Annotated Bibliography on Appalachian English
on James B. McMillan and Michael B. Montgomery, Annotated Bibliography of
Southern American English. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1989.)
- GENERAL STUDIES (Includes
works overlapping sections 3-12 below.)
- HISTORICAL STUDIES
- PHONOLOGY AND PHONETICS
- GRAMMAR AND SYNTAX
- PLACE NAME STUDIES
- PERSONAL AND MISCELLANEOUS NAMES
- FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE, EXAGGERATIONS, AND WORD-PLAY
- LITERARY DIALECT
- LANGUAGE ATTITUDES AND SPEECH PERCEPTION
- SPEECH ACT AND STYLE
- GENERAL STUDIES
(includes works overlapping sections 3-12)
Frazier B. 1970. Colloquial speech forms. Appalachia revisited: how people
lived fifty years ago, pp. 47-49. Ashland, KY: Economy. Brief presentation of
archaisms. Review: C. S. Guthrie.
1970. Kentucky Folklore Record 16.81.
letter to teachers ... 1974. Mountain Call 1.3,5 (Aug.-Sept.). Says teachers
should emphasize that mountain dialect is not backward.
Harriet Simpson. 1963. The sounds of humankind. Flowering of the Cumberland,
pp. 121-55. New York: Macmillan. Descriptive essay by novelist on range of
language and verbal activity in Cumberland mountains.
Charles-James N. 1968. Is there a "midland" dialect of American
English? Eric Document 021 240. 7
pp. Opposes term "South Midland" as used by Linguistic Atlas writers
and claims preponderance of phonological and grammatical evidence groups region
encompassing most of South Carolina with the South rather than with the
Charles-James N. 1973. Variation and linguistic theory. Arlington, VA: Center
for Applied Linguistics. viii + 162 pp. Presents new "dynamic
paradigm" for describing direction and rate of linguistic change and
variation using a wave model; analysis based mainly on phonological data, with
many examples from Southern English. Reviews: R. R. Butters. 1976. Language
Sciences 40.32-36; V. Heeschen.
1976. Anthropos 71.298-99; A. S.
Kaye. 1981. American Speech 56.236-38; J. Sherzer. 1975. American Anthropologist 77.667- 68; E. C. Traugott. 1976. Language
52.502-06; W. Wolfram. 1977.
General Linguistics 17.178-85.
Charles-James N. 1973. The patterning of language variation. Varieties of
present-day English, ed. by Richard W. Bailey and Jay L. Robinson, pp. 156-86.
New York: Macmillan. Theoretical essay synopsizing author's wave model for
language variation and change.
Joan Smith. 1971. Southern Appalachian non-standard speech in conflict with the
standard English of the classroom. Johnson City: East Tennessee State
University thesis. 50 pp. [65 high school students, 59 Male, 6 Female, with
composition problems, East Tennessee]. Explores ways to improve attitudes of
failureprone speakers of Appalachian English toward their language.
Lewis David. 1940. Language and beliefs. Folklore of Macon County, Tennessee,
pp. 52-63. Nashville: George Peabody College thesis. [North Central Tennessee].
Informal survey of unusual speech, especially lexical items.
Laura E., and Ruth A. Garvin. 1984. Development of private speech among
low-income Appalachian children. Developmental Psychology 20.271-86. [East
Kentucky, 36 children ages 5-10]. Private speech is defined as that spoken
aloud for self-guidance, which is held to be crucial for intellectual
Lester V. 1940. Southern mountain dialect. American Speech 15.45- 54. General
features of Appalachian phonology, morphology, syntax, dialect subregions.
Linda. 1985. Southern Appalachia: social considerations of speech. Toward a
social history of American English, by J. L. Dillard, pp. 73-90. The Hague:
Mouton. Argues for existence of identifiable dialect called Southern
Appalachian English "on the basis of cultural solidarity, the boundaries
of this dialect [being] more social, more cultural, than geographical";
also argues that the dialect is composed of two varieties--a standard and a
nonstandard, both of which have features socially stigmatized by other speakers
of American English.
Linda. 1989. Mountain English. Encyclopedia of Southern culture, ed. by William
Ferris and Charles Wilson. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
Short essay discussing nature and major grammatical features of Southern
Appalachian and Ozark speech.
Dina. 1983. The need for a descriptive study of Appalachian children's language
development. Abstract in Critical essays in Appalachian Life and Culture:
Proceedings of the Fifth Annual Apalachian Studies Conference, ed. by Rick
Simon, 108. Boone, NC: Appalachian Consortium. Says lack of research on
children's language patterns in Appalachia "poses a grave problem for
language assessment and educational planning in the region."
George Foot. 1939. A study of an Appalachian dialect. Gainesville: University
of Florida thesis. 119 pp. [6 Male, 2 Female, ages 20s-90+, Broad River Valley,
Western North Carolina]. Surveys pronunciation and vocabulary.
George W. 1951. An abstract of reciprocal influences of text and tune in the
southern traditional ballad. Nashville: George Peabody College dissertation.
George W. 1971. Class competition in Kentucky dialect study. Kentucky Folklore
Record 17.48-52. [Northeast Kentucky]. Discusses generational differences in
familiarity with archaic terms, with particular reference to thirteen items;
finds greatest difference between 15-25 and 25-50 age groups.
Blanche S. 1940. Study of a dialect employed by the people of Kentucky
mountains and presented through a group of original short stories. Manhattan:
Kansas State University thesis. 250 pp. Discussion of East Kentucky speech by
school-teacher who cites forms from fiction to exemplify local patterns.
Elizabeth S. 1938. Land of high horizons. Kingsport, TN: Southern. Pp. 45-47,
discusses general qualities of mountain speech.
Paul D., and Jeutonne Brewer. 1977. Dialect clash in America: issues and
answers. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow. Same as Eric Document 144 068. Appalachian
Amerenglish, pp. 251-311. Mainly for teachers, this chapter synopsizes
settlement and cultural history of the region and gives a non-technical sketch
of distinctive syntactic, phonological, lexical, and nonverbal communication
patterns of Appalachian speakers. Extensive bibliography. Reviews: E. Jongsma. 1978. Reading Teacher
31.957-58; J. Ornstein. 1978.
Modern Language Journal 62.441-42; J. C. Scott. 1978. Southern Speech Communication Journal 43.418-20; S. M. Tsuzaki. 1978. Quarterly Journal
of Speech 64.353-54.
Inez. 1978. Our southern mountaineers. Smoky Mountain Historical Society
Julia A. 1973. An investigation into verbal expressiveness and reading group
placement of culturally different second grade children. American Psychological
Association Proceedings 8.689-90. Assesses verbal expressiveness of
eighty-eight innercity black and white children from Appalachia.
John C. 1921. The Southern highlander and his homeland. New York: Russell Sage
Foundation. Pp. 144-46, comments on Southern Appalachian dialect.
Charles. 1933. Variation in the Southern mountain dialect. American Speech
8.22-25. Subregional differences in Appalachian vocabulary, grammar,
Charles. 1973. The folk-language of mid-Appalachia. Journal of the Alleghenies
9.27-31. [West Virginia]. Essay stressing that Appalachian English is
combination of old forms inherited from British dialects and new forms developed
in mountain speech.
Charles. 1973. Pronunciation and grammar in mid-Appalachia. Journal of the
Alleghenies 9.31-35. [West Virginia]. Peculiarities of mountain speech,
including unusual examples of contraction and assimilation.
Michael Vaughn. 1979. Culture, language and organization. Religious language
and collective action: a study of voluntarism in a rural Appalachian church,
pp. 57-70. Huntingdon, WV: Marshall University thesis. [Southwest West
Virginia]. Analyzes language of the Appalachian church in terms of a
"semi-autonomous symbolic cognitive system" enabling collective
Michael Vaughn. 1981. Religious language and collective action: a study of
voluntarism in a rural Appalachian church. Appalachia/America: proceedings of
the 1980 Appalachian studies conference, ed. by Wilson Somerville, pp. 218-29.
Johnson City, TN: Appalachian Consortium Press. [Southwest West Virginia].
Examines "use of religious language in the church and the organization of
the church as a voluntary organization."
Frederic G. 1985. Language changes especially common in American folk speech.
Dictionary of American Regional English, ed. by Frederic G. Cassidy, pp.
xxxvi-xl. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Compendium of thirteen types
of changes of word form, twelve grammatical changes, five types of derivational
change, and four changes in pronunciation in American folk speech represented
in Dictionary of American Regional English.
Larry S. 1983. "Bold to play": Shakespeare in North Carolina.
Shakespeare in the South, ed. by Philip C. Kolin, 231-46. Jackson: University
Press of Mississippi. P. 238, quotes theatre directors and critics as
testifying that Shakespearean language is more intelligible in W North Carolina
than elsewhere in country because it is close to the everyday speech there.
Donna, Walt Wolfram, and Nanjo Dube. 1984. Variation and change in
geographically isolated communities: Appalachian English and Ozark English.
Washington: Center for Applied Linguistics. Final National Science Foundation
report. 280 pp. Eric Document 246 682. [Northwest Arkansas, Southern West
Virginia]. Compares Ozark and Appalachian English to determine similarity
between the two and examines how each preserves patterns and undergoes change;
includes extended treatment of auxiliary verbs, personal datives, a -prefixing, patterns
of irregular verbs, and subject-verb concord.
Wilma. 1936. Mountain dialects in north Georgia. Athens: University of Georgia
thesis. 30 pp. Sentimental study of archaic and unusual forms undertaken
"with a desire to preserve a portion of this quaint old English dialect as
the mountaineers in the most remote regions use it."
Josiah H. 1916. Dialect of the folk-song. Dialect Notes 4.311-18. [Appalachia,
West Virginia to Georgia]. Dialect words; phonological and syntactic
Josiah H. 1931. The language of the Southern highlander. Publication of the
Modern Language Association 46.1302-22. Compiles figurative expressions,
colloquialisms, pronunciation, and syntax of Southern Appalachia.
