    • A letter to teachers ... 1974. Mountain Call 1.3,5 (Aug.-Sept.). Says teachers should emphasize that mountain dialect is not backward.

    • Arnow, Harriet Simpson. 1963. The sounds of humankind. Flowering of the Cumberland, pp. 121-55. New York: Macmillan. Descriptive essay by novelist on range of language and verbal activity in Cumberland mountains.

    • Bailey, Charles-James N. 1968. Is there a "midland" dialect of American English? Eric Document 021 240. 7 pp. Opposes term "South Midland" as used by Linguistic Atlas writers and claims preponderance of phonological and grammatical evidence groups region encompassing most of South Carolina with the South rather than with the "North Midland."

    • Bailey, Charles-James N. 1973. Variation and linguistic theory. Arlington, VA: Center for Applied Linguistics. viii + 162 pp. Presents new "dynamic paradigm" for describing direction and rate of linguistic change and variation using a wave model; analysis based mainly on phonological data, with many examples from Southern English. Reviews: R. R. Butters. 1976. Language Sciences 40.32-36; V. Heeschen. 1976. Anthropos 71.298-99; A. S. Kaye. 1981. American Speech 56.236-38; J. Sherzer. 1975. American Anthropologist 77.667- 68;  E. C. Traugott. 1976. Language 52.502-06; W. Wolfram. 1977. General Linguistics 17.178-85.

    • Bailey, Charles-James N. 1973. The patterning of language variation. Varieties of present-day English, ed. by Richard W. Bailey and Jay L. Robinson, pp. 156-86. New York: Macmillan. Theoretical essay synopsizing author's wave model for language variation and change.

    • Bailey, Joan Smith. 1971. Southern Appalachian non-standard speech in conflict with the standard English of the classroom. Johnson City: East Tennessee State University thesis. 50 pp. [65 high school students, 59 Male, 6 Female, with composition problems, East Tennessee]. Explores ways to improve attitudes of failureprone speakers of Appalachian English toward their language.

    • Bandy, Lewis David. 1940. Language and beliefs. Folklore of Macon County, Tennessee, pp. 52-63. Nashville: George Peabody College thesis. [North Central Tennessee]. Informal survey of unusual speech, especially lexical items.

    • Berk, Laura E., and Ruth A. Garvin. 1984. Development of private speech among low-income Appalachian children. Developmental Psychology 20.271-86. [East Kentucky, 36 children ages 5-10]. Private speech is defined as that spoken aloud for self-guidance, which is held to be crucial for intellectual development.

    • Berrey, Lester V. 1940. Southern mountain dialect. American Speech 15.45- 54. General features of Appalachian phonology, morphology, syntax, dialect subregions.

    • Blanton, Linda. 1985. Southern Appalachia: social considerations of speech. Toward a social history of American English, by J. L. Dillard, pp. 73-90. The Hague: Mouton. Argues for existence of identifiable dialect called Southern Appalachian English "on the basis of cultural solidarity, the boundaries of this dialect [being] more social, more cultural, than geographical"; also argues that the dialect is composed of two varieties--a standard and a nonstandard, both of which have features socially stigmatized by other speakers of American English.

    • Blanton, Linda. 1989. Mountain English. Encyclopedia of Southern culture, ed. by William Ferris and Charles Wilson. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. Short essay discussing nature and major grammatical features of Southern Appalachian and Ozark speech.

    • Blum-West, Dina. 1983. The need for a descriptive study of Appalachian children's language development. Abstract in Critical essays in Appalachian Life and Culture: Proceedings of the Fifth Annual Apalachian Studies Conference, ed. by Rick Simon, 108. Boone, NC: Appalachian Consortium. Says lack of research on children's language patterns in Appalachia "poses a grave problem for language assessment and educational planning in the region."

    • Bond, George Foot. 1939. A study of an Appalachian dialect. Gainesville: University of Florida thesis. 119 pp. [6 Male, 2 Female, ages 20s-90+, Broad River Valley, Western North Carolina]. Surveys pronunciation and vocabulary.

    • Boswell, George W. 1951. An abstract of reciprocal influences of text and tune in the southern traditional ballad. Nashville: George Peabody College dissertation.

    • Boswell, George W. 1971. Class competition in Kentucky dialect study. Kentucky Folklore Record 17.48-52. [Northeast Kentucky]. Discusses generational differences in familiarity with archaic terms, with particular reference to thirteen items; finds greatest difference between 15-25 and 25-50 age groups.

    • Bowman, Blanche S. 1940. Study of a dialect employed by the people of Kentucky mountains and presented through a group of original short stories. Manhattan: Kansas State University thesis. 250 pp. Discussion of East Kentucky speech by school-teacher who cites forms from fiction to exemplify local patterns.

    • Bowman, Elizabeth S. 1938. Land of high horizons. Kingsport, TN: Southern. Pp. 45-47, discusses general qualities of mountain speech.

    • Brandes, Paul D., and Jeutonne Brewer. 1977. Dialect clash in America: issues and answers. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow. Same as Eric Document 144 068. Appalachian Amerenglish, pp. 251-311. Mainly for teachers, this chapter synopsizes settlement and cultural history of the region and gives a non-technical sketch of distinctive syntactic, phonological, lexical, and nonverbal communication patterns of Appalachian speakers. Extensive bibliography. Reviews:  E. Jongsma. 1978. Reading Teacher 31.957-58; J. Ornstein. 1978. Modern Language Journal 62.441-42; J. C. Scott. 1978. Southern Speech Communication Journal 43.418-20;  S. M. Tsuzaki. 1978. Quarterly Journal of Speech 64.353-54.

    • Burns, Inez. 1978. Our southern mountaineers. Smoky Mountain Historical Society Newsletter 4.2.10-13.

    • Butler, Julia A. 1973. An investigation into verbal expressiveness and reading group placement of culturally different second grade children. American Psychological Association Proceedings 8.689-90. Assesses verbal expressiveness of eighty-eight innercity black and white children from Appalachia.

    • Campbell, John C. 1921. The Southern highlander and his homeland. New York: Russell Sage Foundation. Pp. 144-46, comments on Southern Appalachian dialect.

    • Carpenter, Charles. 1933. Variation in the Southern mountain dialect. American Speech 8.22-25. Subregional differences in Appalachian vocabulary, grammar, pronunciation.

    • Carpenter, Charles. 1973. The folk-language of mid-Appalachia. Journal of the Alleghenies 9.27-31. [West Virginia]. Essay stressing that Appalachian English is combination of old forms inherited from British dialects and new forms developed in mountain speech.

    • Carpenter, Charles. 1973. Pronunciation and grammar in mid-Appalachia. Journal of the Alleghenies 9.31-35. [West Virginia]. Peculiarities of mountain speech, including unusual examples of contraction and assimilation.

    • Carter, Michael Vaughn. 1979. Culture, language and organization. Religious language and collective action: a study of voluntarism in a rural Appalachian church, pp. 57-70. Huntingdon, WV: Marshall University thesis. [Southwest West Virginia]. Analyzes language of the Appalachian church in terms of a "semi-autonomous symbolic cognitive system" enabling collective action.

    • Carter, Michael Vaughn. 1981. Religious language and collective action: a study of voluntarism in a rural Appalachian church. Appalachia/America: proceedings of the 1980 Appalachian studies conference, ed. by Wilson Somerville, pp. 218-29. Johnson City, TN: Appalachian Consortium Press. [Southwest West Virginia]. Examines "use of religious language in the church and the organization of the church as a voluntary organization."

    • Cassidy, Frederic G. 1985. Language changes especially common in American folk speech. Dictionary of American Regional English, ed. by Frederic G. Cassidy, pp. xxxvi-xl. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Compendium of thirteen types of changes of word form, twelve grammatical changes, five types of derivational change, and four changes in pronunciation in American folk speech represented in Dictionary of American Regional English.

    • Champion, Larry S. 1983. "Bold to play": Shakespeare in North Carolina. Shakespeare in the South, ed. by Philip C. Kolin, 231-46. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi. P. 238, quotes theatre directors and critics as testifying that Shakespearean language is more intelligible in W North Carolina than elsewhere in country because it is close to the everyday speech there.

    • Christian, Donna, Walt Wolfram, and Nanjo Dube. 1984. Variation and change in geographically isolated communities: Appalachian English and Ozark English. Washington: Center for Applied Linguistics. Final National Science Foundation report. 280 pp. Eric Document 246 682. [Northwest Arkansas, Southern West Virginia]. Compares Ozark and Appalachian English to determine similarity between the two and examines how each preserves patterns and undergoes change; includes extended treatment of auxiliary verbs, personal datives, a -prefixing, patterns of irregular verbs, and subject-verb concord.

    • Coleman, Wilma. 1936. Mountain dialects in north Georgia. Athens: University of Georgia thesis. 30 pp. Sentimental study of archaic and unusual forms undertaken "with a desire to preserve a portion of this quaint old English dialect as the mountaineers in the most remote regions use it."

    • Combs, Josiah H. 1916. Dialect of the folk-song. Dialect Notes 4.311-18. [Appalachia, West Virginia to Georgia]. Dialect words; phonological and syntactic irregularities.

    • Combs, Josiah H. 1931. The language of the Southern highlander. Publication of the Modern Language Association 46.1302-22. Compiles figurative expressions, colloquialisms, pronunciation, and syntax of Southern Appalachia.

    • Combs, Josiah H. 1943. The Kentucky highlands from a native mountaineer's viewpoint. Lexington, KY: J. L. Richardson. 44 pp. Scattered references to dialect throughout.

    • Combs, Josiah H. 1957. Spellin' 'em down in the highlands. Kentucky Folklore Record 3.69-73. [Kentucky]. Anecdotes about unlettered techniques for spelling in spelling bees, the "proper" use of language in the mountains, how mountain residents greet one another and give directions to strangers, etc.

    • Conklin, Nancy Faires, and Margaret A. Lourie. 1983. A host of tongues: language communities in the United States. New York: Free Press. Regional dialects of American English, pp. 72-95, scattered comments on and discusion of features of Southern and Appalachian English.

    • Cooper, Horton. 1972. North Carolina mountain folklore and miscellany. Murfreesboro, NC: Johnson. [Western North Carolina]. Riddles, pp. 55-56; Children's rhymes, pp. 82-85; The early vernacular of the North Carolina mountains, pp. 87-97; Proverbs and expressions, pp. 101-02.

    • Cox, Ellen D. 1969. A study of dialect peculiarities of Scott County, Tennessee secondary school students. Knoxville: University of Tennessee thesis.  [Northeast Tennessee].

    • Damron, Shayla R. 1977. A bidialectal approach: strategies for assimilating the mainstream dialect into the non-mainstream Southern mountain dialect. Eric Document 210 128. 29 pp. [East Kentucky]. Instructional packet to assess individual's language patterns and series of strategies and exercises for increasing student awareness of dialect forms produced.

    • Damron, Shayla R. 1977. Instructional packet: a bidialectal approach. Berea College Appalachian Center. 26 pp. Focuses on black mountain children.

    • Davis, Lawrence M. 1970. Some social aspects of the speech of blue-grass Kentucky. Orbis 19.337-41. [10 White, 1 Black, East Kentucky]. Says Linguistic Atlas of the North Central States data for KY is insufficient for generalizing about systematic black-white differences in verb principal parts and in pronunciation.

    • Davis, Lawrence M. 1971. A study of Appalachian speech in a northern urban setting. Final report. National Center for Educational Research and Development, Washington. Eric Document 061 205. 63 pp. [25 speakers, East Kentucky and Southern West Virginia, 19 having moved to Chicago]. Compares speech of Appalachian residents with Appalachian migrants to Chicago using diafeature rules; finds no significant differences in phonology and few nonstandard grammatical features in speech of any informants.

    • Davis, Lawrence M. 1977. Dialectology and linguistics. Orbis 26.24-30. Theoretical article examining method for distinguishing dialects on basis of diafeatures, shown in an example from East Kentucky.

    • Davis, Lawrence M., and Linda L. Blanton. 1972. Some aspects of the social stratification of English in Southern Appalachia. Abstract in Newsletter of the American Dialect Society 5.2.5. [East Kentucky]. Suggests socioeconomic and educational differences are not most crucial factors in accounting for variation in Southern Appalachian speech.

    • den Holander, A. N. J. 1934. Uber die Bevolkerung der Appalachen. Zeitschrift der Gesellschaft fur Erdkunde 7/8.241-56.

    • Dial, Wylene. 1969. The dialect of the Appalachian people. West Virginia History 30.463-71. Argues with those who consider Appalachian dialect a corruption of English; say it is more accurate to consider it an archaic variety and documents ancestry of characteristic Appalachian forms from 16th- century and earlier literature. Reprinted in B. B. Maurer, ed. 1969. Mountain heritage, pp. 82-91. Ripley, WV: Mountain State Art and Craft Fair, Cedar Lake;  in D. N. Mielke, ed. 1978. Teaching mountain children, pp. 49-58. Boone, NC: Appalachian Consortium.

    • Dial, Wylene. 1970. Folk speech is English, too. Mountain Life and Work 46.2.16-18 (Feb.); 46.5.15-17 (May).

    • Dial, Wylene P. 1976. Appalachian dialect. The West Virginia heritage encyclopedia, ed. by Jim Comstock, pp. 1320-34. Richwood, WV: privately published.

    • Dingus, L. R. 1915. A word list from Virginia. Dialect Notes 4.177-93. [Scott County, Southwest Virginia]. Discusses phonology, morphology, and syntax, and presents wordlist of 500 items.

    • Dingus, L. R. 1927. Appalachian mountain words. Dialect Notes 5.468-71. [Kentucky]. Wordlist of 100 items and shorter lists of specimen pronunciations and grammatical items. from James Watt Raine's The Land of Saddle Bags.

    • Doran, Edwina Bean. 1969. Folksay. Folklore in White County, Tennessee, pp. 97-141. Nashville: George Peabody College dissertation. Abstract in Dissertation Abstracts International 31.322A. [Central Tennessee]. Includes place name etymology, folk-speech vocabulary, proverbs and phrases, and unusual personal names.

    • Dumas, Bethany K. 1975. Smoky Mountain speech. Pioneer Spirit 76, ed. by Dolly Berthelot, pp. 24-29. Knoxville, TN: Privately printed. [East Tennessee]. Overview article for lay readers.

    • Dumas, Bethany K. 1977. Research needs in Tennessee English. Papers in language variation: SAMLA-ADS collection, ed. by David L. Shores and Carole P. Hines, pp. 201-08. University: University of Alabama Press. Programmatic statement of research needs and proposal for Tennessee Language Survey, with interview and goals of the project outlined.

    • Dumas, Bethany K. 1981. East Tennessee talk. An encyclopedia of East Tennessee, ed. by Jim Stokely and Jeff D. Johnson, pp. 170-76. Oak Ridge, TN: Children's Museum. Survey of grammar, pronunciation, and language attitudes of region.

    • Duncan, Hannibal G. 1926. The Southern highlanders. Journal of Applied Sociology 10.556-61. Stresses isolation of mountain people, of which archaic language is one result.

    • Duncan, Hannibal Gerald, and Winnie Leach Duncan. 1929. Superstitions and sayings among the Southern highlanders. Journal of American Folklore 42.233-37. Includes remarks on dialects of subregions of Appalachia.

    • Dunn, Durwood. 1977. The folk culture of Cades Cove, Tennessee. Tennessee Folklore Society Bulletin 43.67-87. [Blount County, East Tennessee]. Reviews linguistic research done on Cades Cove residents in Smoky mountains, pp. 76- 78.

    • Edmiston, William C. 1930. The speech of the hill people of Todd County, Kentucky. Kentucky Folklore and Poetry Magazine 5.3-9. [Southwest Kentucky]. Says hill residents live and speak as their ancestors did a century earlier and discusses typical words and expressions.

    • Ellis, Michael E. 1984. The relationship of Appalachian English with the British regional dialects. Johnson City: East Tennessee State University thesis. 55 pp. Compares lexical, phonological, and morphological evidence in material collected by Tracey Miller and James R. Reese in East Tennessee and material in Survey of English Dialects in Britain, but says the few correspondences found form no uniform pattern.

    • Fullerton, Robert. 1980. An unhappy farewell. West Virginia University Alumni Magazine. Winter/Spring, 6-7. Discusses work of Martha Howard on speech patterns in the state, particularly to resurvey LAMSAS communities covered by Guy Lowman in the 1940s.

    • Fusilier, Freida M. 1971. The speech and language characteristics of rural Appalachian children. Appalachian Medicine 3.88-89. [West Virginia]. Believes failure in school is linked to language patterns.

    • Gainer, Patrick W. 1975. Speech of the mountaineers. Witches ghosts and signs: folklore of the Southern Appalachains, pp. 1-18. Morgantown, WV: Seneca.

    • Gates, Michael Foley. 1972. Language characteristics of disadvantaged and nondisadvantaged children when engaged in problem tasks. Morgantown: West Virginia University dissertation. Abstract in Dissertation Abstracts International 33.2915-16A. [88 7th-graders]. Finds no linguistic differences between disadvantaged and nondisadvantaged children but the latter had a superior "nonverbal ability ... to solve problem tasks."

    • Goff, John Hedges. n.d. Ballads and dialects of the Southern mountaineers. Atlanta: Oglethorpe University thesis. 34 pp. Classifies distinctive linguistic forms in mountains as 1) obsolete forms; 2) illiterate and careless forms; or 3) neologisms required by local conditions; includes word-lists from Kentucky, North Carolina, and Tennessee. Much material taken from J. Combs.

    • Golden, Ruth. 1964. Improving English skills of culturally different youth. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office. P., 104, identification and unsophisticated description of features of speech of "culturally disadvantaged children" migrating from Appalachia to Detroit.

    • Greene, Susan Lutters. 1972. A comparison of black and white speech in a rural Georgia county. Athens: University of Georgia thesis. 482 pp., including transcriptions of data. [4 White, 7 Black adults, Walton County, Northeast Georgia]. Finds minimal differences between black and white speech, e.g., only black speech has word-final glottal stop and white speech diphthongizes short front vowels and uses postvocalic /r/ more than black speech; finds no evidence of unmarked be.

    • Hackenberg, Robert G. 1975. The application of sociolinguistic techniques in rural Appalachia. Views on language, ed. by Reza Ordoubadian and Walburga von Raffler-Engel, pp. 192-200. Murfreesboro: Middle Tennessee State University. [West Virginia]. Discusses applicability of socioeconomic indices developed by urban sociologists for measuring social stratification in rural West Virginia.

    • Hall, Joseph S. 1939. Recording speech in the Great Smokies. Regional Review 3.3-8. Richmond, VA: National Park Service, Region One. [East Tennessee]. Account of field work for his dissertation listed in section 4 below.

    • Hall, Joseph S. 1941. Mountain speech in the Great Smokies. National Park Service history popular study series no. 5. Washington. DC: United States Department of the Interior. ii + 13 pp., 6 illustrations. Same as preceding item.

    • Hall, Joseph S. 1960. Smoky mountain folks and their lore. Asheville, NC: Cataloochee Press. Smokies dialect, pp. 54-65. List of items collected by author in Tennessee, North Carolina mountains from 1937 to 1956. Review: L Roberts. 1964. Mountain Life and Work 40.4.225.

    • Hall, Mary P. F. 1977. Description of the linguistic characteristics of the careful speech of recent high school graduates in entry-level positions of job categories of large employment in selected counties of southwest Virginia. Blacksburg: Virginia Polytechnic Institute thesis.

    • Halpert, Herbert. 1924. [Language of the Pine Mountain area]. Notes from the Pine Mountain Settlement School 2.1-2. [Southeast Kentucky]. Informal essay on archaisms, especially those with a literary flavor, in mountain speech.

    • Hannum, Alberta Pierson. 1943. Words and music. The Great Smokies and the Blue Ridge, ed. by Roderick Peattie, pp. 146-50. [East Tennessee, Western North Carolina]. New York: Vanguard. Discusses grammar, pronunciation, Chaucerisms, and distinctive place names in the Smoky Mountains.

    • Hannum, Alberta Pierson. 1969. Shakespeare's America. Look back with love, pp. 29-33. New York: Vanguard. Reprinting of preceding item.

    • Harris, Jesse W. 1946. The dialect of Appalachia in southern Illinois. American Speech 21.96-99. Discussion, list, and comparison of vocabulary and pronunciation of area to research on Southern Appalachian speech.

    • Hannum, Alberta Pierson. 1943. The mountain people. The great smokies and the blue ridge, ed. by Roderick Peattie, 73-151. New York: Vanguard.