Josiah H. 1943. The Kentucky highlands from a native mountaineer's viewpoint.
Lexington, KY: J. L. Richardson. 44 pp. Scattered references to dialect
Josiah H. 1957. Spellin' 'em down in the highlands. Kentucky Folklore Record
3.69-73. [Kentucky]. Anecdotes about unlettered techniques for spelling in
spelling bees, the "proper" use of language in the mountains, how
mountain residents greet one another and give directions to strangers, etc.
Nancy Faires, and Margaret A. Lourie. 1983. A host of tongues: language
communities in the United States. New York: Free Press. Regional dialects of
American English, pp. 72-95, scattered comments on and discusion of features of
Southern and Appalachian English.
Horton. 1972. North Carolina mountain folklore and miscellany. Murfreesboro,
NC: Johnson. [Western North Carolina]. Riddles, pp. 55-56; Children's rhymes,
pp. 82-85; The early vernacular of the North Carolina mountains, pp. 87-97;
Proverbs and expressions, pp. 101-02.
Ellen D. 1969. A study of dialect peculiarities of Scott County, Tennessee
secondary school students. Knoxville: University of Tennessee thesis. [Northeast Tennessee].
Shayla R. 1977. A bidialectal approach: strategies for assimilating the
mainstream dialect into the non-mainstream Southern mountain dialect. Eric
Document 210 128. 29 pp. [East
Kentucky]. Instructional packet to assess individual's language patterns and
series of strategies and exercises for increasing student awareness of dialect
Shayla R. 1977. Instructional packet: a bidialectal approach. Berea College
Appalachian Center. 26 pp. Focuses on black mountain children.
Lawrence M. 1970. Some social aspects of the speech of blue-grass Kentucky.
Orbis 19.337-41. [10 White, 1 Black, East Kentucky]. Says Linguistic Atlas of
the North Central States data for KY is insufficient for generalizing about
systematic black-white differences in verb principal parts and in
Lawrence M. 1971. A study of Appalachian speech in a northern urban setting.
Final report. National Center for Educational Research and Development,
Washington. Eric Document 061 205. 63 pp. [25 speakers, East Kentucky and
Southern West Virginia, 19 having moved to Chicago]. Compares speech of
Appalachian residents with Appalachian migrants to Chicago using diafeature
rules; finds no significant differences in phonology and few nonstandard grammatical
features in speech of any informants.
Lawrence M. 1977. Dialectology and linguistics. Orbis 26.24-30. Theoretical
article examining method for distinguishing dialects on basis of diafeatures,
shown in an example from East Kentucky.
Lawrence M., and Linda L. Blanton. 1972. Some aspects of the social
stratification of English in Southern Appalachia. Abstract in Newsletter of the
American Dialect Society 5.2.5. [East Kentucky]. Suggests socioeconomic and
educational differences are not most crucial factors in accounting for
variation in Southern Appalachian speech.
Holander, A. N. J. 1934. Uber die Bevolkerung der Appalachen. Zeitschrift der
Gesellschaft fur Erdkunde 7/8.241-56.
Wylene. 1969. The dialect of the Appalachian people. West Virginia History
30.463-71. Argues with those who consider Appalachian dialect a corruption of
English; say it is more accurate to consider it an archaic variety and
documents ancestry of characteristic Appalachian forms from 16th- century and earlier
literature. Reprinted in B. B. Maurer, ed. 1969. Mountain heritage, pp. 82-91.
Ripley, WV: Mountain State Art and Craft Fair, Cedar Lake; in D. N. Mielke, ed. 1978. Teaching
mountain children, pp. 49-58. Boone, NC: Appalachian Consortium.
Wylene. 1970. Folk speech is English, too. Mountain Life and Work 46.2.16-18
(Feb.); 46.5.15-17 (May).
Wylene P. 1976. Appalachian dialect. The West Virginia heritage encyclopedia,
ed. by Jim Comstock, pp. 1320-34. Richwood, WV: privately published.
L. R. 1915. A word list from
Virginia. Dialect Notes 4.177-93. [Scott County, Southwest Virginia]. Discusses
phonology, morphology, and syntax, and presents wordlist of 500 items.
L. R. 1927. Appalachian mountain words. Dialect Notes 5.468-71. [Kentucky].
Wordlist of 100 items and shorter lists of specimen pronunciations and
grammatical items. from James Watt Raine's The Land of Saddle Bags.
Edwina Bean. 1969. Folksay. Folklore in White County, Tennessee, pp. 97-141.
Nashville: George Peabody College dissertation. Abstract in Dissertation
Abstracts International 31.322A. [Central Tennessee]. Includes place name
etymology, folk-speech vocabulary, proverbs and phrases, and unusual personal
Bethany K. 1975. Smoky Mountain speech. Pioneer Spirit 76, ed. by Dolly
Berthelot, pp. 24-29. Knoxville, TN: Privately printed. [East Tennessee].
Overview article for lay readers.
Bethany K. 1977. Research needs in Tennessee English. Papers in language
variation: SAMLA-ADS collection, ed. by David L. Shores and Carole P. Hines,
pp. 201-08. University: University of Alabama Press. Programmatic statement of
research needs and proposal for Tennessee Language Survey, with interview and
goals of the project outlined.
Bethany K. 1981. East Tennessee talk. An encyclopedia of East Tennessee, ed. by
Jim Stokely and Jeff D. Johnson, pp. 170-76. Oak Ridge, TN: Children's Museum.
Survey of grammar, pronunciation, and language attitudes of region.
Hannibal G. 1926. The Southern highlanders. Journal of Applied Sociology
10.556-61. Stresses isolation of mountain people, of which archaic language is
Hannibal Gerald, and Winnie Leach Duncan. 1929. Superstitions and sayings among
the Southern highlanders. Journal of American Folklore 42.233-37. Includes
remarks on dialects of subregions of Appalachia.
Durwood. 1977. The folk culture of Cades Cove, Tennessee. Tennessee Folklore
Society Bulletin 43.67-87. [Blount County, East Tennessee]. Reviews linguistic
research done on Cades Cove residents in Smoky mountains, pp. 76- 78.
William C. 1930. The speech of the hill people of Todd County, Kentucky.
Kentucky Folklore and Poetry Magazine 5.3-9. [Southwest Kentucky]. Says hill
residents live and speak as their ancestors did a century earlier and discusses
typical words and expressions.
Michael E. 1984. The relationship of Appalachian English with the British
regional dialects. Johnson City: East Tennessee State University thesis. 55 pp.
Compares lexical, phonological, and morphological evidence in material
collected by Tracey Miller and James R. Reese in East Tennessee and material in
Survey of English Dialects in Britain, but says the few correspondences found
form no uniform pattern.
Robert. 1980. An unhappy farewell. West Virginia University Alumni Magazine.
Winter/Spring, 6-7. Discusses work of Martha Howard on speech patterns in the
state, particularly to resurvey LAMSAS communities covered by Guy Lowman in the
Freida M. 1971. The speech and language characteristics of rural Appalachian
children. Appalachian Medicine 3.88-89. [West Virginia]. Believes failure in
school is linked to language patterns.
Patrick W. 1975. Speech of the mountaineers. Witches ghosts and signs: folklore
of the Southern Appalachains, pp. 1-18. Morgantown, WV: Seneca.
Michael Foley. 1972. Language characteristics of disadvantaged and
nondisadvantaged children when engaged in problem tasks. Morgantown: West
Virginia University dissertation. Abstract in Dissertation Abstracts
International 33.2915-16A. [88 7th-graders]. Finds no linguistic differences
between disadvantaged and nondisadvantaged children but the latter had a
superior "nonverbal ability ... to solve problem tasks."
John Hedges. n.d. Ballads and dialects of the Southern mountaineers. Atlanta:
Oglethorpe University thesis. 34 pp. Classifies distinctive linguistic forms in
mountains as 1) obsolete forms; 2) illiterate and careless forms; or 3)
neologisms required by local conditions; includes word-lists from Kentucky,
North Carolina, and Tennessee. Much material taken from J. Combs.
Ruth. 1964. Improving English skills of culturally different youth. Washington:
U.S. Government Printing Office. P., 104, identification and unsophisticated
description of features of speech of "culturally disadvantaged
children" migrating from Appalachia to Detroit.
Susan Lutters. 1972. A comparison of black and white speech in a rural Georgia
county. Athens: University of Georgia thesis. 482 pp., including transcriptions
of data. [4 White, 7 Black adults, Walton County, Northeast Georgia]. Finds
minimal differences between black and white speech, e.g., only black speech has
word-final glottal stop and white speech diphthongizes short front vowels and
uses postvocalic /r/ more than black speech; finds no evidence of unmarked be.
Robert G. 1975. The application of sociolinguistic techniques in rural
Appalachia. Views on language, ed. by Reza Ordoubadian and Walburga von
Raffler-Engel, pp. 192-200. Murfreesboro: Middle Tennessee State University.
[West Virginia]. Discusses applicability of socioeconomic indices developed by
urban sociologists for measuring social stratification in rural West Virginia.
Joseph S. 1939. Recording speech in the Great Smokies. Regional Review 3.3-8.
Richmond, VA: National Park Service, Region One. [East Tennessee]. Account of
field work for his dissertation listed in section 4 below.
Joseph S. 1941. Mountain speech in the Great Smokies. National Park Service
history popular study series no. 5. Washington. DC: United States Department of
the Interior. ii + 13 pp., 6 illustrations. Same as preceding item.
Joseph S. 1960. Smoky mountain folks and their lore. Asheville, NC: Cataloochee
Press. Smokies dialect, pp. 54-65. List of items collected by author in
Tennessee, North Carolina mountains from 1937 to 1956. Review: L Roberts. 1964.
Mountain Life and Work 40.4.225.
Mary P. F. 1977. Description of the linguistic characteristics of the careful
speech of recent high school graduates in entry-level positions of job
categories of large employment in selected counties of southwest Virginia.