    • Hannum, Alberta Pierson. 1969. Shakespeare's America. Look back with love, 29-33. New York: Vanguard. page numbers do not correspond to dictionary (49-50)

    • Harrison, Deane Bell. 1995. Smoke rings. Rogersville: East Tennessee Printing Company.

    • Hendrickson, Robert. 1986. American talk: the words and ways of American dialects. New York: Viking. 230 pp. Deep down in the holler where the hoot owl hollers at noon: hillbilly tawk, 113-29. Popular condensation of exotic features, based on personal observations and century of published research and characterized by overstatements and anachronisms.

    • Hendrickson, Robert. 1996. Mountain range. New York: Facts on File.

    • Hench, Atcheson L. 1938. Corbins and Nicolsons - a preliminary note. American Speech 13.77-79. [Northern Virginia]. Report on thirty-eight Virginia informants whose speech was taperecorded by Hench and Archibald Hill.

    • Howell, Benita J. 1981. A survey of folklife along the Big South Fork of the Cumberland River: report of investigations no. 30. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Department of Anthropology. Speech, p. 206. [Central Tennessee]. Brief, general comments on Appalachian speech and report of available data from Big South Fork study.

    • Hurst, Sam N. 1929. Mountain speech. The mountains redeemed: the romance of the mountains, pp. 32-34. Appalachia, VA: Hurst and Company. Comments on archaicness, aptness of expression, and exactness of logic of Southern Appalachian speech.

    • Jackson, Sarah E. 1975. Unusual words, expressions, and pronunciation in a North Carolina mountain community. Appalachian Journal 2.148-60. [Ashe County, Western North Carolina]. Unusual usage, idioms, names, and pronunciations collected by an outsider.

    • Jones, Mabel Jean. 1973. The regional English of the former inhabitants of Cades Cove in the Great Smoky Mountains. Knoxville: University of Tennessee dissertation. Abstract in Dissertation Abstracts International 34.5146A. [5 elderly natives, Blount County, East Tennessee]. Study of pronunciation (mostly of vowels) and grammar (mostly of verb principal parts) of ex-inhabitants of Cades Cove area.

    • Kephart, Horace. 1913. The mountain dialect. Our Southern highlanders, 276-304. New York: Macmillan. Revised edition (1922), pp. 350-78. Reprinted in 1976 by University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville. [North Carolina, Tennessee mountains]. Informal, lay account of speech of Smoky Mountains; some phonology and grammar; mainly lexicon. Reviews: M. Bush. 1977. American Forests 83.38-39; W. K. McNeil. 1978. Journal of American Folklore 91.612-13; H. D. Shapiro. 1977. Book Forum 3.278-84.

    • Kroll, H. H. 1925. A comparative study of upper and lower Southern folk speech. Nashville: George Peabody College thesis. Compiles in dictionary format dialect forms heard by author in nine disparate Southern counties.

    • Kurath, Hans. 1972. Studies in area linguistics. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. The structure of the Upper South, pp. 46-51, geographical perspectives on region's speech, with emphasis on boundaries. Reviews:  G. Gilbert. 1976. La Monda Lingvo-Problemo 6.56-61; M. F. Hopkins. 1975. Southern Speech Communication Journal 40.213-14;  R. I. McDavid, Jr. 1971. American Speech 47.285-92; L. A. Pederson. 1975. Foundations of Language 12.609-13; R. Shuy. 1974. Language in Society 3.295-97; M. S. Whitley. 1975. Linguistics 161.109-20.

    • Long, Julia Smith. 1983. Effects of socio-dramatic play on language development of rural Appalachian kindergarten high-potential children. Tampa: University of South Florida dissertation. Dissertation Abstracts International 45.148A. Based on eighty kindergarteners.

    • Lunsford, Bascom Lamar. 1975. It used to be: Memories of Bascom Lamar Lunsford, ed. by Mildred Frances Thomas. N.p.: n.p. Typescript on deposit at Appalachian Library, Appalachian State University.

    • McDavid, Raven I., Jr. 1958. The dialects of American English. The structure of American English, by W. Nelson Francis, pp. 480-543. New York: Ronald Press. Excellent introduction to regional dialects of Atlantic states, detailing causes and development of dialect differences and chronicling formal study of regional dialects by Linguistic Atlas of the United States and Canada projects. Presents characteristic pronunciation, vocabulary, morphology, and syntax of principal and subsidiary dialect areas. Includes brief discussion of social class dialects and on influence of foreign-language communities, including French, German, and African, on Southern English.

    • McDavid, Raven I., Jr. 1970. Language characteristics of specific groups: native whites. Readings for the disadvantaged: problems of linguistically different learners, ed. by Thomas D. Horn, pp. 135-39. New York: Harcourt, Brace and World. Advice for the Northern teacher of students speaking Southern or South Midland English; discusses pronunciation, stress pat-terns, grammar of the latter. 

    • McDavid, Raven I., Jr. 1971. What happens in Tennessee? Dialectology: problems and perspectives, ed. by Lorraine Hall Burghardt, pp. 119-29. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Department of English. Presents cultural and historical background for proposed linguistic research in Tennessee and identifies crucial linguistic variables to investigate.

    • McDavid, Raven I., Jr., William A. Kretzschmar, Jr., et al., eds. 1982-86. Linguistic atlas of the middle and South atlantic states and affiliated projects: basic materials. Microfilm MSS on Cultural Anthropology 68.360-64, 69.365-69, 71.375-80. Chicago: Joseph Regenstein Library, University of Chicago. Includes field records of Linguistic Atlas of the Middle and South Atlantic States interviews from MD, DC, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida and Gullah interviews conducted by Turner.

    • McDavid, Raven I., Jr., and Richard C. Payne, eds., with the assistance of Duane Taylor and Evan Thomas. 1976-78. Linguistic atlas of the north-central states. Basic materials (unaltered field records). Manuscripts on cultural anthropology series XXXVIII, no. 200-08. Microfilm. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago. Forty-three reels containing field records of phonetically recorded transcribed responses of 505 informants; volume 206 constitutes 6 reels with Kentucky field records.

    • McDavid, Raven I., Jr., et al., eds. 1976-79. Kentucky. Linguistic atlas of the north central states. Manuscripts on cultural anthropology series XXXVIII, no. 206. Chicago: University of Chicago.

    • McGreevy, John C. 1977. Breathitt County, Kentucky grammar. Chicago: Illinois Institute of Technology dissertation. Abstract in Dissertation Abstracts International 38.5437A. [9 teenagers, 11 adults, East Kentucky]. Finds no social class correlation with twenty-three grammatical and phonological features, thus concluding "Breathitt County is a homogeneous speech community."

    • McMeekin, Clark. 1957. Old Kentucky country. New York: Duell, Sloan and Pearce. Pp. 149-50 on dialect.

    • Maloney, Mike. 1976. Appalachian culture: a guide for students and teachers, ed. by Peggy Calestro and Ann Hill, p. 185. Columbus: Ohio State University Research Foundation.

    • Mayo, Margot. 1952. Kentucky talk. Promenade 8.71.

    • Mayo, Margot. 1953. More Kentucky talk. Promenade 8.8.1

    • Mead, Martha Norburn. 1942. Asheville ... in land of the sky. Richmond, VA: Dietz Press. [Western North Carolina]. Pp. 59-60, comments on language.

    • Medford, W. Clark. 1966. How our mountain speech became so colorful. Great smoky mountain stories and sun over ol' starlin, pp. 65-67. Waynesville, NC: privately published. [Western North Carolina]. Says early mountain residents often crafted new words to meet immediate needs, and lists local idioms and figures of speech not acknowledged by dictionaries.

    • Mencken, Henry Louis. 1936. The American language. Fourth edition. New York: Knopf. 769 pp. Supplement One, 1945 739 pp.; Supplement Two, 1948. 890 pp. One volume edition abridged by Raven I. McDavid, Jr., with assistance of David W. Maurer, 1963. xxv + 777 pp. Encyclopedic work synthesizing lifetime of reading and correspondence on host of topics from regional dialects to American naming practices and British-American differences. Bibliography in footnotes includes wide range of popular and scholarly articles in local magazines and newspapers. Reviews:  W. Card. 1963. College English 25.230-31; A. Duckert. 1964. Names 12.123-26; W. C. Greet. 1965. American Speech 40.58-61; R. Howren. 1965. Philological Quarterly 44.133-35; L. A. Pederson. 1965. Orbis 14.63-74;  R. M. Wilson. 1965. Year's Work in English Studies 44.63-64; R. W. Wilson. 1964. Canadian Journal of Linguistics 10.70-72;  H. B. Woolf. 1966. English Studies 47.102-18.

    • Miles, Emma Bell. 1905. The literature of a wolf-race. The spirit of the mountains, pp. 172-78. Reprinted in 1976. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press. Essay on literary qualities of mountain speech; cites "wild and elemental poetry" and "terse and piquant proverbs" of mountaineers.

    • Miller, Jim Wayne. 1985. Beaucoons of words. New York Times Magazine, Jan. 13, pp. 9-10. How people adjust their language to their purposes, with emphasis on Appalachia; essay on creativity and expressive derivatives in mountain speech, especially in the author's native Western North Carolina.

    • Miller, Tracey Russell. 1973. An investigation of the regional English of Unicoi County, Tennessee. Knoxville: University of Tennessee dissertation. Abstract in Dissertation Abstracts International 34.5147A. [6 older natives, Northeast Tennessee]. Describes phonetic characteristics and selection of relic vocabulary.

    • Montgomery, Michael. 1980. A partial comparison of Southern Appalachian English and Vernacular Black English. Abstract in Newsletter of the American Dialect Society 12.3.10. [East Tennessee]. Discusses extent to which grammatical and phonological features of Vernacular Black English are present in speech of residents of small Appalachian community.

    • Montgomery, Michael. 1989. The English language in the South. The Encyclopedia of Southern Culture, ed. by Charles Reagan Wilson and William Ferris, 761-67. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.

    • Montgomery, Michael. 1992. The pace of change in Appalachian English. History of Englishes, ed. by Matti Rissanen, et al., 624-39. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. (with Curtis Chapman).

    • Montgomery, Michael. 1994. The contributions of Joseph Sargent Hall to Appalachian studies. Journal of the Appalachian Studies Association 6.89-98.

    • Montgomery, Michael. 1995. Does Tennessee have three "grand" dialects?: Evidence from the Linguistic Atlas of the Gulf States. Tennessee Folklore Society Bulletin 57.69-84.

    • Montgomery, Michael. 1996. How Scotch-Irish is your English? Journal of East Tennessee History 67.1-33.

    • Montgomery, Michael. 1998. In the Appalachians they speak like Shakespeare. Myths in linguistics, ed. by Laurie Bauer and Peter Trudgill, 66-76. New York: Penguin.

    • Montgomery, Michael. 1998. Speech. Tennessee Encyclopedia of History and Culture, ed. by Carroll Van West, 875-76. Nashville: Rutledge Hill Press.

    • Morgan, Lucia C. 1967. North Carolina accents: some observations. North Carolina Journal of Speech and Drama 1.1.3-8. Based on speech of college students native to state, presents pronunciations and vocabulary, especially from Appalachians and Outer Banks, that author considers remnants of colonial speech.

    • Mull, J. Alex. n.d. Mountain yarns, legends and lore. Mountain dialect and sayings, pp. 12-14. Banner Elk, NC: Pudding Stone Press.

    • Orton, Harold, and Nathalia Wright. 1972. Questionnaire for the investigation of American regional English: based on the work sheets of the Linguistic Atlas of the United States and Canada. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Department of English. Designed for investigation of archaic Tennessee speech.

    • Parris, John. 1955. Roaming the mountains. Asheville, NC: Citizen-Times. [Western North Carolina]. Mountain idiom fading, pp. 21-23, unusual expressions in mountains; Origin of mountain county names, pp. 179-82.

    • Parris, John. 1967. Mountain bred. Asheville, NC: Citizen-Times. [Western North Carolina]. A lavish of homespun names, pp. 26-27; Mountain idiom fading, pp. 120-22. Romance of mountain speech reflected in archaisms and placenames.

    • Parris, John. 1972. These storied mountains. Asheville, NC: Citizen-Times. [Western North Carolina]. Flavorsome talk, pp. 23-24; figures of speech and similes in mountain speech; Do tongue twisters still defy diction?, pp. 286- 87.

    • Pearsall, Marion. 1966. Communicating with the educationally deprived. Mountain Life and Work 42.8-11 (spring). Reprinted in F. S. Riddel, ed. 1974. Appalachia: its people, heritage, and problems, pp. 55-62. Dubuque, IA: Kendall Hunt.

    • Pederson, Lee A. 1977. Randy sons of Nancy Whisky. American Speech 52.112- 21. [East Tennessee, North Georgia]. Shows how plentiful undocumented folk terms for illegal whiskey present problems for historical lexicographers and for semantic analysis.

    • Pederson, Lee A. 1981. The regional and social dialects of East Tennessee: a preliminary overview. Linguistic Atlas of the Gulf States Working Paper, series one, no. 8. Microfiche no. 1187-89. Addendum to Pederson et al. 1981. 261 pp. Final report to National Council of Teachers of English Research Foundation. Published later as following item.

    • Pederson, Lee A. 1983. East Tennessee folk speech: a synopsis. Bamberger beitrage zur Englischen sprachwissenschaft 12. Frankfurt/Main: Peter Lang. 254 pp. [70 natives of both races and several social classes]. Presents idiolect synopsis of 137 selected features in narrow phonetic transcription for each informant; analyzes pronunciation of phonemes, incidence of phonemes and morphological and lexical variants, and regional, subregional, and social factors in area. Also includes chapters on settlement history and methodology. Review: E. Schneider. 1984. English World-Wide 5.130-32.

    • Pederson, Lee A., Susan Leas, Guy H. Bailey, and Marvin H. Bassett, eds. 1981. Linguistic atlas of the gulf states: the basic materials. Microform collection. Ann Arbor, MI: University Microfilms. Massive bank of 128,000 pages of raw data, summary, and background from over 1,100 recorded interviews totaling over 5,000 hours and conducted in eight Southern states. Although unedited and mostly in phonetic transcription, the largest single collection of data on Southern speech, containing more data on speech of Southern blacks than all other collections combined.

    • Pederson, Lee A., Susan Leas, Guy H. Bailey, and Marvin H. Bassett, eds. 1981. The Linguistic Atlas of the Gulf States protocols. Ann Arbor, MI: University Microfilms. Field notebooks containing phonetic forms of elicited and observed forms of more than 1,100 Linguistic Atlas of the Gulf States informants.

    • Pederson, Lee A., Susan Leas, Guy H. Bailey, and Marvin H. Bassett, eds. 1981. The idiolect synopses of the Linguistic Atlas of the Gulf States protocols. Ann Arbor, MI: University Microfilms. One-page synopsis of characteristic forms of each of more than 1,100 Linguistic Atlas of the Gulf States informants.

    • Pederson, Lee A., Susan Leas McDaniel, and Marvin H. Bassett, eds. 1986. The linguistic atlas of the gulf states: a concordance of basic materials. Ann Arbor, MI: University Microfilms. 152 microfiche of alphabetical concordance, two series of working papers, and other material.

    • Pederson, Lee A., Susan Leas McDaniel, Guy H. Bailey, and Marvin H. Bassett, eds. 1986. The linguistic atlas of the gulf states, volume 1: handbook for the linguistic atlas of the gulf states. Athens: University of Georgia Press. 376 pp. Reviews: J. B. McMillan. 1987. Alabama Review 40.157-58; W. Viereck. 1987. Journal of English Linguistics 20.255-57.

    • Pederson, Lee. 1990. Linguistic atlas of the gulf states: volumes 4-7. Athens: University of Georgia Press.

    • Peterson, Betty. 1987. Why they talk that talk: language in Appalachian studies. English Journal 76.53-56.

    • Pfaff, Brenda Cottrell. 1983. A critique of Appalachian sociolinguistics. Abstract in Critical essays on Appalachian life and culture: proceedings of the fifth annual Appalachian studies conference, ed. by Rick Simon, p. 121. Boone, NC: Appalachian Consortium. Says sociolinguistic methods are more thorough and more detailed than linguistic atlas methods, and thus better suited to answering larger question of existence of Appalachian dialect.

    • Qazilbash, Husain A. 1972. Appalachia: people, dialect, and communication problems. Journal of Reading Behavior 5.14-25. [13 speakers from each of 9 states from New York to Alabama]. Claims that speech of Appalachian residents is a restricted code (in Bernstein sense).

    • Qazilbash, Husain A. 1972. A dialect survey of the Appalachian region. Tallahassee: Florida State University dissertation. Abstract in Dissertation Abstracts International 32.6085A. Also Eric Document 052 210. Same as Atlanta: National Center for Educational Research and Development Regional Research Report 4. Also Final report to Dept. of Health Education and Welfare. Published by Appalachian Adult Education Demonstration Center, Morehead State University. [13 informants from each of 9 states from New York to Alabama]. Claims that rustic speakers "have a small functional vocabulary" and "misuse more words" than modern and cultured speakers and that "there is a distinct pattern or linguistic structure throughout the Appalachian Region without any sub-regional differences within the region."  Pp. 383-421, Alphabetized list of Colloquial Terms and their Explorations.

    • Raine, James W. 1924. Mountain speech and song. The land of saddle-bags, pp. 95-124. New York City: Council of Women for Home Missions. Kentucky mountain speech.

    • Ray, George Bryan. 1983. An ethnography of speaking in an Appalachian community. Seattle: University of Washington dissertation. Abstract in Dissertation Abstracts International 44.2624A. [Jackson County, Kentucky]. Study of speech used in eight leisure and religious speech events in six domestic and public speech situations.

    • Ray, George Bryan. 1983. An ethnography of speaking in an Appalachian community. Abstract in Critical essays in Appalachian life and culture: proceedings of the fifth annual Appalachian studies conference, ed. by Rick Simon, p. 121. Boone, NC: Appalachian Consortium. [East Kentucky]. Refers to talk on home porches, talk at stores, and testifying in church in terms of nine components of speech events.

    • Reese, James Robert. 1975. The myth of the Southern American dialect as a mirror of the mountaineer. Voices from the hills: selected readings on Southern Appalachia, ed. by Robert J. Higgs and Ambrose N. Manning, pp. 474- 92. New York: Ungar. Questions existence of single identifiable Appalachian dialect and claims heterogeneity of mountain speech.

    • Reese, James Robert. 1977. Variation in Appalachian English: a study of the speech of elderly, rural natives of East Tennessee. Knoxville: University of Tennessee dissertation. Abstract in Dissertation Abstracts International 38.7304-05A. [12 older Whites, Northeast Tennessee]. Investigates degree of "systematic variation" in lexicon, syntax, morphology, and phonology in speech of sociologically similar informants; finds extensive variation among the speakers, but "no general consistent sub-patterns of agreement" between areas of linguistic structure.

    • Reese, James Robert. 1978. Randomly distributed dialects in Appalachian English: syntactic and phonological variation in East Tennessee. Southeastern Conference on Linguistics Bulletin 2.67-76. [16 elderly Whites, Northeast Tennessee]. Claims existence of "randomly distributed dialects" by finding "four distinct dialectal linguistic systems" in speech of sixteen sociologically and geographically similar informants.

    • Reese, James Robert. 1981. Appalachian English: reality and myth. Cross- Reference 1.3.1,6-7. Report on series of public forums in Johnson County, Tennessee, on issues related to Appalachian English. Reprinted in Tennessee Linguistics 1.1.35-36.

    • Reese, James Robert. 1981. Goals for the collection and use of Appalachian oral materials in the 1980s. Appalachia/America: proceedings of the 1980 Appalachian studies conference, ed. by Wilson Somerville, pp. 230-35. Johnson City, TN: Appalachian Consortium Press. Argues that wealth of oral materials collected by scholars in Appalachia needs to be catalogued, analyzed, and adapted to classroom use to answer questions about Appalachian culture and language.

    • Reese, James Robert. 1983. Intonational variation in southern Appalachian English. Abstract in Newsletter of the American Dialect Society 15.2.5. Suggests computer analysis of pitch, stress, vowel length, and juncture can be used to identify and classify dialects in Southern Appalachian region.

    • Reinhardt, J. M. 1926. Speech and balladry of the southern highlands. Quarterly Journal of the University of North Dakota 16.139-47. Discusses archaism, conservatism, and expressiveness of Southern Appalachian speech.

    • Roberts, Eleanor M. 1977. The piedmont dialect. Sandlapper 10.2.11. [Northwest South Carolina]. Claims "old English" still spoken in Piedmont area of South Carolina and that English of settlers remains unchangd in modern-day South Carolina; says blacks and Scots had only marginal lexical influence on South Carolina speech.