Blacksburg: Virginia Polytechnic Institute thesis.
Herbert. 1924. [Language of the Pine Mountain area]. Notes from the Pine
Mountain Settlement School 2.1-2. [Southeast Kentucky]. Informal essay on
archaisms, especially those with a literary flavor, in mountain speech.
Alberta Pierson. 1943. Words and music. The Great Smokies and the Blue Ridge,
ed. by Roderick Peattie, pp. 146-50. [East Tennessee, Western North Carolina].
New York: Vanguard. Discusses grammar, pronunciation, Chaucerisms, and
distinctive place names in the Smoky Mountains.
Alberta Pierson. 1969. Shakespeare's America. Look back with love, pp. 29-33.
New York: Vanguard. Reprinting of preceding item.
Jesse W. 1946. The dialect of Appalachia in southern Illinois. American Speech
21.96-99. Discussion, list, and comparison of vocabulary and pronunciation of
area to research on Southern Appalachian speech.
Alberta Pierson. 1943. The mountain people. The great smokies and the blue
ridge, ed. by Roderick Peattie, 73-151. New York: Vanguard.
Alberta Pierson. 1969. Shakespeare's America. Look back with love, 29-33. New
York: Vanguard. page numbers do not correspond to dictionary (49-50)
Deane Bell. 1995. Smoke rings. Rogersville: East Tennessee Printing Company.
Robert. 1986. American talk: the words and ways of American dialects. New York:
Viking. 230 pp. Deep down in the holler where the hoot owl hollers at noon:
hillbilly tawk, 113-29. Popular condensation of exotic features, based on
personal observations and century of published research and characterized by
overstatements and anachronisms.
Robert. 1996. Mountain range. New York: Facts on File.
Atcheson L. 1938. Corbins and Nicolsons - a preliminary note. American Speech
13.77-79. [Northern Virginia]. Report on thirty-eight Virginia informants whose
speech was taperecorded by Hench and Archibald Hill.
Benita J. 1981. A survey of folklife along the Big South Fork of the Cumberland
River: report of investigations no. 30. Knoxville: University of Tennessee
Department of Anthropology. Speech, p. 206. [Central Tennessee]. Brief, general
comments on Appalachian speech and report of available data from Big South Fork
Sam N. 1929. Mountain speech. The mountains redeemed: the romance of the mountains,
pp. 32-34. Appalachia, VA: Hurst and Company. Comments on archaicness, aptness
of expression, and exactness of logic of Southern Appalachian speech.
Sarah E. 1975. Unusual words, expressions, and pronunciation in a North
Carolina mountain community. Appalachian Journal 2.148-60. [Ashe County,
Western North Carolina]. Unusual usage, idioms, names, and pronunciations
collected by an outsider.
Mabel Jean. 1973. The regional English of the former inhabitants of Cades Cove
in the Great Smoky Mountains. Knoxville: University of Tennessee dissertation.
Abstract in Dissertation Abstracts International 34.5146A. [5 elderly natives,
Blount County, East Tennessee]. Study of pronunciation (mostly of vowels) and
grammar (mostly of verb principal parts) of ex-inhabitants of Cades Cove area.
Horace. 1913. The mountain dialect. Our Southern highlanders, 276-304. New
York: Macmillan. Revised edition (1922), pp. 350-78. Reprinted in 1976 by
University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville. [North Carolina, Tennessee
mountains]. Informal, lay account of speech of Smoky Mountains; some phonology
and grammar; mainly lexicon. Reviews: M. Bush. 1977. American Forests 83.38-39; W. K. McNeil. 1978. Journal of American Folklore
91.612-13; H. D. Shapiro. 1977.
Book Forum 3.278-84.
H. H. 1925. A comparative study of upper and lower Southern folk speech.
Nashville: George Peabody College thesis. Compiles in dictionary format dialect
forms heard by author in nine disparate Southern counties.
Hans. 1972. Studies in area linguistics. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
The structure of the Upper South, pp. 46-51, geographical perspectives on
region's speech, with emphasis on boundaries. Reviews: G. Gilbert. 1976. La Monda
Lingvo-Problemo 6.56-61; M. F.
Hopkins. 1975. Southern Speech Communication Journal 40.213-14; R. I. McDavid, Jr. 1971. American
Speech 47.285-92; L. A. Pederson.
1975. Foundations of Language 12.609-13; R. Shuy. 1974. Language in Society 3.295-97; M. S. Whitley. 1975. Linguistics 161.109-20.
Julia Smith. 1983. Effects of socio-dramatic play on language development of
rural Appalachian kindergarten high-potential children. Tampa: University of
South Florida dissertation. Dissertation Abstracts International 45.148A. Based
on eighty kindergarteners.
Bascom Lamar. 1975. It used to be: Memories of Bascom Lamar Lunsford, ed. by
Mildred Frances Thomas. N.p.: n.p. Typescript on deposit at Appalachian
Library, Appalachian State University.
Raven I., Jr. 1958. The dialects of American English. The structure of American
English, by W. Nelson Francis, pp. 480-543. New York: Ronald Press. Excellent
introduction to regional dialects of Atlantic states, detailing causes and
development of dialect differences and chronicling formal study of regional
dialects by Linguistic Atlas of the United States and Canada projects. Presents
characteristic pronunciation, vocabulary, morphology, and syntax of principal
and subsidiary dialect areas. Includes brief discussion of social class
dialects and on influence of foreign-language communities, including French,
German, and African, on Southern English.
Raven I., Jr. 1970. Language characteristics of specific groups: native whites.
Readings for the disadvantaged: problems of linguistically different learners,
ed. by Thomas D. Horn, pp. 135-39. New York: Harcourt, Brace and World. Advice
for the Northern teacher of students speaking Southern or South Midland
English; discusses pronunciation, stress pat-terns, grammar of the latter.
Raven I., Jr. 1971. What happens in Tennessee? Dialectology: problems and perspectives, ed. by Lorraine
Hall Burghardt, pp. 119-29. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Department of
English. Presents cultural and historical background for proposed linguistic
research in Tennessee and identifies crucial linguistic variables to
Raven I., Jr., William A. Kretzschmar, Jr., et al., eds. 1982-86. Linguistic
atlas of the middle and South atlantic states and affiliated projects: basic
materials. Microfilm MSS on Cultural Anthropology 68.360-64, 69.365-69,
71.375-80. Chicago: Joseph Regenstein Library, University of Chicago. Includes
field records of Linguistic Atlas of the Middle and South Atlantic States interviews
from MD, DC, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida and
Gullah interviews conducted by Turner.
Raven I., Jr., and Richard C. Payne, eds., with the assistance of Duane Taylor
and Evan Thomas. 1976-78. Linguistic atlas of the north-central states. Basic
materials (unaltered field records). Manuscripts on cultural anthropology
series XXXVIII, no. 200-08. Microfilm. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago.
Forty-three reels containing field records of phonetically recorded transcribed
responses of 505 informants; volume 206 constitutes 6 reels with Kentucky field
Raven I., Jr., et al., eds. 1976-79. Kentucky. Linguistic atlas of the north
central states. Manuscripts on cultural anthropology series XXXVIII, no. 206.
Chicago: University of Chicago.
John C. 1977. Breathitt County, Kentucky grammar. Chicago: Illinois Institute
of Technology dissertation. Abstract in Dissertation Abstracts International
38.5437A. [9 teenagers, 11 adults, East Kentucky]. Finds no social class
correlation with twenty-three grammatical and phonological features, thus
concluding "Breathitt County is a homogeneous speech community."
Clark. 1957. Old Kentucky country. New York: Duell, Sloan and Pearce. Pp.
149-50 on dialect.
Mike. 1976. Appalachian culture: a guide for students and teachers, ed. by
Peggy Calestro and Ann Hill, p. 185. Columbus: Ohio State University Research
Margot. 1952. Kentucky talk. Promenade 8.71.
Margot. 1953. More Kentucky talk. Promenade 8.8.1
Martha Norburn. 1942. Asheville ... in land of the sky. Richmond, VA: Dietz
Press. [Western North Carolina]. Pp. 59-60, comments on language.
W. Clark. 1966. How our mountain speech became so colorful. Great smoky
mountain stories and sun over ol' starlin, pp. 65-67. Waynesville, NC:
privately published. [Western North Carolina]. Says early mountain residents
often crafted new words to meet immediate needs, and lists local idioms and
figures of speech not acknowledged by dictionaries.
Henry Louis. 1936. The American language. Fourth edition. New York: Knopf. 769
pp. Supplement One, 1945 739 pp.;
Supplement Two, 1948. 890 pp. One volume edition abridged by Raven I. McDavid,
Jr., with assistance of David W. Maurer, 1963. xxv + 777 pp. Encyclopedic work
synthesizing lifetime of reading and correspondence on host of topics from
regional dialects to American naming practices and British-American
differences. Bibliography in footnotes includes wide range of popular and
scholarly articles in local magazines and newspapers. Reviews: W. Card. 1963. College English
25.230-31; A. Duckert. 1964. Names
12.123-26; W. C. Greet. 1965.
American Speech 40.58-61; R.
Howren. 1965. Philological Quarterly 44.133-35; L. A. Pederson. 1965. Orbis 14.63-74; R. M. Wilson. 1965. Year's Work in
English Studies 44.63-64; R. W.
Wilson. 1964. Canadian Journal of Linguistics 10.70-72; H. B. Woolf. 1966. English Studies
Emma Bell. 1905. The literature of a wolf-race. The spirit of the mountains,
pp. 172-78. Reprinted in 1976. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press. Essay
on literary qualities of mountain speech; cites "wild and elemental
poetry" and "terse and piquant proverbs" of mountaineers.
Jim Wayne. 1985. Beaucoons of words. New York Times Magazine, Jan. 13, pp.
9-10. How people adjust their language to their purposes, with emphasis on
Appalachia; essay on creativity and expressive derivatives in mountain speech,
especially in the author's native Western North Carolina.
Tracey Russell. 1973. An investigation of the regional English of Unicoi
County, Tennessee. Knoxville: University of Tennessee dissertation. Abstract in
Dissertation Abstracts International 34.5147A. [6 older natives, Northeast
Tennessee]. Describes phonetic characteristics and selection of relic
Michael. 1980. A partial comparison of Southern Appalachian English and
Vernacular Black English. Abstract in Newsletter of the American Dialect Society
12.3.10. [East Tennessee]. Discusses extent to which grammatical and
phonological features of Vernacular Black English are present in speech of
residents of small Appalachian community.
Michael. 1989. The English language in the South. The Encyclopedia of Southern
Culture, ed. by Charles Reagan Wilson and William Ferris, 761-67. Chapel Hill:
University of North Carolina Press.
Michael. 1992. The pace of change in Appalachian English. History of Englishes,
ed. by Matti Rissanen, et al., 624-39. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. (with Curtis
Michael. 1994. The contributions of Joseph Sargent Hall to Appalachian studies.
Journal of the Appalachian Studies Association 6.89-98.
Michael. 1995. Does Tennessee have three "grand" dialects?: Evidence
from the Linguistic Atlas of the Gulf States. Tennessee Folklore Society
Michael. 1996. How Scotch-Irish is your English? Journal of East Tennessee
Michael. 1998. In the Appalachians they speak like Shakespeare. Myths in
linguistics, ed. by Laurie Bauer and Peter Trudgill, 66-76. New York:
Michael. 1998. Speech. Tennessee Encyclopedia of History and Culture, ed. by
Carroll Van West, 875-76. Nashville: Rutledge Hill Press.
Lucia C. 1967. North Carolina accents: some observations. North Carolina
Journal of Speech and Drama 1.1.3-8. Based on speech of college students native
to state, presents pronunciations and vocabulary, especially from Appalachians
and Outer Banks, that author considers remnants of colonial speech.
J. Alex. n.d. Mountain yarns, legends and lore. Mountain dialect and sayings,
pp. 12-14. Banner Elk, NC: Pudding Stone Press.
Harold, and Nathalia Wright. 1972. Questionnaire for the investigation of
American regional English: based on the work sheets of the Linguistic Atlas of
the United States and Canada. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Department of
English. Designed for investigation of archaic Tennessee speech.
John. 1955. Roaming the mountains. Asheville, NC: Citizen-Times. [Western North
Carolina]. Mountain idiom fading, pp. 21-23, unusual expressions in
mountains; Origin of mountain
county names, pp. 179-82.
John. 1967. Mountain bred. Asheville, NC: Citizen-Times. [Western North
Carolina]. A lavish of homespun names, pp. 26-27; Mountain idiom fading, pp. 120-22. Romance of mountain
speech reflected in archaisms and placenames.
John. 1972. These storied mountains. Asheville, NC: Citizen-Times. [Western
North Carolina]. Flavorsome talk, pp. 23-24; figures of speech and similes in
mountain speech; Do tongue
twisters still defy diction?, pp. 286- 87.
Marion. 1966. Communicating with the educationally deprived. Mountain Life and
Work 42.8-11 (spring). Reprinted in F. S. Riddel, ed. 1974. Appalachia: its
people, heritage, and problems, pp. 55-62. Dubuque, IA: Kendall Hunt.
Lee A. 1977. Randy sons of Nancy Whisky. American Speech 52.112- 21. [East
Tennessee, North Georgia]. Shows how plentiful undocumented folk terms for
illegal whiskey present problems for historical lexicographers and for semantic
Lee A. 1981. The regional and social dialects of East Tennessee: a preliminary
overview. Linguistic Atlas of the Gulf States Working Paper, series one, no. 8.
Microfiche no. 1187-89. Addendum to Pederson et al. 1981. 261 pp. Final report
to National Council of Teachers of English Research Foundation. Published later
as following item.
Lee A. 1983. East Tennessee folk speech: a synopsis. Bamberger beitrage zur
Englischen sprachwissenschaft 12. Frankfurt/Main: Peter Lang. 254 pp. [70
natives of both races and several social classes]. Presents idiolect synopsis
of 137 selected features in narrow phonetic transcription for each informant;
analyzes pronunciation of phonemes, incidence of phonemes and morphological and
lexical variants, and regional, subregional, and social factors in area. Also includes
chapters on settlement history and methodology. Review: E. Schneider. 1984.
English World-Wide 5.130-32.
Lee A., Susan Leas, Guy H. Bailey, and Marvin H. Bassett, eds. 1981. Linguistic
atlas of the gulf states: the basic materials. Microform collection. Ann Arbor,
MI: University Microfilms. Massive bank of 128,000 pages of raw data, summary,
and background from over 1,100 recorded interviews totaling over 5,000 hours
and conducted in eight Southern states. Although unedited and mostly in
phonetic transcription, the largest single collection of data on Southern
speech, containing more data on speech of Southern blacks than all other
Lee A., Susan Leas, Guy H. Bailey, and Marvin H. Bassett, eds. 1981. The Linguistic
Atlas of the Gulf States protocols. Ann Arbor, MI: University Microfilms. Field
notebooks containing phonetic forms of elicited and observed forms of more than
1,100 Linguistic Atlas of the Gulf States informants.
Lee A., Susan Leas, Guy H. Bailey, and Marvin H. Bassett, eds. 1981. The
idiolect synopses of the Linguistic Atlas of the Gulf States protocols. Ann
Arbor, MI: University Microfilms. One-page synopsis of characteristic forms of
each of more than 1,100 Linguistic Atlas of the Gulf States informants.
Lee A., Susan Leas McDaniel, and Marvin H. Bassett, eds. 1986. The linguistic
atlas of the gulf states: a concordance of basic materials. Ann Arbor, MI:
University Microfilms. 152 microfiche of alphabetical concordance, two series
of working papers, and other material.
Lee A., Susan Leas McDaniel, Guy H. Bailey, and Marvin H. Bassett, eds. 1986.
The linguistic atlas of the gulf states, volume 1: handbook for the linguistic
atlas of the gulf states. Athens: University of Georgia Press. 376 pp.
Reviews: J. B. McMillan. 1987.
Alabama Review 40.157-58; W.
Viereck. 1987. Journal of English Linguistics 20.255-57.
Lee. 1990. Linguistic atlas of the gulf states: volumes 4-7. Athens: University
of Georgia Press.
Betty. 1987. Why they talk that talk: language in Appalachian studies. English
Brenda Cottrell. 1983. A critique of Appalachian sociolinguistics. Abstract in
Critical essays on Appalachian life and culture: proceedings of the fifth
annual Appalachian studies conference, ed. by Rick Simon, p. 121. Boone, NC:
Appalachian Consortium. Says sociolinguistic methods are more thorough and more
detailed than linguistic atlas methods, and thus better suited to answering larger
question of existence of Appalachian dialect.
Husain A. 1972. Appalachia: people, dialect, and communication problems.
Journal of Reading Behavior 5.14-25. [13 speakers from each of 9 states from
New York to Alabama]. Claims that speech of Appalachian residents is a
restricted code (in Bernstein sense).
Husain A. 1972. A dialect survey of the Appalachian region. Tallahassee:
Florida State University dissertation. Abstract in Dissertation Abstracts
International 32.6085A. Also Eric Document 052 210. Same as Atlanta: National
Center for Educational Research and Development Regional Research Report 4.
Also Final report to Dept. of Health Education and Welfare. Published by
Appalachian Adult Education Demonstration Center, Morehead State University.
[13 informants from each of 9 states from New York to Alabama]. Claims that
rustic speakers "have a small functional vocabulary" and "misuse
more words" than modern and cultured speakers and that "there is a
distinct pattern or linguistic structure throughout the Appalachian Region
without any sub-regional differences within the region." Pp. 383-421, Alphabetized list of
Colloquial Terms and their Explorations.
James W. 1924. Mountain speech and song. The land of saddle-bags, pp. 95-124.
New York City: Council of Women for Home Missions. Kentucky mountain speech.
George Bryan. 1983. An ethnography of speaking in an Appalachian community.
Seattle: University of Washington dissertation. Abstract in Dissertation
Abstracts International 44.2624A. [Jackson County, Kentucky]. Study of speech
used in eight leisure and religious speech events in six domestic and public
George Bryan. 1983. An ethnography of speaking in an Appalachian community.
Abstract in Critical essays in Appalachian life and culture: proceedings of the
fifth annual Appalachian studies conference, ed. by Rick Simon, p. 121. Boone,
NC: Appalachian Consortium. [East Kentucky]. Refers to talk on home porches,
talk at stores, and testifying in church in terms of nine components of speech
James Robert. 1975. The myth of the Southern American dialect as a mirror of
the mountaineer. Voices from the hills: selected readings on Southern
Appalachia, ed. by Robert J. Higgs and Ambrose N. Manning, pp. 474- 92. New
York: Ungar. Questions existence of single identifiable Appalachian dialect and
claims heterogeneity of mountain speech.
James Robert. 1977. Variation in Appalachian English: a study of the speech of
elderly, rural natives of East Tennessee. Knoxville: University of Tennessee
dissertation. Abstract in Dissertation Abstracts International 38.7304-05A. [12
older Whites, Northeast Tennessee]. Investigates degree of "systematic
variation" in lexicon, syntax, morphology, and phonology in speech of
sociologically similar informants; finds extensive variation among the
speakers, but "no general consistent sub-patterns of agreement"
between areas of linguistic structure.
James Robert. 1978. Randomly distributed dialects in Appalachian English:
syntactic and phonological variation in East Tennessee. Southeastern Conference
on Linguistics Bulletin 2.67-76. [16 elderly Whites, Northeast Tennessee].
Claims existence of "randomly distributed dialects" by finding
"four distinct dialectal linguistic systems" in speech of sixteen
sociologically and geographically similar informants.