    • Rudd, Mary J. 1976. The use of third person reference in multi-party conversations in an Appalachian community. Anthropological Linguistics 18.349-59. [East Kentucky]. Explores functions of conversational technique in which reference made to a third party constrains that party from speaking, while allowing other parties to participate in conversation; suggests this technique varies in frequency and normative character according to region.

    • Sasiki, Midori. 1979. Southern Appalachian English: the language of Faulkner's country people. Chu-Shikoku Studies in American Literature 15.37- 46.

    • Scarbrough, George. 1976. My mother language, my father tongue. Appalachian Journal 4.28-34. Native Tennessean's contrast of his mother's and his father's speech habits from his childhood.

    • Slone, Verna Mae. 1979. What my heart wants to tell. New York: Perennial.

    • Slone, Verna Mae. 1983. How we talked. Pippa Passes, KY: Pippa Valley Printing. 135 pp.

    • Smith, Emma Deane Trent. 1987. East Tennessee's lore of yesteryear.

    • Spurlock, John Howard. 1980. He sings for us: a sociolinguistic analysis of the Appalachian subculture and of Jesse Stuart as a major American author. Lanham, MD: University Press of America. x + 180 pp. Study of major literary elements in poetry and fiction of Kentucky writer.

    • Stewart, William A. 1967. Language and communication in Southern Appalachia. Washington: Center for Applied Linguistics. 43 pp. Eric Document 012 026. Identifies two major nonstandard dialects in Apppalachia, one white and one black, and discusses their social status and pedagogical programs for dialect speakers in Appalachian schools.

    • Stewart, William A. 1969. Language teaching problems in Appalachia. Florida Foreign Language Reporter 7.1.58-59,161. Excerpt of preceding item.

    • Stewart, William A. 1971. Language learning and teaching in Appalachia. Appalachia 4.8.27-34. Discusses variation in Appalachian speech, social status of white and black varieties, and barriers to effective language teaching in region because of misunderstanding of cultural and linguistic basis of many educational problems.

    • Still, James. 1988. Hunting for Hindman: (an exercise in the use of the vernacular. Appalachian Heritage 21.13-14.

    • Stuart, Jesse. 1959. Up the branch. This is the South, ed. by Robert West Howard. pp. 221-28. Chicago: Rand McNally. Comments on speech by the novelist.

    • Stubbs, Thomas M. 1959-70. Mountain-wise. Georgia Magazine. Thirteen selections of monthly column deal with language use in North Georgia mountains.

    • Sutherland, E. J. 1960. Folk speech on frying pan. Mountain Life and Work 36.11-14. Surveys features of Southern Appalachian speech, which author believes is full of "corruptions" and "mispronunciations."

    • Thomas, Jean. 1945. The changing mountain folk. American Mercury 61.43-49. [East Kentucky]. Popular account of mountain life with many citations of Appalachian speech.

    • Thomas, Mildred Frances, ed. n.d. Provincial speech. It used to be: the memories of Bascom Lamar Lunsford. Pp. 156-79. Privately printed.

    • Thompson, Lawrence S. 1956. Names in Kentucky. Kentucky tradition, pp. 175- 81. Hamden, CT: Shoe String Press. Discusses personal and place names and remarks on region's vocabulary.

    • Thornborough, Laura. 1937. The Great Smoky mountains. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press. Revised edition 1962. [East Tennessee]. Pp. 24-25, brief discussion of neologisms and Shakespearianisms of Smoky Mountains.

    • Toon, Thomas E. 1982. Appalachian English. English as a world language, ed. by Manfred Gorlach and Richard W. Bailey, pp. 239-45. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. Exemplifies phonological and grammatical features of Southern Appalachian speech, based on Wolfram and Christian study.

    • Tresidder, Argus. 1937. The speech of the Shenandoah Valley. American Speech 12.284-88. [Western Virginia]. Surveys earlier work on Virginia speech; notes on phonology and lexicon.

    • Tye, Billy. 1946. Our time-flavored speech. Notes from the Pine Mountain Settlement School 19.1.3. [Kentucky]. Examples of dialect.

    • Underhill, David. 1975. Yukking it up at CBS. Southern Exposure 2.4.68-71. Says that network television systematically undercovers news from Appalachia and that network news personnel harbor prejudices against mountain and Southern accents which lead them not to take seriously stories reported with those accents.

    • Underhill, David. 1975. A report on CBS news and 17 million Appalachian people. Mountain Review 1.2.1-3. Expansion of preceding item; says network prejudice against Appalachian accents and people is consistent with economic paternalism in region.

    • Van Nest, R. J. 1976. Gillis ridge. Appalachian Journal 3.307-10. [Northeast Tennessee]. Semifictional account discussing how linguistic behavior fits into mountain culture; claims that in sound and pace of mountain speech "there is reaffirmation of the manner of their life."

    • Walker, Raphy S. 1939. A mountaineer looks at his own speech. Tennessee Folklore Society Bulletin 5.1-13. [East Tennessee]. Discusses Smoky Mountain vocabulary, grammar, and pronunciation (with anecdotal account of the drawl), with five pages of transcriptions.

    • Weaver, Jack. 1993. Sociolinguistics of Scotch-Irish speech in Appalachia. Irish Studies Working Papers 93.12-19.

    • Weeks, Abigail E. 1921. The speech of the Kentucky mountaineer as I know it. New York: Teachers College, Columbia University thesis. 21 pp. Discusses origin of mountain people and their speech and how mountaineers' speech habits reflect their culture and ways of thinking.

    • Wentworth, Harold. 1936. The mapping of American speech. Philological Papers 1.49-53. Relates West Virginia to Linguistic Atlas of the United States and Canada.

    • West, John Foster. 1966. Dialect of the Southern Mountains. North Carolina Folklore 14.31-34. [Western North Carolina]. Reminiscences of folksy mountain speech by former resident.

    • West, Roy Andre. 1922. The songs of the mountaineers. Nashville: George Peabody College thesis. Brief comments on relic, mostly lexical, forms.

    • Westover, J. Hutson. 1960. Highland language of the Cumberland coal country. Mountain Life and Work 36.18-21. [Kentucky]. Compilation of archaic vocabulary and pronunciations from 17th century to present, based on personal observation in physician's clinic and on other writers.

    • Whitener, Rogers. 1981. Selections from "Folk-ways and folk-speech."  North Carolina Folklore Journal 29.1. Mountain sayings, pp. 19-20; Appalachian place names, pp. 39-40; Mountain speech, pp. 40-42; Folk speech, pp. 43-44; Academic lore and "ferry dittles," pp. 60-61. Short essays on aspects of W North Carolina mountain speech.

    • Williams, Cratis D. 1961. The content of mountain speech. Mountain Life and Work 37.13-17 (Winter). Says mountain speech does have "strong language, sparkling with proverbial wisdom, sparkling with pleonasms, powerful metaphors, and vivid similes, abounding with archaisms," but that it is not, contrary to some literary treatments, qualitatively different from other varieties of American folk speech.

    • Williams, Cratis D. 1961. Rhythm and melody in mountain speech. Mountain Life and Work 37.7-10 (Fall). Cites features of grammar, diction, and rhetoric of mountain speech. Reprinted in Bobbs-Merrill Reprint Series, Language-100.

    • Williams, Cratis D. 1962. Mountaineers mind their manners. Mountain Life and Work 38.19-25 (Summer). Discusses manners and civilities of mountain speech behavior by a native.

    • Williams, Cratis D. 1967. Subtlety in mountain speech. Mountain Life and Work 43.14-16 (Spring). Says mountaineer "possesses subtleties in emphasis and traditional tricks in turning phrases in basic English that enable him to express himself colorfully" and presents his translation of five literary selections into mountain dialect to demonstrate this.

    • Williams, Cratis D. 1968. Mountain speech. Language and culture: a reader, ed. by Patrick Gleeson and Nancy Wakefield, pp. 151-60. Columbus, OH: Charles E. Merrill. Revision of items 1.808 and 5.241.

    • Williams, Cratis D. 1978. Appalachian speech. North Carolina Historical Review 55.174-79. Provides overview of Southern Appalachian pronunciation and grammar and presents folk tale in modified orthography to reflect these features.

    • Williams, John Rodger. 1985. Appalachian migrants in Cincinnati, Ohio: the role of folklore in the reinforcement of ethnic identity. Appalachian speech style, pp. 55-85. Bloomington: Indiana University dissertation.

    • Wilson, Charles Morrow. 1930. Beefsteak when I'm hungry. Virginia Quarterly Review 6.240-50. Layman's observations of English of Southern mountains.

    • Wilson, George P., ed. 1952. Folk speech. The Frank C. Brown collection of North Carolina folklore, pp. 505-618. Durham, NC: Duke University Press. List of more than 1,500 items including pronunciations, unusual meanings, names, and grammatical usages (frequently compared to British dialectal or literary usages), figurative expressions, humorous rhymes, dance calls, salutations and replies, and unusual interpretations of scripture, culled by Wilson from the folklorist Brown's collection of notes on the English language as used in North Carolina.

    • Wilson, Gypsy Vera. 1937. Language. Folklore in Southeastern Kentucky, pp. 6-38. Nashville: George Peabody College thesis. [Bell County, Kentucky]. Surveys archaisms, names, pronunciations, and proverbial expressions, and investigates familiarity of list of latter in Blount County, Tennessee.

    • Wolfram, Walt. 1977. On the linguistic study of Appalachian speech. Appalachian Journal 5.92-102. History of study of Appalachian speech, assessment of current knowledge, and statement of future prospects and needs for research; extensive bibliography.

    • Wolfram, Walt. 1977. Language assessment in Appalachia: a sociolinguistic perspective. Appalachian Journal 4.224-34. Guidelines for testing language ability of Appalachian children and for using and interpreting results of standardized tests.

    • Wolfram, Walt. 1980. Beyond black English: implications of the Ann Arbor decision for other nonmainstream varieties. Reactions to Ann Arbor: vernacular black English and education, ed. by Marcia Farr Whiteman, pp. 10-23. Arlington, VA: Center for Applied Linguistics. Discusses linguistic, sociolinguistic, and educational parallels between Black English and other varieties of American English and implications of Ann Arbor "Black English case" for dealing with and testing speakers of these varieties, especially speakers of Appalachian speech.

    • Wolfram, Walt. 1983. Text interpretation and sociolinguistic differences. Topics in Language Disorders 3.21-34. Discusses evaluation of standardized tests of Appalachian and Black Vernacular English speakers.

    • Wolfram, Walt. 1984. Is there an "Appalachian English"?  Appalachian Journal 11.215-24. Outlines stages in study of Appalachian speech and discusses difficulty of defining "Appalachian English" and other dialects on objective basis but concludes tentatively that it can be characterized by a unique "set of co-occurring structures."

    • Wolfram, Walt. 1986. Black-white dimensions in sociolinguistic test bias. Language variety in the South: perspectives in black and white, ed. by Michael Montgomery and Guy Bailey, pp. 373-85. University: University of Alabama Press. Explores levels on which sociolinguistic differences may be reflected in standardized tests and in testing situations for speakers of Vernacular Black English or Southern Appalachian English and relationship of these levels to issues of educational equity.

    • Wolfram, Walt, and Donna Christian. 1975. Sociolinguistic variables in Appalachian dialects. Final report, National Institute of Education grant number 74-0026. Eric Document 112 687. 413 pp. Published as following item.

    • Wolfram, Walt, and Donna Christian. 1976. Appalachian speech. Arlington, VA: Center for Applied Linguistics. viii + 190 pp. Eric Document 150 811. [129 speakers, all ages, Mercer and Monroe Counties, Southern West Virginia]. Detailed sociolinguistic analysis of rural Appalachian speech, presenting a sociolinguistic framework for study of Appalachian English, focusing on phonological aspects (final consonant clusters, contraction, pronunciation of initial segments, etc.) and grammatical features of verbs, adverbs, negation, nominals, prepositions, and indirect questions, and discussing educational implications of dialect diversity in region; includes interview questionnaire and sample interview. Reviews: R. R. Butters. 1979. Language 55.460-62; J. Coady. 1973. Language Sciences 28.27-28; M. Montgomery. 1982. American Speech 57.134-39;  R. Payne. 1977. Journal of English Linguistics 11.83-92.

    • Wolfram, Walt, and Donna Christian. 1977. The language frontier in Appalachia. Appalachian Notes 5.33-41. Also in Mountain Review 3.2.1-5 (1977). Essay on variation and change in mountain speech, attitudes toward it, and implications for teachers.

    • Wolfram, Walt, and Donna Christian. 1980. On the application of sociolinguistic information: test evaluation and dialect differences in Appalachia. Standards and dialects in English, ed. by Timothy Shopen and Joseph M. Williams, pp. 177-212. Cambridge, MA: Winthrop. Application of findings from sociolinguistic research in West Virginia to taking and evaluation of standardized tests of "correct" language use; discusses four principles of test evaluation and how they should be applied. Appendix A: Some grammatical characteristics of Appalachian English, 205-09; Appendix B, Two illustrative narratives from West Virginia, 210-12.

    • Wolfram, Walt, and Ralph W. Fasold. 1974. The study of social dialects in American English. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. 239 pp. Surveys social dialect patterns in U.S. based on sociolinguistic studies and comparing many patterns of Southern American pronunciation and grammar to those of social groups and regions elsewhere in country. Reviews: T. K. Crowl. 1976. Journal of Communication 26.151-53;  J. L. Dillard. 1975. Language in Society 4.367-75; D. E. Eskey. 1976. College English 37.718-23; R. I. McDavid, Jr. and R. K. O'Cain. 1977. American Anthropologist 79.947-48; S. M. Tsuzaki. 1975. Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages Quarterly 9.438-40;  W. Viereck. 1977. Studies in Linguistics 1.145-49; L. V. Zuck. 1976. Language Learning 26.191-98.

    • Wood, Gordon R. 1967. Sub-regional speech variation in vocabulary, grammar, and pronunciation. Cooperative research project no. 3046 final report. Eric Document 019 263. [33 natives of Alabama, East Tennessee, Northeast Mississippi, Northwest Georgia]. Investigates degree of subregional homogeneity in vocabulary, pronunciation, and sentence structure; finds generational differences greatest in vocabulary and least in grammar.

    • Work Projects Administration. 1939. Kentucky: a guide to the bluegrass state. New York: Harcourt Brace. Pp. 89-90, on dialect.

    • Work Projects Administration. 1939. Tennessee: a guide to the state. New York: Viking Press. Pp. 134-35, notes on speech.

  2. HISTORICAL STUDIES (includes items overlapping sections III - XII)
    • Allen, Edward A. 1899. You-uns. Nation 68.476 (June 22). Cites use of term in Tyndale's New Testament translation (1525) and reports we-dem and you-dem in Lancaster County, Virginia.

    • Andrews, Eliza F. 1896. Cracker English. Chatauquan 23.85-88. [Georgia]. Discusses analogues of rural Southern white speech in Chaucer, Shakespeare, and other British writers; derives cracker from corn cracker .

    • Ashby, Rickie Zayne. 1976. Philosophical and religious language in early Kentucky wills. Kentucky Folklore Record 22.2.3944. Typical religious phrases used in 18th- and early 19th-century Kentucky wills.

    • Boyette, Dora S. 1951. Variant pronunciations from Rockingham County, North Carolina, 1829-1860. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina thesis. xiii + 46 pp. [North Central North Carolina]. Analyzes variant pronunciations of eight plantation overseers as reflected in their naive spellings in monthly reports to the plantation owner.

    • Bradley, William Aspenwall. 1915. In Shakespeare's America. Harper's 131.436-45. Antiquated speech and other relics from Kentucky, where "the purest English on earth" is spoken."

    • Bray, Rose Altizer. 1950. Disappearing dialect. Antioch Review 10.279-88. Describes mountaineers' English as Elizabethan; lists archaisms in phonology, morphology, syntax, and lexicon.

    • Brewer, Fisk P. 1873. Peculiar usages of English--observed in North Carolina. Nation 16.148-49. Comment from Chapel Hill on pronunciation and words; see response (Nation 16.183).

    • Brown, Calvin S. 1889. Dialectal survivals in Tennessee. Modern Language Notes 4.205-09. Same as American Notes and Queries 4.16-18 (Nov. 9, 1889) and 4.64-66 (Dec. 7, 1889). Thirty-nine forms found in Tennessee and in Uncle Remus stories that are identical to forms in Shakespeare.

    • Brown, Calvin S. 1891. Other dialectal forms in Tennessee. Publication of the Modern Language Association 6.171-75. Same as American Notes and Queries 8.49-50 (Dec. 5, 1891); 8.62-63 (Dec. 12, 1891); 8.75 (Dec. 19, 1891). Surveys phonological and lexical peculiarities of Tennessee speech and compares them to Shakespeare, Pope, and William Bartlett.

    • Brown, Calvin S. 1894. Dialectal survivals from Spenser. Dial 16.40. Comments on nonstandard forms with long history.

    • Brown, Calvin S. 1897. Dialectal survivals from Chaucer. Dial 22.139-41. Compiles analogs of modern-day nonstandard forms in Chaucer; refers to previous item.

    • Bruce, J. Douglas. 1913. Terms from Tennesee. Dialect Notes 4.58. 

    • Burt, N. C. 1878. The dialects of our country. Appleton's Journal, new series 5.411-17. Survey of regional and local varieties of American English, with special reference to settlement history, and emphasis on pronunciation and vocabulary.

    • Carpenter, Charles. 1929. The evolution of our dialect. West Virginia Review 7.9,28. [West Virginia]. Discussion of dialect forms author says have passed from currency within previous generation.

    • Carpenter, Charles. 1934. Remnants of archaic English in West Virginia. West Virginia Review 12.77-79,94-95. Discussion of archaisms with precedents cited from Elizabethan drama and other British literary sources.

    • Catlett, L. C. 1888. "We-uns" and "you-uns."  Century 36.477-78. [Virginia]. Says he has never heard forms in state, even though writers about Virginia put them in mouths of their characters.

    • Chapman, Maristan. 1929. American speech as practiced in the Southern highlands. Century 117.617-23. Surveys characteristic Southern mountain speech and compares it to earlier British usage.

    • Cleaves, Mildred P. 1946. King's English reigns in the Kentucky knobs. In Kentucky 10.3.35. Brief defense of mountain speech, whose speakers are "linguistic purists and sole custodians of His Majesty's diction as it was originally enunciated."

    • Combs, Josiah H. 1916. Old, early, and Elizabethan English in the Southern mountains. Dialect Notes 4.283-97. [Appalachians from West Virginia to North Alabama]. Gives special attention to similarities between Appalachian and Shakespearean forms. Reprinted in Appalachian Heritage 9.27-37.

    • Combs, Josiah H. 1921. Early English slang survivals in the mountains of Kentucky. Dialect Notes 5.115-17. Relic vocabulary from Old, Elizabethan, and Irish English.

    • Combs, Josiah H. 1921. First warrant issued in Breathitt County, Kentucky. Dialect Notes 5.119-20. Short document containing naive spellings.

    • Combs, Josiah H. 1976. Combs: a study in comparative philology and genealogy. Pensacola, FL: Privately printed. Traces naming patterns in Combs family since 18th century.

    • Combs, Mona R. 1958. Archaic words used in North Eastern Kentucky. Morehead, KY: Morehead State College thesis. iv + 60 pp. [Rowan County]. Compiles 679 words collected from older residents of county by high school students in effort to compare vocabulary of Shakespeare with that of Kentucky mountains; lists 100 Middle English words (pp. 56-59), and presents statisticl data on informants' knowledge and use of them.

    • Crozier, Alan. 1984. The Scotch-Irish influence on American English. American Speech 59.310-31. 5 maps. Discusses problems in making cross-Atlantic comparisons and identifies thirty-three items used in Midland area of U.S. that reflect influence of Scotch-Irish immigrants.

    • Dale, Edward Everett. 1947. The speech of the pioneers. Arkansas Historical Quarterly 6.117-31. Place naming patterns, contributions from American Indians, and development of "words, phrases, and expressions [i.e., for hunting, fishing, social life, and food, terms for reproach and comparison] which [the pioneers] themselves coined and which grew out of the incidents and experience of their daily lives." Reprinted in W. K. McNeil, ed. 1984. The charm is broken: readings in Arkansas and Missouri folklore, 48-58. Little Rock: August House.

    • Dalton, Alford Paul. 1936. Elizabethan left-overs in Allen County, Kentucky. Bowling Green: Western Kentucky University thesis. 52 pp. Condensed in Bulletin of the Kentucky Folklore Society, (Jan. 1938), 13-16. Discusses obsolete words, pronunciations, grammatical features, meanings, and idioms.