James Robert. 1981. Appalachian English: reality and myth. Cross- Reference
1.3.1,6-7. Report on series of public forums in Johnson County, Tennessee, on
issues related to Appalachian English. Reprinted in Tennessee Linguistics
James Robert. 1981. Goals for the collection and use of Appalachian oral
materials in the 1980s. Appalachia/America: proceedings of the 1980 Appalachian
studies conference, ed. by Wilson Somerville, pp. 230-35. Johnson City, TN:
Appalachian Consortium Press. Argues that wealth of oral materials collected by
scholars in Appalachia needs to be catalogued, analyzed, and adapted to
classroom use to answer questions about Appalachian culture and language.
James Robert. 1983. Intonational variation in southern Appalachian English.
Abstract in Newsletter of the American Dialect Society 15.2.5. Suggests
computer analysis of pitch, stress, vowel length, and juncture can be used to
identify and classify dialects in Southern Appalachian region.
J. M. 1926. Speech and balladry of the southern highlands. Quarterly Journal of
the University of North Dakota 16.139-47. Discusses archaism, conservatism, and
expressiveness of Southern Appalachian speech.
Eleanor M. 1977. The piedmont dialect. Sandlapper 10.2.11. [Northwest South
Carolina]. Claims "old English" still spoken in Piedmont area of
South Carolina and that English of settlers remains unchangd in modern-day
South Carolina; says blacks and Scots had only marginal lexical influence on
South Carolina speech.
Mary J. 1976. The use of third person reference in multi-party conversations in
an Appalachian community. Anthropological Linguistics 18.349-59. [East
Kentucky]. Explores functions of conversational technique in which reference
made to a third party constrains that party from speaking, while allowing other
parties to participate in conversation; suggests this technique varies in frequency
and normative character according to region.
Midori. 1979. Southern Appalachian English: the language of Faulkner's country
people. Chu-Shikoku Studies in American Literature 15.37- 46.
George. 1976. My mother language, my father tongue. Appalachian Journal
4.28-34. Native Tennessean's contrast of his mother's and his father's speech
habits from his childhood.
Verna Mae. 1979. What my heart wants to tell. New York: Perennial.
Verna Mae. 1983. How we talked. Pippa Passes, KY: Pippa Valley Printing. 135
Emma Deane Trent. 1987. East Tennessee's lore of yesteryear.
John Howard. 1980. He sings for us: a sociolinguistic analysis of the
Appalachian subculture and of Jesse Stuart as a major American author. Lanham,
MD: University Press of America. x + 180 pp. Study of major literary elements
in poetry and fiction of Kentucky writer.
William A. 1967. Language and communication in Southern Appalachia. Washington:
Center for Applied Linguistics. 43 pp. Eric Document 012 026. Identifies two
major nonstandard dialects in Apppalachia, one white and one black, and
discusses their social status and pedagogical programs for dialect speakers in
William A. 1969. Language teaching problems in Appalachia. Florida Foreign
Language Reporter 7.1.58-59,161. Excerpt of preceding item.
William A. 1971. Language learning and teaching in Appalachia. Appalachia
4.8.27-34. Discusses variation in Appalachian speech, social status of white
and black varieties, and barriers to effective language teaching in region
because of misunderstanding of cultural and linguistic basis of many
James. 1988. Hunting for Hindman: (an exercise in the use of the vernacular.
Appalachian Heritage 21.13-14.
Jesse. 1959. Up the branch. This is the South, ed. by Robert West Howard. pp.
221-28. Chicago: Rand McNally. Comments on speech by the novelist.
Thomas M. 1959-70. Mountain-wise. Georgia Magazine. Thirteen selections of
monthly column deal with language use in North Georgia mountains.
E. J. 1960. Folk speech on frying pan. Mountain Life and Work 36.11-14. Surveys
features of Southern Appalachian speech, which author believes is full of
"corruptions" and "mispronunciations."
Jean. 1945. The changing mountain folk. American Mercury 61.43-49. [East
Kentucky]. Popular account of mountain life with many citations of Appalachian
Mildred Frances, ed. n.d. Provincial speech. It used to be: the memories of
Bascom Lamar Lunsford. Pp. 156-79. Privately printed.
Lawrence S. 1956. Names in Kentucky. Kentucky tradition, pp. 175- 81. Hamden,
CT: Shoe String Press. Discusses personal and place names and remarks on
Laura. 1937. The Great Smoky mountains. Knoxville: University of Tennessee
Press. Revised edition 1962. [East Tennessee]. Pp. 24-25, brief discussion of
neologisms and Shakespearianisms of Smoky Mountains.
Thomas E. 1982. Appalachian English. English as a world language, ed. by
Manfred Gorlach and Richard W. Bailey, pp. 239-45. Ann Arbor: University of
Michigan Press. Exemplifies phonological and grammatical features of Southern
Appalachian speech, based on Wolfram and Christian study.
Argus. 1937. The speech of the Shenandoah Valley. American Speech 12.284-88.
[Western Virginia]. Surveys earlier work on Virginia speech; notes on phonology
Billy. 1946. Our time-flavored speech. Notes from the Pine Mountain Settlement
School 19.1.3. [Kentucky]. Examples of dialect.
David. 1975. Yukking it up at CBS. Southern Exposure 2.4.68-71. Says that
network television systematically undercovers news from Appalachia and that
network news personnel harbor prejudices against mountain and Southern accents
which lead them not to take seriously stories reported with those accents.
David. 1975. A report on CBS news and 17 million Appalachian people. Mountain
Review 1.2.1-3. Expansion of preceding item; says network prejudice against
Appalachian accents and people is consistent with economic paternalism in
Nest, R. J. 1976. Gillis ridge. Appalachian Journal 3.307-10. [Northeast
Tennessee]. Semifictional account discussing how linguistic behavior fits into
mountain culture; claims that in sound and pace of mountain speech "there
is reaffirmation of the manner of their life."
Raphy S. 1939. A mountaineer looks at his own speech. Tennessee Folklore
Society Bulletin 5.1-13. [East Tennessee]. Discusses Smoky Mountain vocabulary,
grammar, and pronunciation (with anecdotal account of the drawl), with five
pages of transcriptions.
Jack. 1993. Sociolinguistics of Scotch-Irish speech in Appalachia. Irish
Studies Working Papers 93.12-19.
Abigail E. 1921. The speech of the Kentucky mountaineer as I know it. New York:
Teachers College, Columbia University thesis. 21 pp. Discusses origin of
mountain people and their speech and how mountaineers' speech habits reflect
their culture and ways of thinking.
Harold. 1936. The mapping of American speech. Philological Papers 1.49-53.
Relates West Virginia to Linguistic Atlas of the United States and Canada.
John Foster. 1966. Dialect of the Southern Mountains. North Carolina Folklore
14.31-34. [Western North Carolina]. Reminiscences of folksy mountain speech by
Roy Andre. 1922. The songs of the mountaineers. Nashville: George Peabody
College thesis. Brief comments on relic, mostly lexical, forms.
J. Hutson. 1960. Highland language of the Cumberland coal country. Mountain
Life and Work 36.18-21. [Kentucky]. Compilation of archaic vocabulary and
pronunciations from 17th century to present, based on personal observation in
physician's clinic and on other writers.
Rogers. 1981. Selections from "Folk-ways and folk-speech." North Carolina Folklore Journal 29.1.
Mountain sayings, pp. 19-20; Appalachian place names, pp. 39-40; Mountain speech, pp. 40-42; Folk speech, pp. 43-44; Academic lore and "ferry
dittles," pp. 60-61. Short essays on aspects of W North Carolina mountain
Cratis D. 1961. The content of mountain speech. Mountain Life and Work 37.13-17
(Winter). Says mountain speech does have "strong language, sparkling with
proverbial wisdom, sparkling with pleonasms, powerful metaphors, and vivid
similes, abounding with archaisms," but that it is not, contrary to some
literary treatments, qualitatively different from other varieties of American folk
Cratis D. 1961. Rhythm and melody in mountain speech. Mountain Life and Work
37.7-10 (Fall). Cites features of grammar, diction, and rhetoric of mountain
speech. Reprinted in Bobbs-Merrill Reprint Series, Language-100.
Cratis D. 1962. Mountaineers mind their manners. Mountain Life and Work
38.19-25 (Summer). Discusses manners and civilities of mountain speech behavior
by a native.
Cratis D. 1967. Subtlety in mountain speech. Mountain Life and Work 43.14-16
(Spring). Says mountaineer "possesses subtleties in emphasis and
traditional tricks in turning phrases in basic English that enable him to
express himself colorfully" and presents his translation of five literary
selections into mountain dialect to demonstrate this.
Cratis D. 1968. Mountain speech. Language and culture: a reader, ed. by Patrick
Gleeson and Nancy Wakefield, pp. 151-60. Columbus, OH: Charles E. Merrill.
Revision of items 1.808 and 5.241.
Cratis D. 1978. Appalachian speech. North Carolina Historical Review 55.174-79.
Provides overview of Southern Appalachian pronunciation and grammar and
presents folk tale in modified orthography to reflect these features.
John Rodger. 1985. Appalachian migrants in Cincinnati, Ohio: the role of
folklore in the reinforcement of ethnic identity. Appalachian speech style, pp.
55-85. Bloomington: Indiana University dissertation.
Charles Morrow. 1930. Beefsteak when I'm hungry. Virginia Quarterly Review
6.240-50. Layman's observations of English of Southern mountains.
George P., ed. 1952. Folk speech. The Frank C. Brown collection of North
Carolina folklore, pp. 505-618. Durham, NC: Duke University Press. List of more
than 1,500 items including pronunciations, unusual meanings, names, and
grammatical usages (frequently compared to British dialectal or literary
usages), figurative expressions, humorous rhymes, dance calls, salutations and
replies, and unusual interpretations of scripture, culled by Wilson from the
folklorist Brown's collection of notes on the English language as used in North
Gypsy Vera. 1937. Language. Folklore in Southeastern Kentucky, pp. 6-38.