    • den Hollander, A. N. J. 1934. Uber die Bevolkerung der Appalachen. Zeitschrift der Gesellschaft fur Erdkunde 7/8.241-56.

    • Edson, Rev. H. A., and Edith M. Fairchild. 1895. Tennessee mountains in word lists. Dialect Notes 1.370-77. [Mountains areas of Tennessee, North Carolina, Kentucky]. 145 words and phrases, fifteen exclamations, comments on grammar and pronunciations.

    • Eggleston, Edward. 1894. Folk-speech in America. Century Magazine 48.867-75. Points out antiquity of folk usages and compares them to 16th-, 17th-, and 18th-century British citations; scattered references to Southern usages.

    • Eliason, Norman E. 1956. Tarheel talk: an historical study of the English language in North Carolina to 1860. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. 324 pp. Compendium of linguistic, historical, and cultural material from unpublished letters, diaries, plantation books, church records, legal papers, and other manuscripts in Southern Historical Collection at Univ. of North Carolina at Chapel Hill library. Surveys patterns of vocabulary, grammar, and pronunciation, as well as language attitudes and language variation, as revealed in these documents. Reviews: W. Barritt. 1957. Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 65.375-76;  D. E. Baughan. 1957. American Speech 32.283-86; M. Bryant. 1958.  Midwest Folklore 8.53-56;  R. Burchfield. 1958. Review of English Studies n.s. 9. 454; P. Christophersen. 1958. English Studies 39.183-85; H. Galinsky. 1958. Anglia 76.452-60;  R. Gaskin. 1957. Carolina Quarterly 9.58-59; W. C. Greet. 1958. Modern Language Notes 73.64-67; B. Kottler. 1957. South Atlantic Quarterly 56.512-14; J. B. Lewis. 1957. North Carolina English Teacher 14.3.16-17; R. I. McDavid, Jr. 1958. Journal of English and Germanic Philology 57.160-65;  S. Potter. 1957. Modern Language Review 52.624; T. Pyles. 1957. Language 33.256-61; R. H. Spiro, Jr. 1957. Journal of Southern History 23.375-76; C. K. Thomas. 1958. Quarterly Journal of Speech 44.196; R. Walser. 1957. North Carolina Historical Review 34.86-87;  R. M. Wilson. 1958. Year's Work in English Studies 37.67.



    • Fitzhugh, Jewell K. 1969. Old English survivals in mountain speech. English Journal 58.1224-27. [Southern Appalachia, Ozarks]. Vocabulary and grammar typical of old-fashioned mountain speech, with analogues cited from Chaucer and Shakespeare.

    • Fox, John, Jr. 1901. The southern mountaineer. Scribner's Magazine 29.385- 99. Pp. 394-95, claims that "in his speech, the mountaineer touches a very remote past... . there are perhaps two hundred words, meanings, and pronunciations that in the mountaineer's speech go back unchanged to Chaucer" and cites examples.

    • Fruit, John P. 1890. [Marble terms from Russellville, Kentucky]. Dialect Notes 1.24. Twenty-three terms.

    • Fruit, John P. 1890. Kentucky words and phrases. Dialect Notes 1.63-69. Glossaries of unusual words and usages and of pronunciations and grammatical forms.

    • Fruit, John P. 1891. Kentucky words. Dialect Notes 1.229-34. Words, pronunciations, grammatical items.

    • H., J. C. 1899. [You-uns]. Nation 68.436 (June 8). Says you-uns and we-uns are prevalent in Southern mountain and Piedmont areas settled originally from PA.

    • Hawkins, Opal W. 1982. Southern linguistic variation as revealed through overseers' letters, 1829-1858. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina dissertation. Abstract in Dissertation Abstracts International 43.1957A. [North Carolina, Alabama]. Compares how often fourteen white overseers from antebellum period delete articles, subject pronouns, verb be, and unaccented syllables with how often present-day black speakers delete them, and finds only limited similarity between two groups, thus casting some doubt on overseers as being source of features in black English.

    • Hayes, Dorothy. 1984. Old, old English in them thar hills. Tennessee Philological Bulletin 21.80-81. [Community called "Little Smoky Ridge"]. Cites fifteen forms, including ax, ye, fotch, antic, holpt, sallett, and poke.

    • Hays, Virgil. 1950. Philology in the funnies. Word Study 25.5.8. Author contends that Southern mountaineers speak "Elizabethan English of the purest lineage" and suggests that this dialect can be found in comic strip such as Snuffy Smith, whose characters use the term bodacious.

    • Hays, William S. 1975. Mountain language and the English classics. Mountain Review 2.1.13-15. Chronicles Kentucky mountaineer's evolution from attempt to abandon his native speech patterns while at college to defense of mountain expressions as having "ancient legitimate lineage" in works of Chaucer, Shakespeare, and Pope.

    • Hench, Atcheson L. 1937. Kentucky pioneers. American Speech 12.75-76. Twelve lexical items from 1844 document.

    • Hooker, Richard J., ed. 1953. A burlesque sermon: "there was an old man, in old times who was called Abraham." The Carolina backcountry on the eve of the revolution: the journal and other writings of Charles Woodmason, Anglican itinerant, pp. 150-61. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. A sermon translated into the "Quohee language," Hooker's characterization of speech of Scotch-Irish settlers.

    • Hunter, Edwin R. 1925. The American colloquial idiom, 1830-1860. Chicago: University of Chicago dissertation. Based on, among others, work of Joseph G. Baldwin, William A. Caruthers, David Crockett, John Pendleton Kennedy, A. B. Longstreet, William Gilmore Simms, William T. Thompson, Thomas Bangs Thorpe.

    • Kahn, Ed. 1965. Hillbilly music: source and resource. Journal of American Folklore 78.257-66. On origin and diffusion of "hillbilly."

    • King, Edward. 1972. The great South, ed. by W. Magruder Drake and Robert R. Jones. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press. Originally published in 1875. Dialect-forms of expression--diet, pp. 784-91. Insightful comments on Southern linguistic habits by Northerner on extensive travel throughout region; includes many examples.

    • Krumpelmann, John T. 1949. Supplementing the Dictionary of American English. American Speech 24.149-51. Twenty-one items from Col. David Crockett's writings not recorded in DAE.

    • Kurath, Hans. 1928. The origin of the dialectal differences in spoken American English. Modern Philology 25.385-95. Reviews forty years of research by scholars before the Linguistic Atlas and relates features of British pronunciations, especially postvocalic /r/, to Atlantic states, and concludes pronunciation of lowland South derives primarily from Southeastern England and that of Piedmont and mountain South from Scotch.

    • Kurath, Hans. 1970. English sources of some American regional words and verb forms. American Speech 45.60-68. Compares data from Survey of English Dialects and other British sources with historical dictionaries of American English and Linguistic Atlas data for fourteen words from farm life and four verb principal parts; finds "New England has preserved some words that were brought over from the East Midland, while Pennsylvania and the South owe some of their expressions to the North of England--if not to Scotland and to Ulster."

    • Mathews, Mitford McLeod. 1931. Western and Southern vernacular. The beginnings of American English: essays and comments, pp. 113-22. Chicago: University of Chicago. Reprinted in 1963, 1973. Discusses and compiles short list of tall talk associated with David Crockett and his like; reprints early Sherwood word-lists.

    • Mathews, Mitford McLeod. 1931. Southwestern vernacular. The beginnings of American English: essays and comments, pp. 151-63. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Reprinted in 1963, 1973. 1869 description of TX English.

    • Miller, Zell. 1975. Mountain dialect. The mountains within me, pp. 76-88. Toccoa, GA: Commercial. [North Georgia]. Autobiographical, anecdotal account of richness and archaicness of mountain speech; frequent comparison of usages of Chaucer and Shakespeare to fading usages in mountains.

    • Moffat, Adeline. 1891. The mountaineers of middle Tennessee. Journal of American Folklore 4.314-20. Describes mountain people, including some samples of speech, language of Cumberland Ridge area of Middle Tennessee.

    • Montgomery, Michael. 1989. The roots of Appalachian English. Methods in dialectology, ed. by Alan R. Thomas, 480-91. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. Abstract in Newsletter of the American Dialect Society 19.2.12. Outlines research project to compare verbal auxiliaries in Southern Appalachian and Scotch-Irish English.

    • Montgomery, Michael. 1989. Exploring the roots of Appalachian English. English World-Wide 10.227-78.

    • Montgomery, Michael. 1989. David Crockett and the rhetoric of Tennessee politics. Crockett at two hundred: New perspectives on the man and the myth, ed. by Michael Lofaro and Joe Cummings, 42-66. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press.

    • Montgomery, Michael. 1991. The roots of Appalachian English: Scotch-Irish or Southern British? Journal of the Appalachian Studies Association, ed. by John Inscoe, 177-91. Johnson City, TN: East Tennessee State University Center for Appalachian Studies and Services.

    • Montgomery, Michael. 1997. The Scotch-Irish influence on Appalachian English: How broad? How deep? Ulster and North America: Transatlantic perspectives on the Scotch-Irish, ed. by Curtis Wood and Tyler Blethen, 189-212. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press.

    • Montgomery, Michael. 1997. Making the trans-Atlantic link between varieties of English: the Case of Plural Verbal -s. Journal of English Linguistics 25.122-41.

    • Mooney, James. 1889. Folk-lore of the Carolina mountains. Journal of American Folklore 2.95-104. [North Carolina]. Includes remarks on mountain dialect.

    • Morley, Margaret W. 1913. The speech of the mountains. The Carolina mountains, pp. 171-81. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. [North Carolina]. Catalogs archaisms reminiscent of Shakespeare or Chaucer in mountain speech, "the most purely `American'" of varieties.

    • Neitzel, Stuart. 1936. Tennessee expressions. American Speech 11.373. Notes "Shakespearean phrases" poke, proud, admire, stob, as well as novel expressions in Cumberland Valley area.

    • Norman, Henderson D. 1910. The English of the mountaineer. Atlantic 105.276- 78. Shakespearean (archaic) expressions in Cumberland mountains.

    • Owens, Bess Alice. 1931. Folk speech of the Cumberland. American Speech 7.89-95. [Pikeville, Kentucky]. 116 terms that have "a Shakespeare flavor" collected in East Kentucky around 1930.

    • Primer, Sylvester. 1891. Dialectical studies in West Virginia. Publication of the Modern Language Association 6.3.161-70. Also published in Colorado College Studies 2.28-38. Pronunciation and a few notes on lexicon and grammar.

    • Radford, Maude L. 1895. Like a mountain torrent. Canadian Magazine 5.480- 84. Mountain dialect.

    • Raine, James Watt. 1924. The speech of the land of saddle-bags. Quarterly Journal of Speech 10.230-37. Reports Kentucky localisms and calls for more respect of area's speech patterns, which "is more closely akin to Elizabethan English than any other dialect spoken today."

    • Rickford, John R. 1986. Social contact and linguistic diffusion. Language 62.245-90. Explores interplay of internal and external factors in possible linguistic diffusion of Hiberno English (does) + be habitual auxiliary into New World black speech but concludes that "a hypothesis which involves decreolization from creole does + (be)" that incorporates possible influences from Irish and British varieties of English provides most likely explanation of development of verb form.

    • Scypes, George S. 1888. Notes of "we-uns" and "you-uns."  Century 36.799. Says both pronouns were used in Virginia in 1860s.

    • Shearin, Hubert G. 1927. The speech of our fathers. Kentucky Folklore and Poetry Magazine 2.2.6-7. [Kentucky]. Discounts myth of Elizabethan English but says local speech is integral to people's heritage and will flourish despite quixotic English teachers; appends list of archaisms.

    • Smith, C. Alphonse. 1891. The dialect of Miss Murfree's mountaineer. Christian Advocate 52.3.12-13 (Jan. 17).

    • Smith, Charles Forster. 1886. Southern dialect in life and literature. Southern Bivouac 4.343-50.

    • Smith, Charles Forster. 1886. On southernisms. Transactions of the American Philological Association 17.34-46

    • The speech of our fathers. 1927. Kentucky Folklore and Poetry Magazine 2.6-7.

    • Starnes, Val W. 1888. [Comment]. Century 36.799. Cites use of we-uns and you-uns in South Carolina, Tennessee, and by "piney-wood tackeys" in Georgia; also notes your-all and our-all .

    • Steadman, John M., Jr. 1916. Old, early, and Elizabethan English in the southern mountains: addenda and corrigenda to an article by J. H. Combs. Dialect Notes 4.350-52. Critique of Combs items above.

    • Stephenson, George M. 1929. The effect of movements of population upon American dialects. Linguistic Society of America Bulletin 4.22-25. Surveys immigrant stocks in colonies and early republic and points out ways historians and historical information can help linguists compile a dialect atlas.

    • Thompson, Stith. 1952. Killed up. American Speech 27.235. Kentucky usage. [Perryville, Kentucky]. Cites 1836 and 1951 occurrences of the intensifying verb.

    • Walser, Richard. 1962. "Buncombe." The North Carolina miscellany, pp. 150- 51. Traces term for trivial and high-sounding verbiage to early 19th-century Congressman from W North Carolina county by the name.

    • Watkins, Floyd. 1949. The Southern mountaineers' archaic English. Georgia Review 3.219-25. Classic case surveying archaic grammar and pronunciation and saying that Chaucer and Shakespeare "would in many respects feel almost at home" in Southern Appalachia today.

    • Williams, Cratis D. 1961. A E I O U: Vowels and diphthongs in mountain speech. Mountain Life and Work 37.8-11. Relates features of vowel pronunciation in mountains to 18th-century colonial American and other varieties of speech.

    • Williams, Elizabeth Joan. 1953. The grammar of plantation overseers' letters, Rockingham County [North Carolina]. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina thesis. ix + 59 pp. Based on correspondence of eight overseers with plantation owner from 1829-60, studies parts of speech and sentence grammar; finds archaic usages, lack of subject-verb concord, and other features.

    • Wilson, Charles M. 1929. Elizabethan American. Atlantic 144.238-44. [Appalachia, Ozarks]. Cites linguistic and cultural traits of mountains that have survived "from Elizabethan England."

  3. VOCABULARY
    • An Appalachian relic: notes on "swarp." 1981. Appalachian Journal 8.203-05. Unsigned document found in Knott County, Kentucky, Public Library that recounts improbable tales of word's usage.

    • Armstrong, Mary Sheila. 1952. A lexical study of the vocabulary of Harriette Arnow's regional novel Hunter's Horn. Charlottesville: University of Virginia thesis. 71 pp. Study of pp. 1-150 of novel to discover how well standard dictionaries record regional language; classifies into six lists 200 terms and senses not recorded in them.

    • Armstrong, Sheila. 1953. Survivals in Kentucky. American Speech 27.306-07. Note based on previous item.

    • Aswell, James. c1940. Brief glossary of Tennessee idiom. Typescript prepared under auspices of the W.P.A. 19 pp.

    • Baker, Howard F. 1927. West Virginia dialect. American Speech 3.68. Says 210 of terms cited by Carey Woofter are unfamiliar to the author in Maryland and questions how many of them are localisms; suggest that Woofter's word-list be supplemented by other West Virginians.

    • Ball, Bonnie S. 1979. Listen to the mountains. Searcy, AR: privately printed. Mountain expressions and phrases, pp. 1-13; Usage of words, pp. 14-27; Sayings, pp. 28-33.

    • Ball, Donald B. 1978. Notes on the slang and folk speech of Knoxville, Knox County, Tennessee. Tennessee Folklore Society Bulletin 44.134-42. [15 adults]. Seventy items collected in 1974-75.

    • Barnes, Linda S. 1981. Rural expressions in Bedford County, Tennessee. Murfreesboro: Middle Tennessee State University thesis. [South Central Tennessee]. Investigates 151 words and phrases; compares speakers by age and educational level and forms according to usage and familiarity.

    • Barnes, Linda S. 1981. Rural expressions in Bedford County. Tennessee Linguistics 2.1.8-16. [South Central Tennessee]. Compares how familiar older and younger generations are with over 100 expressions.

    • Betts, Leonidas, and Richard Walser. 1974. Folk speech. Gateway to North Carolina Folklore, p. 7. Raleigh: North Carolina State Univesity Press.

    • Beverley, Robert. 1991. A few examples of the old mountain idiom. The western North Carolina almanac and book of facts, 146-47. Franklin, NC: Sanctuary Press.

    • Bewley, Irene. 1943. Picturesque speech. Tennessee Folklore Society Bulletin 9.3.4.

    • Botkin, B. A. 1931. Folk speech in the Kentucky mountain cycle of Percy Mackaye. American Speech 6.264-76. Account of metaphor, blending, functional change, compounding, folk etymology, and false analysis that occur in writing of the Kentucky author.

    • Braden, Beulah Brummett. 1976. The way we said things. When grandma was a girl, 109-10. Oak Ridge, TN: The Oak Ridger. List of 29 terms.

    • Broaddus, James W. 1957. The folk vocabulary of Estill County, Kentucky. Lexington: University of Kentucky thesis. xx + 89 pp. [4 elderly, uneducated natives, East Kentucky]. Compiles glossary of 2,000 items, but does not relate material to other localities or regions.

    • Brown, S. S. 1956. A folk saying of Western North Carolina. North Carolina Folklore 4.1.33.

    • Bruce, J. D. 1913. Terms from Tennessee. Dialect Notes 4.58. [Southeast Tennessee]. Thirteen terms.

    • Campbell, Marie. 1937. Old time sayings and old tales. The folk life of a Kentucky mountain community, pp. 526-50. Nashville: George Peabody College thesis. [East Kentucky]. Mostly transcripts of stories, but a few items on "doctoring" and other matters.

    • Carpenter, Cal. 1979. Southern mountain sayings. The Walton war and tales of the Great Smoky Mountains, pp. 141-90. Lakemont, GA: Copple House. [Western North Carolina]. List of 266 "quaint and descriptive expressions" with explanatory notes to include the circumstances under which expressions were used and to analyze each "for a better understanding of its meaning and background in the language of the mountain people."

    • Carpenter, Charles. 1936. West Virginia expletives. West Virginia Review 13.346-47. Lists and discusses colorful expressions and curses for surprise, anger, and confoundment.

    • Carson, Sam, and A. W. Vick. 1972. Hillbilly cookin 2: more recipes, more sayings. Thorn Hill, TN: Clinch Mountain Lookout. [East Tennessee]. Appalachian talk, pp. 59-60; What the old folks said, pp. 61-62. Thirty-seven lexical and proverbial items.

    • Carver, Craig M. 1987. American regional dialects: a word geography. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. xiii + 317 pp. 92 maps. Comprehensive description of character of American geographical dialects, based on lexical and morphological data from Linguistic Atlas of the United States and Canada and Dictionary of American Regional English. Review: T. C. Frazer. 1987. American Speech 62.154-59.

    • Cassidy, Frederic G. 1985. Dictionary of American regional English, A-C. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. clvi + 903 pp. Numerous maps. First volume of five-volume, comprehensive historical dictionary of American folk vocabulary, based on 1700 interviews and on printed sources; introduction includes explanation of mapping and regional labels, essay on changes in American folk speech, guide to pronunciation, text of questionnaire, and list of informants. Reviews: M. Ching. 1987. Southeastern Conference on Linguistics Review 11.195-203; V. G. McDavid. 1987. Journal of English Linguistics 20.249-54; J. B. McMillan. 1987. Alabama Review 40.157-58; T. K. Pratt. 1986. Canadian Journal of Linguistics 31.179-85; W. Viereck. 1986. English World-Wide 7.317-20; W. Wolfram. 1986. American Speech 61.345-52.

    • Cauthern, Elizabeth Greear. 1955. A lexical study of the vocabulary of Harriette Arnow's regional novel, Hunter's Horn. Charlottesville: University of Virginia thesis. 53 pp. Continues approach of Armstrong for second third of novel (pp. 150-300).

    • Carpenter, Cal. 1979. The Walton war and tales of the great smoky mountains. Lakemont, GA: Copple House.

    • Cavender, Anthony. 1990. A folk medical lexicon of south central Appalachia. Johnson City, TN: East Tennessee State University.

    • Chapman, Maristan. 1928. Glossary. The happy mountain, pp. 311-13. New York: Literary Guild. Eighty-eight terms from novel.

    • Chapman, Maristan. 1929. Glossary. Homeplace, pp. 273-75. New York: Viking. Eighty-six terms from novel, many the same as from preceding item.

    • Chapman, Maristan. 1932. Glossary. The weather tree, pp. 297-98. New York: Viking. Sixty-one terms from novel.

    • Chapman, Maristan. 1933. Glossary. Glen hazard, pp. 321-22. New York: Knopf. Twenty-three terms from novel.

    • Chase, Richard. 1943. [Glossary]. The jack tales: told by R. M. Ward and his kindred in the Beech Mountain section of Western North Carolina and by other descendants of Council Harmon (1803-1896) elsewhere in the Southern mountains; with three tales from Wise County, Virginia, ed. by Richard Chase, pp. 201-02. New York: Houghton-Mifflin. Twenty-nine terms.

    • Chiles, Mary Ruth. 1980. Logging lingo: Compiled from oral history tapes and otherwise as noted. ts, Great Smoky Mountains National Park Library. 

    • Clark, Joe. 1986. Explanation of Tennessee words and terms. The Tennessee sampler, ed. by Peter Jenkins et al., p. 276. Nashville: Thomas Nelson. Ten items.

    • Clark, Joseph D. 1962. Folk speech from North Carolina. Southern Folklore Quarterly 26.301-25. List of 750 items of dialect, slang, and colloquial usage collected from freshmen students at North Carolina State and compared to dictionaries and Frank Brown collection of North Carolina folklore materials.

    • Clark, Joseph D. 1962. Folk speech from North Carolina. North Carolina Folklore 10.6-12. List of 649 items.

    • Clarke, Kenneth, and Mary Clarke. 1974. Kentucky words and brief expressions. The harvest and the reapers: oral traditions of Kentucky, pp. 17-31. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky. Surveys early observation of Kentucky folkspeech by folklorists.

    • Clarke, Mary Washington. 1964. Jesse Stuart's writings preserve passing folk idiom. Southern Folklore Quarterly 28.157-98. [Northeast Kentucky]. Generous sampling of vocabulary items from Stuart's fiction.

    • Clarke, Mary Washington. 1972. To dance in a hog trough: a folk expression. Kentucky Folklore Record 18.68-69. Says term still has currency in Kentucky as humorous remark to any girl whose younger sister is likely to marry first.

    • Combs, Josiah H. 1918. A word-list from the South. Dialect Notes 5.31-40. Mainly mountain English from Arkansas, Kentucky, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia.

    • Combs, Josiah H. 1921. Kentucky items. Dialect Notes 5.118-19. Twenty-seven words and phrases.

    • Combs, Josiah H. 1921. Transpositions and scrambled words. Dialect Notes 5.119. [Kentucky]. Eleven items, mostly metathesis.

    • Combs, Josiah H. 1922. A word-list from Georgia. Dialect Notes 5.183-84. From Uncle Remus stories; words said to be used by blacks and Kentucky mountaineers.

    • Combs, Josiah H. 1923. Addenda from Kentucky. Dialect Notes 5.242-43. Twenty-one expressions.

    • Combs, Josiah H. 1944. A word-list from the Southern highlands. Publication of the American Dialect Society 2.17-23. [Southern Appalachia]. Includes list of figures of speech and idioms.

    • Combs, Josiah H. 1959. Dialect terms in boys' games. Kentucky Folklore Record 5.30,136. Nine terms from Knott Co, Kentucky.

    • Cunningham, Rodger. 1971. Appalachian / part naI/ "almost": a notice and various etymologies. American Speech 46.304. [West Virginia, Kentucky]. Believes term, equivalent to "pretty nigh," is influenced by Scotch-Irish pronunciation of Gaelic term.

    • Dabney, Joseph Earl. 1974. A chronicle of corn whiskey from King James' Ulster plantation to America's Appalachians and the moonshine life. New York: Scribner's. Pp. xix-xvi, glossary of terms used in Southern Appalachian moonshining.

    • Dalton, Alford P. 1950. A word-list from southern Kentucky. Publication of the American Dialect Society 13.22-23. Twenty-two miscellaneous items compared to British dialect usage.

    • Daugneaux, Christine B. 1981. Appalachia: a separate place, a unique people. Parsons, WV: McClain. Why do Appalachians talk that way?, pp. 30-35;  Polyfoxing, a lost art being revived, p. 63. Presents standard case that mountain English is "older in its forms and rich in unique vocabulary and in that sense at least is purer English" and explains polyfoxing as the "art of making homemade medicine."

    • Davis, Hubert J. 1973. Glossary. "Pon my honor hit's the truth": tall tales from the mountains, pp. 93-102. Murfreesboro, NC: Johnson. Glossary of 323 items.

    • Davison, Zeta C. 1953. A word-list from the Appalachians and the Piedmont area of North Carolina. Publication of the American Dialect Society 19.8-14. [North Carolina, Kentucky, Tennessee]. 113 items collected over period of 30 years.

    • Dear, Ruth. 1960. Some queries about regionalisms. American Speech 35.298- 300. [North Carolina, Arkansas]. Brief comments about three terms.

    • Dickinson, Meriwether B. 1941. A lexicographical study of the vocabulary of Greenup County, Kentucky, set forth in Jesse Stuart's Beyond Dark Hills . Charlottesville: University of Virginia thesis. [Northeast Kentucky]. 71 pp. Lists 250 words from Stuart's autobiographical novel not in current dictionaries; points out tautological expressions, Scottish retentions, and unusual types of compounds.

    • Dingus, L. R. 1944. Tobacco words. Publication of the American Dialect Society 2.63-72. [Kentucky, East Tennessee, Southwest Virginia]. Vocabulary of tobacco farming; additions from Southern Virginia by George P. Wilson.

    • Dominick, Doris S. 1955. A lexical study of the vocabulary of a part of Harriett Arnow's regional novel, Hunter's Horn . Charlottesville: University of Virginia thesis. 72 pp. Continues approach of Armstrong for final third of novel.

    • Dressman, Michael R. 1979. "Redd up." American Speech 54.141-45. Cites term from Pennsylvania to Carolinas and attributes its distribution to early Scotch-Irish.

    • Dudley, Fred A. 1946. "Swarp" and some other Kentucky words. American Speech 21.270-73. [Northeast Kentucky]. Glossary from Rowan County.

    • Dumas, Bethany K. 1981. Appalachian glossary. An encyclopedia of East Tennessee, ed. by Jim Stokely and Jeff D. Johnson, pp. 16-18. Oak Ridge, TN: Children's Museum. 102 items.

    • Duncan, Mary Lou. 1974/75. Mountain sayens: "dog days" to "dogwood winter." Mountain Call 2.31 (Dec.-Jan.)

    • Dwyer, Paul. 1971. Dictionary for Yankees and other uneducated people. Highlands, NC: Merry Mountaineesr. 36 pp. Compendium of unusual expressions and spellings, with cartoons, for tourist trade.

    • Dwyer, Paul. 1975. Thangs Yankees don' know: dialect, lawin', greens, recipes, squar' dancin', beauty aids, wild life, remedies, signs, stills, and folks-fire things. Highlands, NC: Merry Mountaineers. 40 pp. Thangs yuh should larn!, pp. 4-5; Yore wrong!, p. 15;  Shor and sartain: redundancies, p. 17; Folk expressions, p. 29;  The way it was said!, p. 31. Collection of unusual tidbits about mountain life for tourists.

    • Dwyer, Paul. 1976. Southern sayin's for Yankees and other immigrants: plus-- Yankee woids that "break up" Southerners. Highlands, NC: Merry Mountaineers. 36 pp. Compendium of unusual expressions and spellings, with cartoons, for tourist trade.

    • Farr, T. J. 1936. Folk speech of middle Tennessee. American Speech 11.275- 76. Reports sixty-three words and expressions used in at least five counties.

    • Farr, T. J. 1939. The language of the Tennessee mountain regions. American Speech 14.89-92. 150 items collected in five counties of Middle Tennessee.

    • Farr, T. J. 1940. More Tennessee expressions. American Speech 15.446-48. Additions to earlier Tennessee lists.

    • Farrier, Ph. H. 1936. "Few of" and "few bit."  American Speech 11.278-79. [Giles County, Southwest Virginia]. Reports two expressions as intensifiers equivalent to rathe.r

    • Edson, H. A. and Edith M. Fairchild. 1895. Tennessee mountains in word lists. Dialect Notes 1.370-77.

    • Farwell, Harold and J. Karl Nicholas. 1993. Smoky mountain voices:

    • Farwell, Harold and J. Karl Nicholas. 1993. Smoky mountain voices: A lexicon of southern Appalachian speech. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky.

    • Fink, Paul M. 1974. Bits of mountain speech gathered between 1910 and 1965 along the mountains bordering North Carolina and Tennessee. Boone, NC: Appalachian Consortium. 31 pp. Dictionary of 556 items, with citations. Review:  R. Whitener. 1975. Appalachian Journal 2.230-31.

    • Forrester, Christine D. 1952. A word geography of Kentucky. Lexington: University of Kentucky thesis. Data from questionnaire. iv + 122 pp. 49 maps. [89 speakers, 29 counties]. Based on postal survey, finds that Kentucky "is intercepted by no main linguistic boundaries, but lies entirely within the broad Midland speech area" and that the state's vocabulary is "South Midland with restricted occurrence of occasional Southern terms." 

    • Garber, Aubrey. 1976. Mountain-ese: basic grammar for Appalachia. Radford, VA: Commonwealth. 105 pp. Popular dictionary of Southern Appalachian speech, with illustrative citation for each entry.

    • Griffin, Hazel. 1967. Some folk expressions from northeastern North Carolina. North Carolina Folklore 15.56-57. Layman's collection of localisms, all well known.

    • Guthrie, Charles S. 1966. Corn: the mainstay of the Cumberland Valley. Kentucky Folklore Record 13.87-91. Includes comments on localisms.

    • Guthrie, Charles S. 1968. Tobacco: cash crop of the Cumberland Valley. Kentucky Folklore Record 14.38-43. Tobacco lexicon used in Central Kentucky.

    • Hall, Joseph S. 1972. Sayings from Old Smoky. Asheville, NC: Cataloochee. 149 pp. Comprehensive dictionary (pp. 36-144) based on personal interviews and observations, as well as on other printed sources. Reviews:  L. Montell. 1972. Kentucky Folklore Record 18.87; C. Williams. 1973. Appalachian Journal 1.61.

    • Hall, Joseph S. 1978. Glossary. Yarns and tales from the Great Smokies, pp. 74-76. Asheville, NC: Cataloochee. 54 items. Review: K. B. Harder. 1980. Tennessee Folklore Society Bulletin 46.144-45.

    • Harper, Francis. 1941. The way we see it. North Georgia Review 6.129-30. Glossary of twenty-nine expressions mainly from Southern Appalachian area.

    • Heap, Norman A. 1959. A vocabulary of burley tobacco growing in Fayette County, Kentucky. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University thesis. [North Central Kentucky]. Compiles list of 275 lexical items used by burley tobacco growers to show usefulness of topical investigation of vocabulary of local industry.

    • Heap, Norman A. 1966. A burley tobacco word list from Lexington, Kentucky. Publication of the American Dialect Society 45.1-27. [North Central Kentucky]. Revision of preceding item.

    • Helton, William W. 1986. In a manner of speaking. Around home in Unicoi county, 373-81. Johnson City, TN: Overmountain Press.

    • Hench, Atcheson L. 1939. To come to fetch fire. Journal of American Folklore 53.123-24. Says the Chaucerian idiom, meaning "to come for a moment and then leave," is still used in Virginia and elsewhere in the South.

    • Howard, Martha C. 1981. Fifty years later and less: dialect loss in West Virginia. Abstract in Newsletter of the American Dialect Society 13.3.7. Claims degree of lexical dialect loss in state since Woofter's study can be correlated with degree of speakers' education and with educational level of school teachers in local area.

    • Hurst, Sharon Elaine. 1982. Appalachian words. Smokies heritage book I, 98-99. Gatlinburg, TN: Crescent.

    • Jones, Loyal and Jim Wayne Miller. 1992. Glossary of mountain speech. Southern mountain speech, 63-120. Berea, KY: Berea College Press.

    • Kaimen, Audrey A. 1965. The Southern fiddling convention--a study: part I music and musicians. Tennessee Folklore Society Bulletin 31.7-16. [North Carolina. Virginia]. Includes comments on vocabulary.

    • Kelly, Claire. 1961. Comment on "Brief lexical notes."  Kentucky Folklore Record 7.77-78. [Kentucky]. Comments on eight items in Woodbridge's article (Kentucky Folklore Record 5.107-10 (1959).

    • Kephart, Horace. 1917. A word-list from the mountains of Western North Carolina. Dialect Notes 4.407-19. Extensive list, most items discussed in Kephart's Our Southern Highlanders.

    • Krumpelmann, John T. 1939. West Virginia peculiarities. American Speech 14.155-56. A dozen lexical items.

    • Kurath, Hans. 1949. A word geography of the Eastern United States. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. xii + 252 pp. Based on Linguistic Atlas of New England and Linguistic Atlas of the Middle and South Atlantic States, this atlas shows geographical, but not social, distribution of traditional vocabulary from Maine to South Carolina on 163 maps and subdivides Eastern states into eighteen primary dialect areas based on distinctive vocabulary patterns. First study of dialect geography of Atlantic states using Linguistic Atlas records; first conclusive demonstration of three principal Eastern dialect areas--Northern, Midland, and Southern--and their subareas. Reprinted in 1966. Reviews:  E. B. Atwood. 1950. Word 6.194-97;  E. B. Atwood. 1950. Geographical Review 40.510-12; C. Bonfante. 1951. American Anthropologist 53.103-05; A. L. Davis. 1950. Journal of English and Germanic Philology 49.431-32;  E. Dieth. 1953. English Studies 34.122-26; N. E. Eliason. 1951. Modern Language Notes 66.487-89; H. M. Flasdieck. 1951. Anglia 70.335-36; L. Florez. 1952. Thesaurus 8.217-18;  W. C. Greet. 1950. New York Times, p. 22 (Jan. 22); L. Grootaaers. 1954. Leuvense Bijdragen 44.17; S. B. Liljegren. 1952-53. Studia Neophilogica 25.193; R. I. McDavid, Jr. 1950. New York History 31.442-44;  J. B. McMillan. 1951. Language 27.423-29; R. J. Menner. 1950. American Speech 15.122-26; F. Mosse. 1951. Bulletin de la Societee Linguistique de Paris 46.154-55; V. Pisane. 1952. Paideia 7.317-18;  C. E. Reed. 1951. Modern Language Quarterly 12.245-47; H. L. Smith, Jr. 1951. Studies in Linguis tics 9.7-12; A. Sommerfelt. 1954. Norsk Tidsskrift for Sprogvidenskap 17.564-66;  C. K. Thomas. 1950. Quarterly Journal of Speech 36.262; J. N. Tidwell. 1954. Journal of American Folklore 67.222-23; H. Whitehall. 1950. Yale Review n.s. 39.556-58;  R. M. Wilson. 1951. Year's Work in English Studies 30.37.

    • Laughlin, Hugh C. 1944. A word-list from Buncombe County, North Carolina. Publication of the American Dialect Society 2.24-27. [Western North Carolina]. Glossary of items common to Buncombe County, North Carolina, and Logan County, Ohio.

    • Ledford, Ted Roland. 1975-76. Folk vocabulary of Western North Carolina: some recent changes. Appalachian Journal 3.279-84. [100 natives, ages 18-20, Western North Carolina]. Investigates extent to which folk vocabulary is still known in four areas of terminology: the house, the farm, common animals, and food; finds "a striking loss of some local terms."

    • Lyman, Dean B. 1936. Idioms in West Virginia. American Speech 11.63. Six miscellaneous items.

    • McDavid, Raven I., Jr. and Virginia G. McDavid. 1973. The folk vocabulary of Eastern Kentucky. Lexicography and dialect geography: festgabe for Hans Kurath, ed. by Harald Scholler and John Reidy, pp. 147-64. Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner Verlag. Same as Zeitschrift fur Dialektologie und Linguistik heft 9. 13 maps. Analyzes distribution of Midland and Southern vocabulary in East Kentucky, using data from Linguistic Atlas of the North Central States records made in 1950s.

    • McDonald, Richard R., and Walburga von Raffler-Engel. 1975. A semantic analysis of some religious terms of a snake-handling sect in Appalachia. Views on language, ed. by Reza Ordoubadian and Walburga von Raffler-Engel, pp. 182- 91. Murfreesboro: Middle Tennessee State University. Based on research in four Pentecostal churches in Tennessee, studies terminology used in the Pentecostal experience called "anointing."

    • Matthias, Virginia P. 1946. Folk speech of Pine Mountain, Kentucky. American Speech 21.188-92. [Southeast Kentucky]. Glossary, with explanatory notes, of twenty-seven terms observed in two summers in the KY mountains.

    • Matthias, Virginia P. 1952. A wordcatcher asks your help. Mountain Life and Work 28.3.23-24. Appeals for help in recording Southern Appalachian speech.

    • Maurer, David W. 1949. The argot of the moonshiner. American Speech 24.3- 13. Glossary of a hundred items, prefaced by comments on manufacture and prevalence of illegal whisky in Kentucky.

    • Maurer, David W. 1974. Kentucky moonshine. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky. The argot of the craft, pp. 105-11; Glossary, pp. 113-27. Reviews:  Anonymous. 1975. Journal of Southern History 41.284-85; C. S. Guthrie. 1975. Kentucky Folklore Record 21.2.63-64; L. Pederson. 1979. American Speech 54.52-55.

    • Maurer, David W. 1981. Language in the underworld. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky. 417 pp. Includes scattered Southern material, including chapter on Kentucky moonshiner argot (pp. 370-80) revised and expanded from preceding item. Reviews: A. Burgess. 1982. Times Literary Supplement, Jan. 22, p. 74; J. R. Gaskin. 1984. Sewanee Review 92.114-21;  J. Hall. 1983. South Atlantic Quarterly 82.341-42; K. B. Harder. 1982. American Speech 58.288; W. K. McNeil. 1982. Mid-America Folklore 10; R. I. McDavid, Jr. 1983. American Studies 24.1,115;  J. B. McMillan. 1982. Southeastern Conference on Linguistics Review 6.138-39; G. Nunberg. 1982. New York Times Book Review, May 2, p. 9; L. Pederson. 1983. Modern Philology 81.105-07; M. Salovesh. 1982. American Anthropologist 84.456-57; L. E. Seits. 1983. Names 31.211-13.

    • Miller, Jim Wayne. 1969. The vocabulary and methods of raising burley tobacco in Western North Carolina. North Carolina Folklore 17.1.27-38. Explains terminology used in production and marketing of tobacco.

    • Miller, Jim Wayne. 1979. An interview with Jim Wayne Miller. Appalachian Journal 6.207-25. P. 214, discusses treatment of taboo word bull and explains substitutes for it in Southern Appalachia.

    • Mockler, William E. 1940. Localisms. American Speech 15.83. Nine miscellaneous items from mountains of West Virginia and Pennsylvania.

    • Montell, William Lynwood. 1975. Glossary. Ghosts along the Cumberland: death lore in the Kentucky foothills, pp. 217-20. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press. [South Central Kentucky]. Forty-six items.

    • Montell, William Lynwood. 1983. Glossary. Don't go up Kettle Creek: verbal legacy in the upper Cumberlands, pp. 197-201. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press. [South Central Kentucky]. Reviews: R. E. Corlew. 1984. Journal of Southern History 50.143-44;  G. B. McKinney. 1984. Appalachian Journal 11.255.59; J. H. Speer. 1984. Journal of American Folklore 97.480-81.

    • Mountain English: collection of mountain expressions reproduced for your enlightenment. n.d. Asheville, NC: Tarmac Audio Visual Company. 10 pp. Popular glossary of mountain terms in modified spelling with definitions; most items identical to Weals item below.

    • Mountain vocabulary. 1932. Mountain Missionary, January.

    • Mountain words. 1982. Smokies heritage book I, 66-67. Gatlinburg, TN: Crescent.

    • Mull, J. Alexander, and Gordon Boger. 1983. Sayin's and meanin's. Recollections of the Catawba Valley, pp. 63-64. Boone, NC: Appalachian Consortium. Thirty-seven North Carolina terms that author says are misunderstood in the North.

    • Neal, Marvin H. 1957. The word-book of a backwoodsman. Ceres, VA: Backwoods Press. xi + 49 pp.

    • Newton, Mary C. 1958. A comparative study of the dialect vocabulary of East Tennessee and Western North Carolina using selected words: a report of a special study. Maryville, TN: Maryville College. [99 speakers, most natives, East Tennessee, Western North Carolina]. Based on local questionnaires and on data from Linguistic Atlas, finds predominant Midland usage but that education had little correlation with use and recognition of vocabulary; also finds some differences between North Carolina and Tennessee.