Nashville: George Peabody College thesis. [Bell County, Kentucky]. Surveys
archaisms, names, pronunciations, and proverbial expressions, and investigates
familiarity of list of latter in Blount County, Tennessee.
Walt. 1977. On the linguistic study of Appalachian speech. Appalachian Journal
5.92-102. History of study of Appalachian speech, assessment of current
knowledge, and statement of future prospects and needs for research; extensive
Walt. 1977. Language assessment in Appalachia: a sociolinguistic perspective.
Appalachian Journal 4.224-34. Guidelines for testing language ability of
Appalachian children and for using and interpreting results of standardized
Walt. 1980. Beyond black English: implications of the Ann Arbor decision for
other nonmainstream varieties. Reactions to Ann Arbor: vernacular black English
and education, ed. by Marcia Farr Whiteman, pp. 10-23. Arlington, VA: Center
for Applied Linguistics. Discusses linguistic, sociolinguistic, and educational
parallels between Black English and other varieties of American English and
implications of Ann Arbor "Black English case" for dealing with and
testing speakers of these varieties, especially speakers of Appalachian speech.
Walt. 1983. Text interpretation and sociolinguistic differences. Topics in
Language Disorders 3.21-34. Discusses evaluation of standardized tests of
Appalachian and Black Vernacular English speakers.
Walt. 1984. Is there an "Appalachian English"? Appalachian Journal 11.215-24. Outlines
stages in study of Appalachian speech and discusses difficulty of defining
"Appalachian English" and other dialects on objective basis but
concludes tentatively that it can be characterized by a unique "set of
Walt. 1986. Black-white dimensions in sociolinguistic test bias. Language variety
in the South: perspectives in black and white, ed. by Michael Montgomery and
Guy Bailey, pp. 373-85. University: University of Alabama Press. Explores
levels on which sociolinguistic differences may be reflected in standardized
tests and in testing situations for speakers of Vernacular Black English or
Southern Appalachian English and relationship of these levels to issues of
Walt, and Donna Christian. 1975. Sociolinguistic variables in Appalachian
dialects. Final report, National Institute of Education grant number 74-0026.
Eric Document 112 687. 413 pp. Published as following item.
Walt, and Donna Christian. 1976. Appalachian speech. Arlington, VA: Center for
Applied Linguistics. viii + 190 pp. Eric Document 150 811. [129 speakers, all
ages, Mercer and Monroe Counties, Southern West Virginia]. Detailed
sociolinguistic analysis of rural Appalachian speech, presenting a
sociolinguistic framework for study of Appalachian English, focusing on
phonological aspects (final consonant clusters, contraction, pronunciation of
initial segments, etc.) and grammatical features of verbs, adverbs, negation,
nominals, prepositions, and indirect questions, and discussing educational
implications of dialect diversity in region; includes interview questionnaire
and sample interview. Reviews: R.
R. Butters. 1979. Language 55.460-62; J. Coady. 1973. Language Sciences 28.27-28; M. Montgomery. 1982. American Speech 57.134-39; R. Payne. 1977. Journal of English
Walt, and Donna Christian. 1977. The language frontier in Appalachia.
Appalachian Notes 5.33-41. Also in Mountain Review 3.2.1-5 (1977). Essay on
variation and change in mountain speech, attitudes toward it, and implications
Walt, and Donna Christian. 1980. On the application of sociolinguistic
information: test evaluation and dialect differences in Appalachia. Standards
and dialects in English, ed. by Timothy Shopen and Joseph M. Williams, pp.
177-212. Cambridge, MA: Winthrop. Application of findings from sociolinguistic
research in West Virginia to taking and evaluation of standardized tests of
"correct" language use; discusses four principles of test evaluation
and how they should be applied. Appendix A: Some grammatical characteristics of
Appalachian English, 205-09; Appendix B, Two illustrative narratives from West
Walt, and Ralph W. Fasold. 1974. The study of social dialects in American
English. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. 239 pp. Surveys social dialect
patterns in U.S. based on sociolinguistic studies and comparing many patterns
of Southern American pronunciation and grammar to those of social groups and
regions elsewhere in country. Reviews: T. K. Crowl. 1976. Journal of Communication 26.151-53; J. L. Dillard. 1975. Language in
Society 4.367-75; D. E. Eskey.
1976. College English 37.718-23; R. I. McDavid, Jr. and R. K. O'Cain. 1977. American Anthropologist
79.947-48; S. M. Tsuzaki. 1975.
Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages Quarterly 9.438-40; W. Viereck. 1977. Studies in
Linguistics 1.145-49; L. V. Zuck.
1976. Language Learning 26.191-98.
Gordon R. 1967. Sub-regional speech variation in vocabulary, grammar, and
pronunciation. Cooperative research project no. 3046 final report. Eric
Document 019 263. [33 natives of Alabama, East Tennessee, Northeast
Mississippi, Northwest Georgia]. Investigates degree of subregional homogeneity
in vocabulary, pronunciation, and sentence structure; finds generational differences
greatest in vocabulary and least in grammar.
Projects Administration. 1939. Kentucky: a guide to the bluegrass state. New
York: Harcourt Brace. Pp. 89-90, on dialect.
Projects Administration. 1939. Tennessee: a guide to the state. New York:
Viking Press. Pp. 134-35, notes on speech.
- HISTORICAL STUDIES
(includes items overlapping sections III - XII)
Edward A. 1899. You-uns. Nation 68.476 (June 22). Cites use of term in
Tyndale's New Testament translation (1525) and reports we-dem and you-dem in Lancaster
Eliza F. 1896. Cracker English. Chatauquan 23.85-88. [Georgia]. Discusses
analogues of rural Southern white speech in Chaucer, Shakespeare, and other
British writers; derives cracker from corn cracker .
Rickie Zayne. 1976. Philosophical and religious language in early Kentucky
wills. Kentucky Folklore Record 22.2.3944. Typical religious phrases used in
18th- and early 19th-century Kentucky wills.
Dora S. 1951. Variant pronunciations from Rockingham County, North Carolina,
1829-1860. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina thesis. xiii + 46 pp.
[North Central North Carolina]. Analyzes variant pronunciations of eight
plantation overseers as reflected in their naive spellings in monthly reports
to the plantation owner.
William Aspenwall. 1915. In Shakespeare's America. Harper's 131.436-45.
Antiquated speech and other relics from Kentucky, where "the purest
English on earth" is spoken."
Rose Altizer. 1950. Disappearing dialect. Antioch Review 10.279-88. Describes
mountaineers' English as Elizabethan; lists archaisms in phonology, morphology,
syntax, and lexicon.
Fisk P. 1873. Peculiar usages of English--observed in North Carolina. Nation
16.148-49. Comment from Chapel Hill on pronunciation and words; see response
Calvin S. 1889. Dialectal survivals in Tennessee. Modern Language Notes
4.205-09. Same as American Notes and Queries 4.16-18 (Nov. 9, 1889) and 4.64-66
(Dec. 7, 1889). Thirty-nine forms found in Tennessee and in Uncle Remus stories
that are identical to forms in Shakespeare.
Calvin S. 1891. Other dialectal forms in Tennessee. Publication of the Modern
Language Association 6.171-75. Same as American Notes and Queries 8.49-50 (Dec.
5, 1891); 8.62-63 (Dec. 12, 1891); 8.75 (Dec. 19, 1891). Surveys phonological
and lexical peculiarities of Tennessee speech and compares them to Shakespeare,
Pope, and William Bartlett.
Calvin S. 1894. Dialectal survivals from Spenser. Dial 16.40. Comments on
nonstandard forms with long history.
Calvin S. 1897. Dialectal survivals from Chaucer. Dial 22.139-41. Compiles
analogs of modern-day nonstandard forms in Chaucer; refers to previous item.
J. Douglas. 1913. Terms from Tennesee. Dialect Notes 4.58.
N. C. 1878. The dialects of our country. Appleton's Journal, new series
5.411-17. Survey of regional and local varieties of American English, with
special reference to settlement history, and emphasis on pronunciation and
Charles. 1929. The evolution of our dialect. West Virginia Review 7.9,28. [West
Virginia]. Discussion of dialect forms author says have passed from currency
within previous generation.
Charles. 1934. Remnants of archaic English in West Virginia. West Virginia
Review 12.77-79,94-95. Discussion of archaisms with precedents cited from
Elizabethan drama and other British literary sources.
L. C. 1888. "We-uns" and "you-uns." Century 36.477-78. [Virginia]. Says he has
never heard forms in state, even though writers about Virginia put them in
mouths of their characters.
Maristan. 1929. American speech as practiced in the Southern highlands. Century
117.617-23. Surveys characteristic Southern mountain speech and compares it to
earlier British usage.
Mildred P. 1946. King's English reigns in the Kentucky knobs. In Kentucky
10.3.35. Brief defense of mountain speech, whose speakers are "linguistic
purists and sole custodians of His Majesty's diction as it was originally
Josiah H. 1916. Old, early, and Elizabethan English in the Southern mountains.
Dialect Notes 4.283-97. [Appalachians from West Virginia to North Alabama].
Gives special attention to similarities between Appalachian and Shakespearean
forms. Reprinted in Appalachian Heritage 9.27-37.
Josiah H. 1921. Early English slang survivals in the mountains of Kentucky.
Dialect Notes 5.115-17. Relic vocabulary from Old, Elizabethan, and Irish
Josiah H. 1921. First warrant issued in Breathitt County, Kentucky. Dialect
Notes 5.119-20. Short document containing naive spellings.
Josiah H. 1976. Combs: a study in comparative philology and genealogy.
Pensacola, FL: Privately printed. Traces naming patterns in Combs family since
Mona R. 1958. Archaic words used in North Eastern Kentucky. Morehead, KY:
Morehead State College thesis. iv + 60 pp. [Rowan County]. Compiles 679 words
collected from older residents of county by high school students in effort to
compare vocabulary of Shakespeare with that of Kentucky mountains; lists 100
Middle English words (pp. 56-59), and presents statisticl data on informants'
knowledge and use of them.