    • Nixon, Phyllis J. 1946. A glossary of Virginia words. Publication of the American Dialect Society 5.3-43. Preface by Hans Kurath. Based on 138 Virginia Linguistic Atlas of the Middle and South Atlantic States field records; notes geographical and social distribution of terms; gives thorough picture of Virginia usage and greatly supplements B. W. Green. Reviews:  R. I. McDavid, Jr. 1947. Studies in Linguistics 5.21-24; B. J. Whiting. 1946. Publication of the American Dialect Society 6.44-46. Comments and additions by T. A. Kirby, W. L. McAtee, W. M. Miller, R. V. Mills, F. W. Palmer, H. H. Petit. 1947. Publication of the American Dialect Society 8.11-38.

    • North Carolina word list. 1918. Dialet Notes 5.18-20.

    • North Carolina Department of Commerce. n.d. A dictionary of the Queen's English. Raleigh, North Carolina. 24 pp. [North Carolina]. Booklet for tourists with three short glossaries stressing archaic expressions still heard in state, where English spoken is "not prose but metaphor."

    • O'Cain, Raymond K., and John B. Hopkins. 1977. The southern mountain vocabulary in the low country of South Carolina and Georgia. An Appalachian symposium: essays written in honor of Cratis D. Williams, pp. 215-23. Boone, NC: Appalachian State University. Detailed study of "the geographical distribution of the ten vocabulary items that were ... most frequently cited in early word lists of mountain speech" and speculates whether their occurrence in the low country is due to common sources in England or to diffusion in colonial times.

    • Olmstead, George C. 1934. Testimonies. American Speech 9.236. Reports goober grabber in Chattanooga for "an Alabamian" and hairydick, "maverick," and Indian River chicken .

    • Pederson, Lee A. 1975. Sourmilk. American Speech 50.49. [Tennessee]. Reports term for clabber having primary-secondary stress pattern.

    • Pederson, Lee A. 1977. The dugout dairy. Tennessee Folklore Society Bulletin 43.88-89. [East Tennessee]. Notes several senses of word dairy , including reference to room in dugout area.

    • Pederson, Lee A. 1981. Hey, Lucy. American Speech 56.63. [Jacksboro, Tennessee]. Points out difficulty of ordering senses in Linguistic Atlas of the Gulf States legendry, dictionary component of the atlas.

    • Pendleton, Paul E. 1930. How the "wood hicks" speak. Dialect Notes 6.86-89. Words and phrases from Buckhannon, West Virginia.

    • Petit, Herbert H. 1947. Terms in a word-list from Virginia and North Carolina (Publication of the American Dialect Society 6) common in the Blue Grass region of Kentucky. Publication of the American Dialect Society 8.21-23. Confirmation of findings of Woodard (see item below) by Kentucky native.

    • Pollard, Mary O. 1915. Terms from the Tennessee mountains. Dialect Notes 4.242-43. Twenty-four items from Gatlinburg; brief note on phonological and grammatical tendencies.

    • Preston, Dennis R. 1969. Bituminous coal mining vocabulary of the eastern United States: a pilot study in the collecting of geographically distributed occupational vocabulary. Madison: University of Wisconsin dissertation. Abstract in Dissertation Abstracts International 39.3929-30A. Reprinted in 1973 as Bituminous coalmining vocabulary of the Eastern United States. Publication of the American Dialect Society 59. 128 pp. Lexicon of 489 terms used by bituminous coal miners in ten states in Midland and Midwest regions. Finds northern coal-mining areas preserve more British terms while southern areas have more native American ones. Review: K. Hameyer. 1980. Zeitschrift fur Dialektologie und Linguistik 47.108-11.

    • Roberts, Leonard. 1962. Additional notes on Archer Taylor's On Troublesome Creek. Kentucky Folklore Record 8.142-44. [Kentucky]. Explains six terms cited by Woodbridge that come from James Still's fiction, including bunty bird and corn capping.

    • Rushing, Nellie Georgia. 1929. A word study of Mary Noailles Murfree's stories of the Tennessee mountains. Chicago: University of Chicago thesis. Analyzes and compiles regional vocabulary from seven of Murfree's novels.

    • Schmidt, Ronald G., and William S. Hooks. 1994. Glossary. Whistle over the mountain: Timber, track and trails in the Tennessee smokies. Graphicom.

    • Schulman, Steven A. 1973. Logging terms from the upper Cumberland river. Tennessee Folklore Society Bulletin 39.35-36. [Western Kentucky]. Twenty- seven terms from the logging industry.

    • Shearin, Hubert G. 1911. An Eastern Kentucky dialect word-list. Dialect Notes 3.537-40. 150 items, many in modified phonetic transcription.

    • Shoemaker, Henry W. 1930. Thirteen hundred old time words. Altoona, PA: Times Tribune. 75 pp.

    • Shott, Hugh Ike, II. 1951. A lexical study of the vocabulary of Alberta Pierson Hannum's regional novel Thursday April . Charlottesville: University of Virginia thesis. Identifies dialect and unusual words used by W North Carolina novelist and crossreferences them to eight dictionaries.

    • Tedford, Ted R. 1976. Folk vocabulary of Western NC: some recent changes. Appalachian Journal 3.277-84. Discusses massive generational changes in folk vocabulary for house and farm items and for wild and domestic animals.

    • Thompson, Kathy, ed. 1976. The Thompson family dictionary. Touching home: A collection of history and folklore from the Copper Basin, Fannin County area, 12-18. Blue Ridge, GA.

    • Thornton, Richard H. 1916. Comment on "A word-list from Virginia."  Dialect Notes 4.349-50. [Southwest Virginia]. Discusses seven older items. Compare Dingus item in chapter one.

    • Tresidder, Argus. 1940. Some Virginia provincialisms. Quarterly Journal of Speech 26.262-69. Lexical notes on unusual terms in old-fashioned Virginia speech of Tidewater, Piedmont, and mountain areas; also discusses German contributions to Virginia speech.

    • W., H. C. 1957. Some unrecorded hunting terms found in Kentucky. Kentucky Folklore Record 3.4.

    • Warnick, Florence. 1942. The dialect of Garrett County, Maryland. Privately printed. 16 pp. [Western Maryland]. Popular glossary of words and phrases collected of Appalachian area of Maryland from 1900-1918.

    • Watkins, Floyd C. 1963. Yesterday in the hills. Chicago: Quadrangle. Cherokee County, Georgia, folk culture, including lexicon.

    • Weals, Vic. c1959. Hillbilly dictionary (revised): an edifying collection of mountain expressions. Gatlinburg, TN: privately printed. Dictionary of 175 lexical, grammatical, and phonological items.

    • Weeks, Abigail. 1910. A word list from Barbourville, Kentucky. Dialect Notes 3.456-57. Forty-five items.

    • Weir, H. L. 1922. The dialect of the Southern highlands. 14 pp. manuscript in Berea College Library. Comments on lack of foreign terms in Appalachian speech and devises ten categories of distinctive Appalachian words. Based mainly on lists in Dialect Notes.

    • Wentworth, Harold. 1944. American dialect dictionary. New York: Crowell. 747 pp. Large volume containing more than 15,000 terms (many not appearing in another index or dictionary) that vary geographically in pronunciation, form, or meaning, these terms compiled from wordlists published in Dialect Notes and American Speech and from unpublished collections. Reviews: 1944. Christian Science Monitor, July 22, p. 11;  1944. New York Times, July 23, p. 25.;  1944. New Yorker, July 29, p. 64;  1944. Wisconsin Library Bulletin, Nov., p. 144.

    • West, Don. 1957. "Hill-billy," "plowboy," "wool-hats," and "crackers." Southern Newsletter 2.10.6-8. Says four terms are used in prejudicial and erroneous way to imply that poor whites are responsible for persecution of blacks.

    • Westover, J. Hutson. 1960. Highland language of the Cumberland coal country. Mountain Life and Work 36.18-21.

    • White, Edward M. 1963. The vocabulary of marbles in Eastern Kentucky. Kentucky Folklore Record 9.57-74. 4 maps. See also K. B. Harder, Publication of the American Dialect Society 23.3-33 (Apr. 1955), and J. H. Combs, ibid., 33-34.

    • White, Linda C. 1975. Unemphatic love. Western Folklore 34.154. Describes use of word love in "an unemotional, often negative vein" in Cumberland County, Kentucky.

    • Wilder, Roy, Jr. 1975. You all spoken here: a handy, illustrated guide to carryin' on in the South. First verse. Spring Hope, NC: Gourd Hollow Press. 20 pp. Popular "collation of words and phrases and expressions in common and ordinary day-by-day use in the South"; includes many figures of speech.

    • Wilder, Roy, Jr. 1976. You all spoken here: a handy, illustrated guide to carryin' on in the South. Second verse. Spring Hope, NC: Gourd Hollow Press. 20 pp. Sequel to preceding item, with same kind of material.

    • Wilder, Roy, Jr. 1977. You all spoken here: a handy, illustrated guide to carryin' on in the South. Third verse. Spring Hope, NC: Gourd Hollow Press. Sequel to preceding item, with same kind of material.

    • Wilder, Roy, Jr. 1984. You all spoken here. New York: Morrow. 213 pp. Lengthy compilation of colorful expressions, collected by personal observation and from reading newspapers, books, and magazines; lacks information on regional or social distribution or on source of material. Review: J. Burges. 1986. Southern English Newsletter 4.5-6.

    • Wilgus, D. K. 1959. Down our way: who's in town? Kentucky Folklore Record 5.1-8. Describes eight children's games and their unusual terminology.

    • Wilgus, D. K., and L. Montell. 1959. Notes: "uker." Kentucky Folklore Record 5.130. Describes marble game by the name.

    • Williams, Cratis D. 1944. A word-list from the mountains of Kentucky and North Carolina. Publication of the American Dialect Society 2.28-31. [Mainly East Kentucky, Western North Carolina]. Fifty-two items.

    • Wilson, George P. 1944. A word-list from Virginia and North Carolina. Publication of the American Dialect Society 2.38-52. Glossary of items crossreferenced to Oxford English Dictionary and English Dialect Dictionary where possible.

    • Wilson, George P. 1958. Some folk sayings from North Carolina. North Carolina Folklore 6.2.7-18.

    • Wilson, Gordon. 1963. Studying folklore in a small region--IV: regional words. Tennessee Folklore Society Bulletin 29.79-86. Discusses rustic vocabulary and place names; calls for more interest in folk language.

    • Wilson, Gordon. 1964. Words relating to plants and animals in the Mammoth Cave region. Publication of the American Dialect Society 42.11-25. Reprinted in Folklore of the Mammoth Cave Region (Bowling Green: Kentucky Folklore Society, 1968), pp. 12-26. More than 200 items collected in W Kentucky.

    • Wilson, Gordon. 1965-66. Mammoth cave words. Kentucky Folklore Record 11. Sections: I Around the house. Kentucky Folklore Record 11.5-8; II Around the house some more. Kentucky Folklore Record 11. 28-31 (Apr.-June, 1965); III Neighborhood doings. Kentucky Folklore Record 11.52-55 (July-Sept., 1965);  IV More neighborhood doings. Kentucky Folklore Record 11.78-81 (Oct.-Dec., 1965); V Some good regional verbs. Kentucky Folklore Record 12.15-20 (Jan.- Mar., 1966); VI Some folk nouns. Kentucky Folklore Record 12.67-71 (Apr.- June, 1966);  VII Some more folk nouns. Kentucky Folklore Record 12.93-98 (July-Sept., 1966); VIII Some useful adjectives. Kentucky Folklore Record 12.73-74 (Oct.-Dec., 1966). First four articles reprinted in Folklore of the Mammoth Cave Region, edited by Lawrence Thompson (Bowling Green: Kentucky Folklore Society, 1968).

    • Wilson, Gordon. 1969. Some Mammoth Cave sayings: I. Sayings with a farm flavor. Kentucky Folklore Record 15.12-21; 15.37-44 (Apr.-June, 1969): 15.69- 74 (July-Sept., 1969).

    • Wilson, Gordon. 1970-71. Origins of the people of the Mammoth Cave region as shown by their surnames and regional words. Kentucky Folklore Record 17.10-18, regional words I; 17.31-39, regional words II.

    • Wood, Gordon R. 1958. A list of words from Tennessee. Publication of the American Dialect Society 29.3-18. 152 items, submitted mostly by the public in response to newspaper solicitations from the writer.

    • Wood, Gordon R. 1959. Report on dialect collecting in Tennessee. Abstract in South Atlantic Bulletin 24.3.4. Progress report on postal questionnaire.

    • Wood, Gordon R. 1960. Heard in the South: the progress of a word geography. Tennessee Folklore Society Bulletin 26.1-7. Discusses early stages of author's large-scale postal survey of Southern vocabulary.

    • Wood, Gordon R. 1963. Dialect contours in the Southern states. American Speech 38.243-56. 7 maps. Discusses major lexical isoglosses showing Midland-Southern boundary in eight states in interior South that were settled after 1800 and correlates vocabulary with three stages of settlement history of region: advancing frontier, growth of towns, and increase of regional communication.

    • Wood, Gordon R. 1971. Vocabulary change: a study of variation in regional words in eight of the Southern states. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press. Comprehensive work based primarily on postal questionnaire of over 1,000 informants that studies generational and subregional patterns of nearly 1200 words and expressions in the mid-South. Uses ninety-four figures and maps to relate these patterns to agricultural regions and to 19th-century migration across the South. Reviews: W. J. Griffin. 1972. Tennessee Folklore Society Bulletin 38.82-83;  J. B. McMillan. 1972. Mississippi Quarterly 8.101- 04; H. W. Marshall. 1974. Journal of American Folklore 87.101-02;  L. Pederson. 1973. Language 49.184-87.

    • Woodard, C. M. 1946. A word-list from Virginia and North Carolina. Publication of the American Dialect Society 6.4-43. [Primarily Pamplico County, North Carolina, Salem, Virginia]. Extended wordlist, with notes of frequency of use; includes a ten-page list of sayings and similes.

    • Woodbridge, Hensley C. 1956. 1. "To funk." 2. "Dog run." American Speech 31.309-10. First is Kentucky term meaning "to spoil tobacco"; second cited term from AR and FL and refers to dogs trotting over loose, dry boards.

    • Woodbridge, Hensley C. 1957. Some unrecorded hunting terms found in Kentucky. Kentucky Folklore Record 3.153-58. Discusses twenty-nine terms, most from Harriette Arnow's Hunter's Horn ; based on Armstrong, Cauthern, and Dominick.

    • Woodbridge, Hensley C. 1958. Americanisms in James Still's The Nest . Kentucky Folklore Record 4.63-64. [Kentucky]. Six terms, including crawdabber and battle out , not appearing in Matthews' Dictionary of Americanisms .

    • Woodbridge, Hensley C. 1958. Flats and bottoms. Kentucky Folklore Record 4.175. Use of these terms, referring to land bordering water, in Hopkins County, Kentucky.

    • Woofter, Carey. 1927. Dialect words and phrases from West-Central West Virginia. American Speech 2.347-67. [Central West Virginia]. Extended word- list from Little Kanawha Valley.

  4. PHONOLOGY AND PHONETICS
    • Atherton, H. E., and Darrell L. Gregg. 1929. A study of dialect differences. American Speech 4.216-23. [North Carolina]. Early acoustic comparison of phonograph recordings of speakers from North Carolina and South England, analyzing length of words in millimeters of film per second, frequency of double vibrations, and pitch level.

    • Atwood, E. Bagby. 1950. Grease and greasy: a study of geographical variation. University of Texas Studies in English 29.249-60. Analyzes distribution of [s] and [z] pronunciations in New England and Atlantic states and finds [z] pronunciations dominate from Western Pennsylvania southward; compares results to Hempl and Thomas. Reprinted in H. B. Allen. 1958. Readings in Applied English Linguistics. 1st ed., 158-67; 1964. 2nd ed., 242- 51; Bobbs-Merrill Reprint Series, Language-2.

    • Bailey, Charles-James N. 1985. English phonetic transcription. Dallas, TX: Summer Institute of Linguistics. 265 pp. Textbook on phonetics for students of linguistics, with many examples from Southern English; includes suprasegmentals and intonation. Review: G. Bailey. 1988. Southern English Newsletter 5.

    • Bailey, Guy. 1979. Folk speech on the Cumberland plateau: a phonological analysis. Knoxville: University of Tennessee dissertation. Abstract in Dissertation Abstracts International 40.5031A. [Older, less educated Whites, East Tennessee]. Outlines segmental phonemic structure of speech of area, describing phonological processes and offering phonetic, contextual, and historial explanations for variants.

    • Boiarsky, Carolyn. 1969. Consistency of spelling and pronunciation deviations in Appalachian students. Modern Language Journal 53.347-50. [High school students, West Virginia]. Studies "pronunciation of certain words by Appalachian students and analyzes the consistency betwen the Appalachian dialectal pronunciation of certain vowels and the spelling of words" in which they appear"; identifies four "vowel shifts" in Appalachian speech, three dealing with pronunciation of front vowels before /l/.

    • Boiarsky, Carolyn. 1970. Improving oral communication of Appalachian youth through rhyme. Modern Language Journal 54.188-89. Discusses a model "from which Appalachian students can learn to differentiate between their dialectal pronunciation of certain vowels and pronunciation of those vowels in Standard American English" and reports on project using five pilot lessons, based on an aural-oral approach, to assist such students.

    • Butters, Ronald R. 1981. Unstressed vowels in Appalachian English. American Speech 56.104-10. Discusses constraints on raising of final unstressed schwa in Appalachian speech and tries to unite interpretations of Wolfram and Christian and Kurath and McDavid.

    • Callary, Robert E. 1973. Indications of regular sound shifting in an Appalachian dialect. Appalachian Journal 1.238-40. Says dialect spellings in Dargan's 1932 Appalachian novel Call Home the Heart reveal systematic differences between Appalachian dialect and standard English that can demonstrated by phonological rules.

    • Cavender, Anthony Patterson. 1974. A phonemic and phonetic analysis of the folk speech of Bedford County, Tennessee. Knoxville: University of Tennessee thesis. [5 Whites over 70, South Central Tennessee]. Study undertaken to provide baseline data for Linguistic Atlas of the Gulf States and other work in Middle Tennessee; no comparison with speech elsewhere. Uses approach developed by Harold Orton.

    • Cogdill, Cindy A., Judith Harkins, and Karl Nicholas. 1978. A good mill will make you fill better. Southeastern Conference on Linguistics Bulletin 2.2.62- 66. [91 Western North Carolina, ages 7 to 79]. Investigates laxing of /i/ before /l/ as change in progress; finds orthographic <ea> more likely to lax than <ee>.

    • Davis, Arthur Kyle, Jr., and Archibald A. Hill. 1933. Dialect notes on records of folk songs from Virginia. American Speech 8.4.52-56. [Southwest Virginia]. Discriminates which features of recorded folk songs are due to rhythm and other effects of singing and which are of genuine interest to dialectologists and focuses on vowel quality, postvocalic /r/, pronunciation of normally unstressed function words when stressed, verb principal parts, and other features.

    • Davis, Margaret B. 1975. A study of East Tennessee regional phonology: its influence on reading performance. Knoxville: University of Tennessee dissertation. 88 pp. Abstract in Dissertation Abstracts International 36.7183A. [20 White 1st, 3rd graders, 20 White elementary teachers, Sevier County, East Tennessee]. Finds that both students and teachers differed from expected pronunciations and that both groups showed wide variation in pronunciation.

    • Furbee, N. Louanna. 1972. Transcription of Appalachian child's English. Culture, class, and language variety: a re-source book for teachers, ed. by A. L. Davis, pp. 212-13. Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English. Orthographic and brief phonetic transcript of ten-year-old child from Barboursville, Kentucky.

    • Habick, Timothy. 1980. Sound change in farmer city: a sociolinguistic study based on acoustic data. Urbana: University of Illinois dissertation. Abstract in Dissertation Abstracts International 41.655A. 441 pp. [7 speakers, 3 generations, Somerset, Kentucky, 40 speakers from Illinois]. Spectrographic analysis of generational differences in vowel offglides and placement of /u/ vowel. Includes comments on southern drawl.

    • Hackett, William A. 1940. An analysis and suggested solution of the educational problem resultant from dialectal pronunciations in the Southern Appalachians. Columbus: Ohio State University dissertation.

    • Hale, Lulu Cooper. 1930. A study of English pronunciation in Kentucky. Lexington: University of Kentucky thesis. 60 pp. [44 Univ. of Kentucky students from 33 counties]. Discusses pronunciation of vowels, diphthongs, and two consonants (postvocalic /r/ and final velar nasal); includes alphabetical list of words.