Alan. 1984. The Scotch-Irish influence on American English. American Speech
59.310-31. 5 maps. Discusses problems in making cross-Atlantic comparisons and
identifies thirty-three items used in Midland area of U.S. that reflect
influence of Scotch-Irish immigrants.
Edward Everett. 1947. The speech of the pioneers. Arkansas Historical Quarterly
6.117-31. Place naming patterns, contributions from American Indians, and
development of "words, phrases, and expressions [i.e., for hunting,
fishing, social life, and food, terms for reproach and comparison] which [the
pioneers] themselves coined and which grew out of the incidents and experience
of their daily lives." Reprinted in W. K. McNeil, ed. 1984. The charm is broken: readings in
Arkansas and Missouri folklore, 48-58. Little Rock: August House.
Alford Paul. 1936. Elizabethan left-overs in Allen County, Kentucky. Bowling
Green: Western Kentucky University thesis. 52 pp. Condensed in Bulletin of the
Kentucky Folklore Society, (Jan. 1938), 13-16. Discusses obsolete words,
pronunciations, grammatical features, meanings, and idioms.
Hollander, A. N. J. 1934. Uber die Bevolkerung der Appalachen. Zeitschrift der
Gesellschaft fur Erdkunde 7/8.241-56.
Rev. H. A., and Edith M. Fairchild. 1895. Tennessee mountains in word lists.
Dialect Notes 1.370-77. [Mountains areas of Tennessee, North Carolina,
Kentucky]. 145 words and phrases, fifteen exclamations, comments on grammar and
Edward. 1894. Folk-speech in America. Century Magazine 48.867-75. Points out
antiquity of folk usages and compares them to 16th-, 17th-, and 18th-century
British citations; scattered references to Southern usages.
Norman E. 1956. Tarheel talk: an historical study of the English language in
North Carolina to 1860. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. 324
pp. Compendium of linguistic, historical, and cultural material from
unpublished letters, diaries, plantation books, church records, legal papers,
and other manuscripts in Southern Historical Collection at Univ. of North
Carolina at Chapel Hill library. Surveys patterns of vocabulary, grammar, and
pronunciation, as well as language attitudes and language variation, as
revealed in these documents. Reviews: W. Barritt. 1957. Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 65.375-76; D. E. Baughan. 1957. American Speech
32.283-86; M. Bryant. 1958. Midwest Folklore 8.53-56; R. Burchfield. 1958. Review of English
Studies n.s. 9. 454; P.
Christophersen. 1958. English Studies 39.183-85; H. Galinsky. 1958. Anglia 76.452-60; R. Gaskin. 1957. Carolina Quarterly
9.58-59; W. C. Greet. 1958. Modern
Language Notes 73.64-67; B.
Kottler. 1957. South Atlantic Quarterly 56.512-14; J. B. Lewis. 1957. North Carolina English Teacher
14.3.16-17; R. I. McDavid, Jr.
1958. Journal of English and Germanic Philology 57.160-65; S. Potter. 1957. Modern Language Review
52.624; T. Pyles. 1957. Language 33.256-61; R. H. Spiro, Jr. 1957. Journal of Southern History
23.375-76; C. K. Thomas. 1958.
Quarterly Journal of Speech 44.196; R. Walser. 1957. North Carolina Historical Review 34.86-87; R. M. Wilson. 1958. Year's Work in
English Studies 37.67.
Jewell K. 1969. Old English survivals in mountain speech. English Journal
58.1224-27. [Southern Appalachia, Ozarks]. Vocabulary and grammar typical of
old-fashioned mountain speech, with analogues cited from Chaucer and
John, Jr. 1901. The southern mountaineer. Scribner's Magazine 29.385- 99. Pp.
394-95, claims that "in his speech, the mountaineer touches a very remote
past... . there are perhaps two hundred words, meanings, and pronunciations
that in the mountaineer's speech go back unchanged to Chaucer" and cites
John P. 1890. [Marble terms from Russellville, Kentucky]. Dialect Notes 1.24.
John P. 1890. Kentucky words and phrases. Dialect Notes 1.63-69. Glossaries of
unusual words and usages and of pronunciations and grammatical forms.
John P. 1891. Kentucky words. Dialect Notes 1.229-34. Words, pronunciations,
J. C. 1899. [You-uns]. Nation 68.436 (June 8). Says you-uns and we-uns are prevalent in
Southern mountain and Piedmont areas settled originally from PA.
Opal W. 1982. Southern linguistic variation as revealed through overseers' letters,
1829-1858. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina dissertation. Abstract in
Dissertation Abstracts International 43.1957A. [North Carolina, Alabama].
Compares how often fourteen white overseers from antebellum period delete
articles, subject pronouns, verb be, and unaccented syllables with
how often present-day black speakers delete them, and finds only limited
similarity between two groups, thus casting some doubt on overseers as being
source of features in black English.
Dorothy. 1984. Old, old English in them thar hills. Tennessee Philological
Bulletin 21.80-81. [Community called "Little Smoky Ridge"]. Cites
fifteen forms, including ax, ye, fotch, antic, holpt, sallett, and poke.
Virgil. 1950. Philology in the funnies. Word Study 25.5.8. Author contends that
Southern mountaineers speak "Elizabethan English of the purest
lineage" and suggests that this dialect can be found in comic strip such
as Snuffy Smith, whose characters use the term bodacious.
William S. 1975. Mountain language and the English classics. Mountain Review
2.1.13-15. Chronicles Kentucky mountaineer's evolution from attempt to abandon
his native speech patterns while at college to defense of mountain expressions
as having "ancient legitimate lineage" in works of Chaucer,
Shakespeare, and Pope.
Atcheson L. 1937. Kentucky pioneers. American Speech 12.75-76. Twelve lexical
items from 1844 document.
Richard J., ed. 1953. A burlesque sermon: "there was an old man, in old
times who was called Abraham." The Carolina backcountry on the eve of the revolution: the journal and
other writings of Charles Woodmason, Anglican itinerant, pp. 150-61. Chapel
Hill: University of North Carolina Press. A sermon translated into the
"Quohee language," Hooker's characterization of speech of
Edwin R. 1925. The American colloquial idiom, 1830-1860. Chicago: University of
Chicago dissertation. Based on, among others, work of Joseph G. Baldwin,
William A. Caruthers, David Crockett, John Pendleton Kennedy, A. B. Longstreet,
William Gilmore Simms, William T. Thompson, Thomas Bangs Thorpe.
Ed. 1965. Hillbilly music: source and resource. Journal of American Folklore
78.257-66. On origin and diffusion of "hillbilly."
Edward. 1972. The great South, ed. by W. Magruder Drake and Robert R. Jones.
Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press. Originally published in 1875.
Dialect-forms of expression--diet, pp. 784-91. Insightful comments on Southern
linguistic habits by Northerner on extensive travel throughout region; includes
John T. 1949. Supplementing the Dictionary of American English. American Speech
24.149-51. Twenty-one items from Col. David Crockett's writings not recorded in
Hans. 1928. The origin of the dialectal differences in spoken American English.
Modern Philology 25.385-95. Reviews forty years of research by scholars before
the Linguistic Atlas and relates features of British pronunciations, especially
postvocalic /r/, to Atlantic states, and concludes pronunciation of lowland
South derives primarily from Southeastern England and that of Piedmont and
mountain South from Scotch.
Hans. 1970. English sources of some American regional words and verb forms.
American Speech 45.60-68. Compares data from Survey of English Dialects and
other British sources with historical dictionaries of American English and
Linguistic Atlas data for fourteen words from farm life and four verb principal
parts; finds "New England has preserved some words that were brought over
from the East Midland, while Pennsylvania and the South owe some of their
expressions to the North of England--if not to Scotland and to Ulster."
Mitford McLeod. 1931. Western and Southern vernacular. The beginnings of
American English: essays and comments, pp. 113-22. Chicago: University of
Chicago. Reprinted in 1963, 1973. Discusses and compiles short list of tall
talk associated with David Crockett and his like; reprints early Sherwood
Mitford McLeod. 1931. Southwestern vernacular. The beginnings of American
English: essays and comments, pp. 151-63. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Reprinted in 1963, 1973. 1869 description of TX English.
Zell. 1975. Mountain dialect. The mountains within me, pp. 76-88. Toccoa, GA:
Commercial. [North Georgia]. Autobiographical, anecdotal account of richness
and archaicness of mountain speech; frequent comparison of usages of Chaucer
and Shakespeare to fading usages in mountains.
Adeline. 1891. The mountaineers of middle Tennessee. Journal of American
Folklore 4.314-20. Describes mountain people, including some samples of speech,
language of Cumberland Ridge area of Middle Tennessee.
Michael. 1989. The roots of Appalachian English. Methods in dialectology, ed.
by Alan R. Thomas, 480-91. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. Abstract in
Newsletter of the American Dialect Society 19.2.12. Outlines research project
to compare verbal auxiliaries in Southern Appalachian and Scotch-Irish English.
Michael. 1989. Exploring the roots of Appalachian English. English World-Wide
Michael. 1989. David Crockett and the rhetoric of Tennessee politics. Crockett
at two hundred: New perspectives on the man and the myth, ed. by Michael Lofaro
and Joe Cummings, 42-66. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press.
Michael. 1991. The roots of Appalachian English: Scotch-Irish or Southern
British? Journal of the Appalachian Studies Association, ed. by John Inscoe, 177-91.
Johnson City, TN: East Tennessee State University Center for Appalachian
Studies and Services.
Michael. 1997. The Scotch-Irish influence on Appalachian English: How broad?
How deep? Ulster and North America: Transatlantic perspectives on the
Scotch-Irish, ed. by Curtis Wood and Tyler Blethen, 189-212. Tuscaloosa:
University of Alabama Press.