    • Hall, Joseph S. 1942. The phonetics of Great Smoky Mountain speech. Also in American Speech 17 (Apr., 1942), part 2. Same as American Speech Reprints and Monographs, No. 4. New York: Columbia University Press. Bibliography, 107- 10. New York: Columbia University dissertation. [Tennessee, North Carolina]. Study based on seventy-three recordings of "Arthur the Rat" story and on folk and local stories recorded between 1937 and 1940, covering stressed vowels, unstressed vowels, and consonants, but little attention to social variation. Reviews: R. I. McDavid, Jr. 1943. Language 19.184-95; A. H. Marckwardt. 1942. Quarterly Journal of Speech 28.487; L. Roberts. 1964. Mountain Life and Work 40.4.225; D. Whitelock. 1944. Year's Work in English Studies 23.28-29.

    • Harris, Alberta. 1948. Southern mountain dialect. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University thesis. Abstract in Louisiana State University Bulletin, n.s. 41.87 (1949). 116 pp. [Southern Appalachia, Ozarks, East Texas]. States there is little difference in pronunciation between three areas, based on evidence collected from personal observation, classroom teaching, published literature, and recordings made by author.

    • Hartman, Erika. 1981. The front vowels before r of the north-central states. Chicago: Illinois Institute of Technology dissertation. Abstract in Dissertation Abstracts International 42.3137A. [Includes Kentucky]. Discusses diminishing contrasts in phonemic system as revealed in Linguistic Atlas of the North Central States field records.

    • Kruse, Vernon David. 1972. The pronunciation of English in Kentucky, based on the records of the Linguistic Atlas of the North-Central states. Chicago: Illinois Institute of Technology dissertation. Abstract in Dissertation Abstracts International 33.4388A. Describes vowels of Kentucky speech, using binary analysis; includes chapter on methods of field work, informants, settlement history, and dialect areas.

    • Kurath, Hans, and Raven I. McDavid, Jr. 1961. The pronunciation of English in the Atlantic States. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. xi + 364 pp. 180 maps. Paperback edition 1982 published by University of Alabama Press. [Includes Maryland, West Virginia, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia]. Authoritative phonological demarcation of dialect areas based on field records of Linguistic Atlas of the Middle and South Atlantic States and Linguistic Atlas of New England interviews. Presents pronunciation of educated natives in series of seventy synoptic charts of pronunciation of individual speakers, detailed descriptions of how specific words are pronounced throughout the Atlantic states, and 180 large maps that show distribution of various pronunciations of key words. Reviews: W. S. Avis. 1965. Canadian Journal of Linguistics 11.63-70;  F. H. Beukema. 1967. Orbis 16.577-79; A. J. Bronstein. 1962. Quarterly Journal of Speech 68.440-41; R. M. Dorson. 1963. Ohio History 72.73-75; N. E. Eliason. 1962. South Atlantic Quarterly 61.121-22; T. Hill. 1962. Modern Language Review 58.624-25; S. J. Keyser. 1963. Language 39.303-16; L'Annee Sociologique. 1963. Ser. 3.531; Leuvense Bijdragen. 1963. 52.180-81; F. F. Lewis. 1962. Professional Geographer 14.35;  J. Y. Mather. 1963. Review of English Studies 14.216-18; J. E. Medcalf. 1962. Notes and Queries n.s. 9.402-03; G. Scherer. 1962. Beitrage zur Geschichte der Deutschen Sprache und Literatur 84; A. W. Stanforth. 1963-64. Zeitschrift fur Mundartforschung 30.374-75; B. Trnka. 1962. Philologica Pragensia 5.176-77;  B. Trnka. 1962. Casopis pro Moderni Filologii 44.188-90; E. T. Uldall. 1962. Le Maitre Phonetique 117.29-31; W. Viereck. 1967. Lebende Sprachen 12.58-59; R. M. Wilson. 1963. Year's Work in English Studies 42.51; K-H Wirzburger. 1966. Zeitschrift fur Anglistik und Amerikanistik 14.215-16.

    • McDavid, Raven I., Jr. 1943. Review of The phonetics of Great Smoky Mountain speech by Joseph S. Hall. Language 19.84-95. Extended review criticizing Hall's fieldwork and presentation of material.

    • McDavid, Raven I., Jr., and Virginia Glenn McDavid. 1952. h before semivowels in the Eastern United States. Language 28.41-62. Initial consonants in whip , whetstone , wheelbarrow , whinny , wharf , whoa , and humor in atlas records; includes Maryland, Virginia, West Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and East Georgia.

    • Morgan, Lucia C. 1970. The status of /r/ among North Carolina speakers. Essays in honor of Claude M. Wise, ed. by Arthur J. Bronstein, Claude L. Shaver, and C. Stevens, 167-86. New York: Speech Association of America. [120 Whites, 15 Blacks native to North Carolina, ages 5-87]. 21 maps. Analyzes regional and age differences in pronunciation of postvocalic /r/ within state.

    • Nicholas, Karl. 1982. Think you for the wedding rang. Southeastern Conference on Linguistics Review 6.131-37. [77 Whites, Western North Carolina; 25 Whites, Central North Carolina]. Finds raising of vowel before nasal in words like thank and sang is strong in lower working class mountain speech and is increasing in North Carolina Piedmont.

    • Pennington, Martha. 1973. A phonology of the speech of Floyd County, Georgia. Penn Review of Linguistics 1.1-12. [Northeast Georgia]. Detailed analysis of vowels in stressed syllables and sibilants and phonological processes affecting them.

    • Pennington, Martha Carswell. 1982. The story of "s" or everything you always wanted to know about sibilants but were afraid to ask. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania dissertation. Abstract in Dissertation Abstracts International 43.3585. [Rome, Georgia]. Investigates form and phonological and social distribution of sibilants in Rome area; finds that backing of some types of sibilants expresses "local and rural identity and solidarity, particularly among males," that these sibilants "may be an expression of an American country-western image and so may be increasing in frequency."

    • Reese, James Robert. 1983. Intonational variation in southern Appalachian English. Abstract in Newsletter of the American Dialect Society 15.2.5. Suggests computer analysis of pitch, stress, vowel length, and juncture can be used to identify and classify dialects in Southern Appalachian region.

    • Thomas, Charles Kenneth. 1939. A composite transcription from Knox County, Tennessee. American Speech 14.125-26; 15.85 (Feb. 1940). Composite transcription of twenty-six Knox County natives who were students at the University of Tennessee.

    • Wetmore, Thomas H. 1959. The low-central and low-back vowels in the English of the Eastern United States. Publication of the American Dialect Society 32. Abstract in Dissertation Abstracts International 18.1423. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan dissertation, 1957. Analyzes and describes low-central and low-back vowel phonemes, their phonic characteristics, and their incidence in the Eastern U.S., based on Linguistic Atlas of New England and Linguistic Atlas of the Middle and South Atlantic States field records. Includes W North Carolina, pp. 59-68. Reviews: M. L. Gateau. 1963. Word 18.362; C. K. Thomas. 1961. American Speech 36.201-03; K. Wittig. 1962. Anglia 80.161-64.

    • White, Dorothy. 1934. Improving the pronunciation of high school seniors. Morgantown: West Virginia University thesis. [West Virginia]. Discusses nonstandard pronunciations of supervisors, teachers, and students at university laboratory high school.

    • Williams, Cratis D. 1961. The "r" in mountain speech. Mountain Life and Work 37.5-8. Argues "a heavy r is a general characteristic" of Appalachian speech that sets "it apart, quantitatively rather than qualitatively, from that of other Southern and Midwestern groups descended from similar pioneer stock"; exemplifies epenthesis and other processes and discusses pronunciation of vowels and diphthongs before /r/.

    • Wise, Claude Merton. 1957. Applied phonetics. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall. Mountain speech, pp. 303-21. Presents inventories of phonetic and phonological features, with transcription exercises.

  5. GRAMMAR AND SYNTAX
    • Armstrong, Mary Sheila. l953. Survivals in Kentucky. American Speech 28.306-07. [Kentucky]. Reports compound adjectives like disgraceful indecent in novel by Kentuckian Harriet Arnow that are similar to Shakespearian usages.

    • Atwood, E. Bagby. l953. A survey of verb forms in the Eastern United States. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. [Maine to Northeast Florida]. Using records from Linguistic Atlas of New England and Linguistic Atlas of the Middle and South Atlantic States, details regional patterns in eighty-eight verb features, including principal parts, subject-verb agreement, negative constructions, infinitives, and modals.

    • Axley, Lowry. 1927. "You all" and "we all" again. American Speech 2.343-45. Comments on use of you'uns and you all ; says in lifetime of experience he has "never heard any person of any degree of education or station of life use the expression you all " as singular.

    • Axley, Lowry. 1928. West Virginia dialect. American Speech 3.456. Notes many items in Carey Woofter article that he finds in Savannah, Georgia.

    • Bergin, Kendall Russell. 1984. The relationship of English composition grades to oral (social) dialect: an analysis of dialectal and non-dialectal writing errors. Cultural language differences: their educational and clinical-professional implications, ed. by Sol Adler, pp. 29-43. Springfield, IL: Charles Thomas. [9 Blacks, 26 Whites, Univ. of Tennessee students]. Claims strong correlation between oral dialect use (based on instructor rating) and errors in written composition (based on Harbrace College Handbook ).

    • Blanton, Linda L. 1974. The verb system in Breathitt County, Kentucky: a sociolinguistic analysis. Chicago: Illinois Institute of Technology dissertation. Abstract in Dissertation Abstracts International 35.7888-89A. [22 speakers, East Kentucky]. Analyzes dialect patterns of subject-verb concord, auxiliary deletion, tense marking, and negation and finds all very frequent; concludes "that the verb system, as a whole, has undergone a great deal of morphological leveling."

    • Blanton, Linda L. 1975. The verb system in Breathitt County, Kentucky: a sociolinguistic analysis. Reviewed in Newsletter of the American Dialect Society 8.3.13. Finds disagreements in studies of Appalachian English in West Virginia and Kentucky and reasons to doubt such an entity as Appalachian English exists.

    • Blanton, Linda. 1977. How nonstandard is "Appalachian English"?  Abstract in Newsletter of the American Dialect Society 9.3.7-8. Argues that most previous descriptions of Appalachian speech were distorted by focusing on only nonstandard forms, and claims that for grammatical categories Appalachian speech is far less nonstandard than generally thought.

    • Butters, Ronald R., and Kristin Stettler. 1986. Causative and existential "have ... to." American Speech 61.184-90. [57 Duke University students]. Finds structure used almost exclusively by Southerners and South Midlanders and less by females than males.

    • Christian, Donna. 1975. Non-participle "done" and non-productive classification. Eric Document 116 499. 26 pp. Examines proposals for classifying auxiliary done and, using data from Appalachian English, says that both semantic information (perfectiveness) and pragmatic information (emphasis) must be added to the syntactic information before classifying it.

    • Christian, Donna M. 1978. Aspects of verb usage in Appalachian speech. Washington: Georgetown University dissertation. Abstract in Dissertation Abstracts International 39.7317A. [26 Males, 26 Females, ages 7-93, Southern West Virginia]. Examines patterns in irregular verb principal parts and subject-verb concord and provides evidence for language change in progress. Classifies verbs with nonstandard principal parts into five categories and finds nonstandard subject-verb concord "occurs only with plural subjects, with the exception of the item `don't'."

    • Christian, Donna. 1982. The personal dative in Appalachian speech. Abstract in Newsletter of the American Dialect Society 14.3.6. [West Virginia]. Describes characteristics of personal dative and compares it to for -dative construction.

    • Coleman, William L. 1975. Multiple modals in Southern states English. Bloomington: Indiana University dissertation. Abstract in Dissertation Abstracts International 36.2174-75A. Using quantitative analysis and implicational scaling, identifies three regional patterns of multiple modal variation in North Carolina with range of acceptable modal combinations increasing from east to west.

    • Coleman, William L. 1975. Regional distribution of double modals usage in North Carolina. Abstract in Newsletter of the American Dialect Society 8.3.10. [179 informants from North Carolina, mostly from Piedmont area]. Uses implicational scales to show how acceptability of double-modal constructions is regionally distributed.

    • Dietrich, Julia C. 1981. The Gaelic roots of a -prefixing in Appalachian English. American Speech 56.314. Says form reported by Wolfram derives from Gaelic verbal noun construction and results "not from a careless handling of English grammar but from a careful preservation of Scottish Gaelic grammar, learned generations ago and applied to English long before the migration to America."

    • Feagin, Louise C[rawford]. 1976. A sociolinguistic study of Alabama white English: the verb phrase in Anniston. 2 vols. Washington: Georgetown University dissertation. Abstract in Dissertation Abstracts International 38.3445A. Published in abridged form as Feagin 1979 below.

    • Feagin, Crawford. 1979. Variation and change in Alabama English: a sociolinguistic study of the white community. Washington: Georgetown University Press. Foreword by William Labov. 395 pp. [67 urban, 15 rural, 34 teenagers; 5 middle aged, 43 older; 44 Females, 38 Males, Anniston, Alabama]. Monumental analysis of linguistic and social (class, urban/rural, age, gender) constraints on features of verb phrase (tense, aspect, person- number agreement, modality, negation, etc.) in white speech in Anniston, Alabama, comparing it to black and to British speech. Reviews: R. Butters. 1981. Language 57.735-38; B. Davis. 1982. Language in Society 11.139-41; T. C. Frazer. 1980. Journal of English Linguistics 14.41-44; R. McDavid, Jr. 1982. English World-Wide 2.99-110; J. B. McMillan. 1980. Southeastern Conference on Linguistics Bulletin 4.86-88;  M. I. Miller. 1981. American Speech 56.288-95; B. Rigsby. 1981. Australian Journal of Linguistics 1.122- 27; H. Ulherr. 1982. Anglia 100.484-85;  H. B. Woods. 1981. Canadian Journal of Linguistics 26.250-51.

    • Hackenberg, Robert G. 1973. Appalachian English: a sociolinguistic study. Washington: Georgetown University dissertation. Abstract in Dissertation Abstracts International 33.6893A. [39 speakers, Nicholas County, West Virginia]. Finds subject-verb concord is grammatical feature with most nonstandard forms, subject relative pronoun deletion is heavily favored by existential there , and a -prefixing "is most likely to occur when there is a stress on the duration of the action"; provides rough correlations of nonstandard forms with educational and occupational indexes.

    • Hackenberg, Robert. 1977. Language variation in Appalachia. Abstract in Newsletter of the American Dialect Society 9.3.9. [75 speakers in Nicholas County, West Virginia]. Finds that nonstandard subject-verb agreement and nonstandard subject relative pronoun deletion correlate with social class of speakers.

    • Hills, E. C. 1926. The plural forms of "you." American Speech 2.133. Notes you all used by cultivated speakers in Florida and North Carolina, you'uns used by uncultivated speakers in North Carolina and Tennessee mountains.

    • Kenny, Hamill. 1935. "To" in West Virginia. American Speech 10.314-15. Preposition equivalent to stative at and equivalent to with /under in phrase take a course to a professor .

    • Kester, Barbara D. 1986. Appalachian and urban grammatical patterns: a note on standardized tests. Ohio University Working Papers in Linguistics and Language Teaching 8.58-62.

    • McDavid, Raven I., Jr., and Virginia G. McDavid. 1964. Plurals of nouns of measure in the United States. Studies in languages and linguistics in honor of Charles C. Fries, ed. by Albert H. Marchwardt, pp. 271-301. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan English Language Institute. 12 maps. Examines distribution of zero plurals of seven nouns (including foot , pound , and bushel ) in Linguistic Atlas of New England, Linguistic Atlas of the Middle and South Atlantic States, Linguistic Atlas of the Noth Central States, and Linguistic Atlas of the Upper Midwest data; finds regional variation more significant than social variation and no black-white differences at all.

    • McDavid, Raven I., Jr. and Virginia G. McDavid. 1986. Kentucky verb forms. Language variety in the South: perspectives in black and white, ed. by Michael Montgomery and Guy Bailey, pp. 264-93. University: University of Alabama Press. Details social and regional distribution of variant principal parts for thirty-eight strong verbs among Linguistic Atlas of the North Central States informants in Kentucky; compares patterns to Linguistic Atlas of the Middle and South Atlantic States and Linguistic Atlas of New England data.

    • McDavid, Virginia Glenn. 1958. Verb forms of the north central states and upper midwest. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota dissertation. Includes Kentucky data.

    • McDavid, Virginia G[lenn]. 1977. The social distribution of selected verb forms in the Linguistic Atlas of the North Central states. James B. McMillan: essays in linguistics by his friends and colleagues, ed. by James C. Raymond and I. Willis Russell, pp. 41-50. University: University of Alabama Press. Examines principal parts for ten strong verbs in Linguistic Atlas of the North Central States; finds "a generally lower use of standard forms" and "a higher use of relic forms" in Kentucky.

    • Miles, Celia H. 1980. Selected verb features in Haywood County, North Carolina: a generational study. Indiana, PA: Indiana University of Pennsylvania dissertation. Abstract in Dissertation Abstracts International 41.2089A. [30 speakers, ages 10-75, Western North Carolina]. Studies retention of older verb forms such as a -prefixing and variation in principal parts of twenty-four irregular verbs in three generations and finds that "while the dialect is not preserving older forms to any large extent, it is maintaining a high degree of nonstandard usage in irregular verb forms."

    • Montgomery, Michael B. 1978. Left dislocation: its nature in Appalachian speech. Southeastern Conference on Linguistics Bulletin 2.55-61. [20 Whites, Southern West Virginia]. Using data from W. Wolfram-D. Christian study, shows functions and varieties of patterns in which left dislocation occurs.

    • Montgomery, Michael B. 1979. A discourse analysis of expository Appalachian English. Gainesville: University of Florida dissertation. Abstract in Dissertation Abstracts International 40.5036A. [18 Males, 22 Females, ages 16-87, East Tennessee]. Studies distribution and discourse functions of grammatical and rhetorical devices such as left dislocation, deictic pronouns, and conjunctions.

    • Montgomery, Michael B. 1979. The discourse organization of explanatory Appalachian speech. Papers of the 1978 Mid-America Linguistics Conference, ed. by Ralph E. Cooley, et al., pp. 293-302. Norman: University of Oklahoma. Excerpt of preceding item. [18 Males, 22 Females, ages 16-87, East Tennessee]. Examines patterning of left dislocation and other syntactic patterns for presenting new information in discourse.

    • Montgomery, Michael B. 1980. Inchoative verbs in East Tennessee English. Southeastern Conference on Linguistics Bulletin 4.77-85. [40 Whites, East Tennessee]. Study of syntax and semantics of verbs go to , get to , and get to be .

    • Montgomery, Michael B. 1983. The functions of left dislocation in spontaneous discourse. The ninth LACUS forum, ed. by John Morreall, pp. 425-32. Columbia, SC: Hornbeam Press. Excerpt of Montgomery dissertation showing subtleties of syntactic patterning of left dislocation.

    • Montgomery, Michael. 1999. A superlative complex in Appalachian English. The SECOL Review 23.1-14

    • Perry, Louise Sublette. 1941. A study of the pronoun "hit" in Grassy Branch, North Carolina. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University thesis. [62 speakers, ages 5-87, Western North Carolina]. 58 pp. Says that aspirated variant of it appears most commonly in initial positions, after a pause, and in stressed and emphatic contexts, and it is used primarily by older and less educated speakers.

    • Underwood, Gary N. 1983. Mid-South, midwestern teachers, and middle-of-the-road textbooks. Black English: educational equity and the law, ed. by John Chambers, Jr., pp. 81-96. Ann Arbor, MI: Karoma. Examines ten common syntactic features in the "Mid-South" (Kentucky, Tennessee, Arkansas, Southern Missouri) that are socially marked when speakers move to Midwest, and finds features are rarely mentioned in school textbooks.

    • Vincent, Opal. 1945. Certain language habits and needs of the senior class of Harrisville high school. Morgantown: West Virginia University thesis. Studies nonstandard usage of verbs and pronouns.

    • Whitley, M. Stanley. 1975. Dialectal syntax: plurals and modals in Southern American. Linguistics 161.89-108. Investigates patterns of modals and associative pronouns in Southern English and their relation to phrase structure rules of other American English dialect systems; concludes that Southern English and other systems can all be classified as dialects of one language.

    • Williams, Cratis D. 1962. Verbs in mountain speech. Mountain Life and Work 38.15-19. Discusses verb principal parts and says that the "primitive strength of mountaineer speech is exerted largely in verbs and the spare economy with which they function."

    • Williams, Cratis D. 1964. Prepositions in mountain speech. Mountain Life and Work 40.53-55. Says mountain speakers rely heavily on prepositions to express themselves rather than Latinate words and that mountain grammar tends not to have "distinctions between prepositions and subordinate conjunctives and, frequently, relative pronouns."

    • Wilson, Gordon. 1967. Studying folklore in a small region XII: some folk grammar. Tennessee Folklore Society Bulletin 33.27-35. [Mammoth Cave, Kentucky]. Survey of noun, pronoun, and other morphological features from W Kentucky, gleaned from freshman compositions and from lifetime of personal observation.

    • Wolfram, Walt. 1976. Toward a description of "a"-prefixing in Appalachian English. American Speech 51.45-56. [100 + children and adults, Southern West Virginia]. Examines syntactic properties, phonological constraints, and semantic aspects of prefix; finds that it occurs mainly with -ing progressive verbs and before stressed syllables beginning with a consonant and that it has no apparent semantic content of indefiniteness or remoteness (contrary to Stewart or of continuousness or intermittentness (contrary to Hackenberg).

    • Wolfram, Walt. 1980. "A"-prefixing in Appalachian English. Locating language in time and space, ed. by William Labov, pp. 107-42. New York: Academic Press. [Southern West Virginia]. Detailed analysis of syntactic and phonological constraints on use of prefix; finds no evidence for semantic content.

    • Wolfram, Walt. 1982. Language knowledge and other dialects. American Speech 57.3-18. Theoretical essay examining how accurately nonnative speakers of a- prefixing and distributive be judge syntactic constraints for these features, in attempt to support view that speakers may have more than one grammar for different styles of their language.

  6. PLACE NAME STUDIES
    • Anonymous. 1957. Buncombe--talking to Buncombe. North Carolina Folklore 5.2.23.

    • Anonymous. 1967. Place name origins. Foxfire 1.62-72.

    • Cornett, Terry. 1978. Local place-names are interesting. Mountain memories 11.14-16 (Spring-Summer).

    • Craig, Marjorie. 1946. Western North Carolina place-names. North Carolina English Teacher 3.3.12-15.

    • Fink, Paul M. 1951. Some East Tennessee place names. Tennessee Folklore Society Bulletin 7.40-50.

    • Fink, Paul M. 1972. That's why they call it ...: the names and lore of the Great Smokies. Gatlinburg, TN: Great Smoky Mountains Natural History Association.

    • Fink, Paul M. and Mylon H. Avery. 1937. The nomenclature of the Great Smoky Mountains. East Tennessee Historical Society Publications 9.53-64.

    • Fullerton, Ralph. 1974. Place names of Tennessee. Bulletin 73, State of Tennessee Department of Conservation, Division of Geology. Nashville.

    • Ivey, Mike. 1986. A rose by another name is a damned brier. Appalachian Heritage 14.3.

    • Kardos, Andy. 1982-83. What's in a place name? Milepost IV.2.1.

    • Kay, Donald. 1974. British influence on Kentucky municipal place names. Kentucky Folklore Record 20.9-13.

    • Kay, Donald. 1974. Municipal British-received place names in Tennessee. Appalachian Journal 2.78-80.

    • Kegley, Mary B. 1985. Names in the New River Valley (Virginia). Proceedings New River Symposium April 11-13, 1985, Pipestem, West Virginia.

    • Kenny, Hamill. 1945. West Virginia place names: their origin and meaning, including the nomenclature of the streams and mountains. Piedmont, WV: Place Name Press.

    • Montgomery, James R. 1956. The nomenclature of the upper Tennessee River. East Tennessee Historical Society Publications 28.46-57. Reprinted in East Tennessee Historical Society Publication 51.151-62 (1979).

    • Rennick, Robert M. 1985. Traditional accounts of some Eastern Kentucky place names. Appalachian Notes 13.2-17.

    • Rennick, Robert M. 1987. Some Pike County names: Leonard Roberts' contributions to the Kentucky place name survey. Appalachian Heritage 15.2.51.55.

    • Rennick, Robert M. 1988. Place name derivations are not always what they seem. Appalachian Heritage 16.1.50-62. [Kentucky].

    • Still, James A. 1929-30. Place names in the Cumberland mountains. American Speech 5.113.

    • United States Geographic Board. 1934. Decisions June 30, 1932. Great Smoky Mountain National Park North Carolina and Tennessee. Number 28. Washington: Government Printing Office. 46 pp.

    • United States Geographic Board. 1934. Decisions rendered April 5, 1933. Shenandoah National Park Virginia. Number 35. Washington: Government Printing Office. 13 pp.

    • United States Geographic Board. 1934. Decisions rendered April 5, 1933. Names in the vicinity of Shenandoah National Park Virginia. Number 36. Washington: Government Printing Office. 4 pp.

    • Walls, David S. 1977. On the naming of Appalachia. An Appalachian symposium, ed. by J. S. Williamson. pp. 56-76. Boone, NC: Appalachian Consortium.

    • West Virginia Heritage Foundation, comp. and ed. 1967. Origin of place names in West Virginia. West Virginia heritage volume one. Richwood, West Virginia.

  7. PERSONAL AND MISCELLANEOUS NAMES
    • Combs, Josiah H. 1976. Combs: a study in comparative philology and genealogy. Pensacola, FL: Privately printed. Traces naming patterns in Combs family since 18th century.

    • Dunlap, Fayette. 1913. A tragedy of surnames. Dialect Notes 4.7-8. On Americanization of family names of early settlers from Pennsylvania in Boyle County, Kentucky.

    • Gaskins, Avery F. 1970. The epithet "Guinea" in central West Virginia. Philological Papers 17.41-44. Presents accounts of origin of term as it has become applied to isolated triracial group in Barbour and Taylor counties, West Virginia.

    • McAtee, W. L. 1957. Folk names of birds in Kentucky. Kentucky Warbler 33.27-37. Lists common, folk, and scientific names for birds in state.

    • Mockler, William Emmett Morgan. 1955. The surnames of trans-Allegheny VA: 1750-1800. Columbus: Ohio State University dissertation. Abstract in Dissertation Abstracts International 16.960A. Investigates etymology and phonology of surnames of early West Virginia north of the Kanawha, based on official public records, and includes dictionary. Reprinted in 1973 as West Virginia Surnames: the Pioneers. Parsons, WV: West Virginia Dialect Society. 197 pp. Reviews: Raven I. McDavid, Jr. 1974. American Speech 49.149-51;  Elsdon C. Smith. 1975. Names 23.53.

    • Mockler, William E. 1956. Surnames of Trans-Allegheny Virginia, 1750-1800. Names 4.1-17. Part II, Names 4.96-118 (1957). Based on preceding item.

    • Reed, Louis. 1967. Family names. Warning in Appalachia: a study of Wirt County, West Virginia, pp. 15-32. Morgantown: West Virginia University Library.

    • Sizer, Miriam M. 1933. Christian names in the Blue Ridge of Virginia. American Speech 8.2.34-37. Finds "little conscious attempt to preserve in Christian names the family relationship of different individuals."

    • Skinner, James C. 1986. Nicknames, coal miners and group solidarity. Names 34.134-45. [33 White Males, 6 White Females]. Surveys prevalence and functions of nicknames at four West Virginia and two Southwest Virginia coal mines.

    • Still, James A. 1930. Christian names in the Cumberlands. American Speech 5.306-07. Principal sourcs of given names and unusual naming practices.

    • Wilson, Gordon. 1970-71. Origins of the people of the Mammoth Cave region as shown by their surnames and regional words. Kentucky Folklore Record 16.73-78, surnames.

    • Winkler, J. S. 1972. Whence the name Dula? One plausibility. North Carolina Folklore 22.84-86.

    • Zelinsky, Wilbur. 1970. Cultural variation in personal name patterns in the Eastern United States. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 60.743-69. Finds regional patterns in choice of given names, which confirm "the existence of three basic early American culture areas: New England, the Midland, and the South." Based on frequency of principal male names in sixteen selected counties in Eastern U.S. in 1790 and 1968.

  8. FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE, EXAGGERATIONS, AND WORD-PLAY
    • Adams, Henry J. 1976. Speech patterns. Tennessee Folklore Society Bulletin 41.70-71. 104 figures of speech from Georgia, Alabama, Tennessee, and Kentucky.

    • Berry, Pearlleen D., and Mary Eva Repass, compilers. n.d. Granpa says ... superstitions and sayings from Eastern Kentucky, pp. 18-22. Fredericksburg, VA: Foxhound Enterprises. Cites sayings and idioms.

    • Blair, Marion E. 1938. The prevalence of older English proverbs in Blount County, Tennessee. Tennessee Folklore Society Bulletin 4.1-24. [34 natives, East Tennessee]. Investigates how many proverbs prevalent before 1500 are recognized by heterogeneous group of Blount County, TN, natives.

    • Boshears, Frances, and Herbert Halpert. 1954. Proverbial comparisons from an East Tennessee county. Tennessee Folklore Society Bulletin 20.27-41. [East Tennessee]. List of 1045 comparisons compiled in Scott County

    • Boswell, George W. 1972. Tongue twisters and a few other examples of linguistic folklore. Kentucky Folklore Record 18.49-51. Three dozen folk expressions, mostly tongue twisters, from Mississippi and Kentucky.

    • Broadrick, Estelle D. 1978. Old folks sayings and home-cures. Tennessee Folklore Society Bulletin 44.35-36. One dozen proverbial sayings.

    • Clarke, Mary Washington. 1965. Proverbs, proverbial phrases, and proverbial comparisons in the writings of Jesse Stuart. Southern Folklore Quarterly 29.142-63. Glossary.

    • Eastridge, Nancy Emilia. 1939. Common comparisons and folk sayings. A study of folklore in Adair County, Kentucky, 114-34. Nashville: George Peabody College thesis. Anecdotal discussion of similes and list of 155 "epithets used to show surprise, anger, disgust, or unhappiness."

    • Halpert, Herbert. 1945. Grapevine Warp an' Tobacco Stick Fillin'. Southern Folklore Quarterly 9.223-28. Songs, rimes, and sayings, most from Kentucky.

    • Halpert, Herbert. 1951. A pattern of proverbial exaggeration from West Kentucky. Midwest Folklore 1.41-47. A glossary.

    • Halpert, Herbert. 1956. Some Wellerisms from Kentucky and Tennessee. Journal of American Folklore 69.115-22. Sixty-two specimens, most from Kentucky and Tennessee.

    • Hamilton, Kim, and Dana Holcomb. 1979. Ole time expressions. Foxfire 13.1.69-72. [Northeast Georgia]. List of similes collected by high school students from their grandparents.

    • Roberts, Leonard. 1952. Additional exaggerations from East Kentucky. Midwest Folklore 2.163-66. Ninety-four items listed in order "to show some insight into the way of life in the hilly, dissected third of the state, where the hills rise from choked valleys on a forty-five degree angle to sharp ridges."

    • Rogers, E. G. 1950. Figurative language the folkway. Tennessee Folklore Society Bulletin 16.71-75. Catalogs folk similes in eleven classes and presents list metaphors, synecdoche, and hyperboles.

    • Rogers, E. G. 1953. Some East Tennessee figurative exaggerations. Tennessee Folklore Society Bulletin 19.36-40. List of ninety exaggerations heard in East Tennessee.

    • Taylor, Archer. 1962. Proverbial comparisons and similes in On Troublesome Creek . Kentucky Folklore Record 8.87-95. Figures of speech in James Still novel, set in Kentucky.

    • Wilkerson, Isabelle Jeanette. 1963. A compilation of the proverbial expressions in the works of Charles Egbert Craddock. Knoxville: University of Tennessee thesis. Classifies material into twenty-eight categories.

    • Williams, Cratis D. 1962. Metaphor in mountain speech. Mountain Life and Work 38.9,11-12. Reprinted in Bobbs-Merrill Series, Language-100. Says "speech of Southern Mountaineers bristles with strong language, pungent metaphors, vivid similes, and vigorous personifications" and discusses social uses of these figures of speech; says similes far outnumber all other types of figurative expressions.

    • Williams, Cratis D. 1963. Metaphor in mountain speech. Mountain Life and Work 39.1.50-53. Discusses figures of speech and traditional expressions for characterizing great physical strength, unusual courage, honesty, strength of convictions, and other personal traits in Southern Appalachian speech.

    • Williams, Cratis D. 1963. Metaphor in mountain speech. Mountain Life and Work 39.2.51-53. Discusses and exemplifies exaggerations used in Southern mountains.

    • Wilson, Gordon. 1956. Down our way: tell us what it's like. Kentucky Folklore Record 2.1-3. Sample similes based on ten adjectives such as big , crooked , etc.

    • Wilson, Gordon. 1965. Proverbial lore. Tennessee Folklore Society Bulletin 31.99-104. [Western Kentucky]. Classified list of proverbs from Mammoth Cave region.

    • Wilson, Gordon. 1968. Similes from the Mammoth Cave region with a farm flavor. Kentucky Folklore Record 14.44-50; 14.69-75; 14.94-99. [Western Kentucky].

    • Woodbridge, Hensley C. 1957. Folklore in the works of Janice Holt Giles. Kentucky Historical Society Register 55.330-37. [Kentucky]. Includes brief comments on similes.

    • Woodson, Anthony. 1925. Kentucky similes. Kentucky Folklore Bulletin, pp. 8-11. Classification of more than hundred similes based on comparisons to vegetables, animals, and minerals.

  9. LITERARY DIALECT
    • Blair, Walter, and Raven I. McDavid, Jr. 1983. The mirth of a nation: America's great dialect humor. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Anthology of 19th-century dialect fiction writers; includes "Linguistic Note" (pp. 279-83) by McDavid explaining editorial alteration of dialect to make stories more readable. Reviews: K. B. Harder. 1983. Tennessee Folklore Society Bulletin 49.47;  R. Higgs. 1983. Appalachian Journal 10.379-85; M. Dunne. 1984. Southeastern Conference on Linguistics Review 8.74-75;  L. Pederson. 1984. Journal of English Linguistics 17.97-102; R. B. Shulman. 1984. American Speech 59.365-67.

    • Boykin, Carol. 1965. Sut's speech: the dialect of a 'nat'ral borned mountaineer. The Lovingood Papers 4.36-42. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press. Reviews arguments over authenticity and purposes of George Washington Harris' portrayal of Sut Lovingood's speech and analyzes Harris' use of spelling to represent dialect pronunciation and Harris' use of dialect grammar and local terms and figurs of speech.

    • Boykin, Carol D. 1966. A study of the phonology, morphology, and vocabulary of George Washington Harris' Sut Lovingood yarns. Knoxville: University of Tennessee thesis. v + 71 pp. Thorough study of dialect patterns in Harris' fiction; says Harris was "careful, accurate craftsman" in rendering East Tennessee dialect and indulged in eye dialect much less than his contemporaries.

    • Clarke, Mary Washington. 1960. Folklore of the Cumberlands as reflected in the writings of Jesse Stuart. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania dissertation.

    • Clarke, Mary Washington. 1963. As Jesse Stuart heard it in Kentucky. Kentucky Folklore Record 9.85-86. Folk expressions in Stuart's writings.

    • Curtis, Jay L. 1942. The dialect writing of Charles Egbert Craddock in the light of the author's background. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina thesis.

    • Dunn, Durwood. 1979. Mary Noialles Murfree: a reappraisal. Appalachian Journal 6.197-206. P. 201, discusses early critical reception of author's portrayal of mountain speech.

    • Edwards, Dorothy E. 1935. The dialect of the southern highlander as recorded in North Carolina novels. Rochester, NY: University of Rochester thesis. Discussion of Olive Dargon, Paul Green, DuBose Heyward.

    • Hall, Wade. 1970. "The truth is funny": a study of Jesse Stuart's humor. Eric Document 048 250. 79 pp. Also appears in Indiana English Journal 5.2-4. Examines ways Stuart uses material from his own life and observations as subject matter in his fiction, and focuses on Stuart's use of dialect and natural metaphors of folk speech.

    • Inge, M. Thomas. 1977. The Appalachian backgrounds of Billy de Beck's Snuffy Smith. Appalachian Journal 4.120-32. Pp. 122-23, discusses George Washington Harris as primary source of de Beck portrayal of Snuffy Smith's speech.

    • Landrum, Louise M. 1930. A study of Kentucky mountain dialect based on Lucy Furman's Quare Women . Lexington: University of Kentucky thesis. 74 pp. [Knott County]. Study of peculiarities of speech of East Kentucky mountains.

    • McClure, Paul E. 1979. Dialectal variation in the work of Harry Stillwell Edwards. Abstract in Newsletter of the American Dialect Society 11.3.6. Says McClure portrays many different types of dialects in his fiction.

    • Mitchell, Ruth D. 1963. A study of Smoky Mountain regional speech as used in Lanier's Tiger Lilies . Columbia: University of South Carolina thesis. 117 pp. Detailed analysis of phonology, vocabulary, and grammar used in Lanier's story set in East Tennessee and comparison of findings with linguistic research of Joseph Hall, Lester Berrey, Horace Kephart, James Tidwell, and linguistic studies.

    • Nickell, Joe. 1984. Hillbilly talk: Southern Appalachian speech as literary dialect in the writings of Mary Noailles Murfree. Appalachian Heritage 12.3.37-45.

    • Schrock, Earl F. Jr. 1971. An examination of the dialect in This Day and Time . Tennessee Folklore Society Bulletin 37.31-39. [Sullivan County, Tennessee]. Examines validity of representation of dialect in Anne Armstrong's novel by comparing lexical and grammatical features to author's own ongoing research in area in 1970s. Reprinted in R. J. Higgs, and Ambrose N. Manning, eds. 1977. Voices from the hills: selected readings of Southern Appalachia, 460-73. New York: Ungar.

    • Snyder, Bob. 1978. Colonial mimesis and the Appalachian renascence. Appalachian Journal 5.340-49. Pp. 346-47, says liveliness and freshness of Appalachian writers comes from these qualities in the region's speech patterns.

    • Williams, Cratis D. 1975-76. The southern mountaineer in fact and fiction. Appalachian Journal 3.8-61,100-62,186-261,334-92. Pp. 101-02, discusses James Hall's handling of dialect in Harpe's Head: a Legend of Kentucky and Carroline M. S. Kirkland's handling of dialect in his A New Home--Who'll Follow? or, Glimpses of Western Life .

    • Wilson, George P. 1961. Lois Lenski's use of regional speech. North Carolina Folklore 9.2.1-3. Defends North Carolina regional novelist's use of dialect in her children's novels.

    • Woody, Lester G. 1980. On dialect and style in the work of some Appalachian writers. Abstract in Newsletter of the American Dialect Society 12.3.8. Details how treatment of mountain dialect by Apppalachian writers has evolved since mid-19th century, when extreme eye dialect was prevalent, to present.

  10. LANGUAGE ATTITUDES AND SPEECH PERCEPTION
    • Coleman, William L. 1978. Sociolinguistic aspects of language attitudes towards Southern American English. Abstract in Newsletter of the American Dialect Society 11.1.12. [250 adults, North Carolina]. Measures attitudes toward nonstandard Southern, standard Southern, and "Network English" with respect to sex of speaker and sex, education, and age of judge.

  11. SPEECH ACT AND STYLE
    • Alderman, Pat. 1972. Mountain hollerin. In the shadow of Big Bald: about the Appalachians and their people, p. 64. Jonesboro, TN: Tri-Cities Press.

    • Krapp, George Philip. 1925. [Rhetoric of Kentucky]. The English language in America, vol. 2, pp. 297-306. New York: Ungar. Discusses development of folk tradition of exuberant, exaggerated, and picturesque style in Kentucky and Old Southwest region in first half of 19th century.

    • Rosenberg, Bruce A. 1970. The art of the American folk preacher. New York: Oxford University Press. Based on fieldwork in North Carolina, Virginia, Kentucky, and California.

    • Stewart, Kathleen Claire. 1987. Narrative Appalachia. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan dissertation. Abstract in DAI 48.429A.

  12. BIBLIOGRAPHIES
    • Appalachian bibliography. 1980. Morgantown, WV: West Virginia University Library.

    • Goehring, Eleanor E. 1982. Speech, proverbs, and names. Tennessee folk culture: an annotated bibliography, pp. 69-79. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press.

    • Kennedy, Arthur G. 1927. American sectional dialects. Bibliography of writings on the English language, from the beginning of printing to the end of 1922, pp. 413-16. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University. Reissued 1961.

    • Lee, Ann Morton. 1980. An annotated bibliography of southern mountain speech. Johnson City, TN: East Tennessee State University thesis.

    • Pederson, Lee. 1968. An annotated bibliography of Southern states. Atlanta: Southeastern Educational Library Monograph no. 1. Has 190 items, many annotated.

    • Ross, Charlotte T., ed. 1976. Bibliography of southern Appalachia. Boone, NC: Appalachian Consortium Press.

    • Woodbridge, Hensley C. 1958. A tentative bibliography of Kentucky speech. Publication of the American Dialect Society 30.17-37. Includes references to local magazines and newspapers.

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