Michael. 1997. Making the trans-Atlantic link between varieties of English: the
Case of Plural Verbal -s. Journal of English Linguistics 25.122-41.
James. 1889. Folk-lore of the Carolina mountains. Journal of American Folklore
2.95-104. [North Carolina]. Includes remarks on mountain dialect.
Margaret W. 1913. The speech of the mountains. The Carolina mountains, pp. 171-81.
Boston: Houghton Mifflin. [North Carolina]. Catalogs archaisms reminiscent of
Shakespeare or Chaucer in mountain speech, "the most purely
`American'" of varieties.
Stuart. 1936. Tennessee expressions. American Speech 11.373. Notes
"Shakespearean phrases" poke, proud, admire, stob, as well as novel expressions in Cumberland Valley area.
Henderson D. 1910. The English of the mountaineer. Atlantic 105.276- 78.
Shakespearean (archaic) expressions in Cumberland mountains.
Bess Alice. 1931. Folk speech of the Cumberland. American Speech 7.89-95.
[Pikeville, Kentucky]. 116 terms that have "a Shakespeare flavor"
collected in East Kentucky around 1930.
Sylvester. 1891. Dialectical studies in West Virginia. Publication of the Modern
Language Association 6.3.161-70. Also published in Colorado College Studies
2.28-38. Pronunciation and a few notes on lexicon and grammar.
Maude L. 1895. Like a mountain torrent. Canadian Magazine 5.480- 84. Mountain
James Watt. 1924. The speech of the land of saddle-bags. Quarterly Journal of
Speech 10.230-37. Reports Kentucky localisms and calls for more respect of
area's speech patterns, which "is more closely akin to Elizabethan English
than any other dialect spoken today."
John R. 1986. Social contact and linguistic diffusion. Language 62.245-90.
Explores interplay of internal and external factors in possible linguistic
diffusion of Hiberno English (does) + be habitual auxiliary
into New World black speech but concludes that "a hypothesis which
involves decreolization from creole does + (be)" that
incorporates possible influences from Irish and British varieties of English
provides most likely explanation of development of verb form.
George S. 1888. Notes of "we-uns" and "you-uns." Century 36.799. Says both pronouns were
used in Virginia in 1860s.
Hubert G. 1927. The speech of our fathers. Kentucky Folklore and Poetry
Magazine 2.2.6-7. [Kentucky]. Discounts myth of Elizabethan English but says
local speech is integral to people's heritage and will flourish despite
quixotic English teachers; appends list of archaisms.
C. Alphonse. 1891. The dialect of Miss Murfree's mountaineer. Christian
Advocate 52.3.12-13 (Jan. 17).
Charles Forster. 1886. Southern dialect in life and literature. Southern
Charles Forster. 1886. On southernisms. Transactions of the American
Philological Association 17.34-46
speech of our fathers. 1927. Kentucky Folklore and Poetry Magazine 2.6-7.
Val W. 1888. [Comment]. Century 36.799. Cites use of we-uns and you-uns in South Carolina,
Tennessee, and by "piney-wood tackeys" in Georgia; also notes your-all and our-all .
John M., Jr. 1916. Old, early, and Elizabethan English in the southern
mountains: addenda and corrigenda to an article by J. H. Combs. Dialect Notes
4.350-52. Critique of Combs items above.
George M. 1929. The effect of movements of population upon American dialects.
Linguistic Society of America Bulletin 4.22-25. Surveys immigrant stocks in
colonies and early republic and points out ways historians and historical
information can help linguists compile a dialect atlas.
Stith. 1952. Killed up. American Speech 27.235. Kentucky usage. [Perryville,
Kentucky]. Cites 1836 and 1951 occurrences of the intensifying verb.
Richard. 1962. "Buncombe." The North Carolina miscellany, pp. 150- 51. Traces term for trivial and
high-sounding verbiage to early 19th-century Congressman from W North Carolina
county by the name.
Floyd. 1949. The Southern mountaineers' archaic English. Georgia Review
3.219-25. Classic case surveying archaic grammar and pronunciation and saying
that Chaucer and Shakespeare "would in many respects feel almost at
home" in Southern Appalachia today.
Cratis D. 1961. A E I O U: Vowels and diphthongs in mountain speech. Mountain
Life and Work 37.8-11. Relates features of vowel pronunciation in mountains to
18th-century colonial American and other varieties of speech.
Elizabeth Joan. 1953. The grammar of plantation overseers' letters, Rockingham
County [North Carolina]. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina thesis.
ix + 59 pp. Based on correspondence of eight overseers with plantation owner
from 1829-60, studies parts of speech and sentence grammar; finds archaic
usages, lack of subject-verb concord, and other features.
Charles M. 1929. Elizabethan American. Atlantic 144.238-44. [Appalachia,
Ozarks]. Cites linguistic and cultural traits of mountains that have survived
"from Elizabethan England."
Appalachian relic: notes on "swarp." 1981. Appalachian Journal 8.203-05. Unsigned document found
in Knott County, Kentucky, Public Library that recounts improbable tales of
Mary Sheila. 1952. A lexical study of the vocabulary of Harriette Arnow's
regional novel Hunter's Horn. Charlottesville: University
of Virginia thesis. 71 pp. Study of pp. 1-150 of novel to discover how well standard
dictionaries record regional language; classifies into six lists 200 terms and
senses not recorded in them.
Sheila. 1953. Survivals in Kentucky. American Speech 27.306-07. Note based on
James. c1940. Brief glossary of Tennessee idiom. Typescript prepared under
auspices of the W.P.A. 19 pp.
Howard F. 1927. West Virginia dialect. American Speech 3.68. Says 210 of terms
cited by Carey Woofter are unfamiliar to the author in Maryland and questions
how many of them are localisms; suggest that Woofter's word-list be
supplemented by other West Virginians.
Bonnie S. 1979. Listen to the mountains. Searcy, AR: privately printed.
Mountain expressions and phrases, pp. 1-13; Usage of words, pp. 14-27; Sayings,
Donald B. 1978. Notes on the slang and folk speech of Knoxville, Knox County,
Tennessee. Tennessee Folklore Society Bulletin 44.134-42. [15 adults]. Seventy
items collected in 1974-75.
Linda S. 1981. Rural expressions in Bedford County, Tennessee. Murfreesboro:
Middle Tennessee State University thesis. [South Central Tennessee].
Investigates 151 words and phrases; compares speakers by age and educational
level and forms according to usage and familiarity.
Linda S. 1981. Rural expressions in Bedford County. Tennessee Linguistics
2.1.8-16. [South Central Tennessee]. Compares how familiar older and younger
generations are with over 100 expressions.
Leonidas, and Richard Walser. 1974. Folk speech. Gateway to North Carolina
Folklore, p. 7. Raleigh: North Carolina State Univesity Press.
Robert. 1991. A few examples of the old mountain idiom. The western North
Carolina almanac and book of facts, 146-47. Franklin, NC: Sanctuary Press.
Irene. 1943. Picturesque speech. Tennessee Folklore Society Bulletin 9.3.4.
B. A. 1931. Folk speech in the Kentucky mountain cycle of Percy Mackaye.
American Speech 6.264-76. Account of metaphor, blending, functional change,
compounding, folk etymology, and false analysis that occur in writing of the
Beulah Brummett. 1976. The way we said things. When grandma was a girl, 109-10.
Oak Ridge, TN: The Oak Ridger. List of 29 terms.
James W. 1957. The folk vocabulary of Estill County, Kentucky. Lexington:
University of Kentucky thesis. xx + 89 pp. [4 elderly, uneducated natives, East
Kentucky]. Compiles glossary of 2,000 items, but does not relate material to
other localities or regions.
S. S. 1956. A folk saying of Western North Carolina. North Carolina Folklore
J. D. 1913. Terms from Tennessee. Dialect Notes 4.58. [Southeast Tennessee].
Marie. 1937. Old time sayings and old tales. The folk life of a Kentucky
mountain community, pp. 526-50. Nashville: George Peabody College thesis. [East
Kentucky]. Mostly transcripts of stories, but a few items on
"doctoring" and other matters.
Cal. 1979. Southern mountain sayings. The Walton war and tales of the Great
Smoky Mountains, pp. 141-90. Lakemont, GA: Copple House. [Western North
Carolina]. List of 266 "quaint and descriptive expressions" with
explanatory notes to include the circumstances under which expressions were
used and to analyze each "for a better understanding of its meaning and
background in the language of the mountain people."
Charles. 1936. West Virginia expletives. West Virginia Review 13.346-47. Lists
and discusses colorful expressions and curses for surprise, anger, and
Sam, and A. W. Vick. 1972. Hillbilly cookin 2: more recipes, more sayings.
Thorn Hill, TN: Clinch Mountain Lookout. [East Tennessee]. Appalachian talk,
pp. 59-60; What the old folks said, pp. 61-62. Thirty-seven lexical and
Craig M. 1987. American regional dialects: a word geography. Ann Arbor:
University of Michigan Press. xiii + 317 pp. 92 maps. Comprehensive description
of character of American geographical dialects, based on lexical and
morphological data from Linguistic Atlas of the United States and Canada and
Dictionary of American Regional English. Review: T. C. Frazer. 1987. American Speech 62.154-59.
Frederic G. 1985. Dictionary of American regional English, A-C. Cambridge, MA:
Harvard University Press. clvi + 903 pp. Numerous maps. First volume of
five-volume, comprehensive historical dictionary of American folk vocabulary,
based on 1700 interviews and on printed sources; introduction includes
explanation of mapping and regional labels, essay on changes in American folk
speech, guide to pronunciation, text of questionnaire, and list of informants.
Reviews: M. Ching. 1987.
Southeastern Conference on Linguistics Review 11.195-203; V. G. McDavid. 1987.
Journal of English Linguistics 20.249-54; J. B. McMillan. 1987. Alabama Review
40.157-58; T. K. Pratt. 1986. Canadian Journal of Linguistics 31.179-85; W.
Viereck. 1986. English World-Wide 7.317-20; W. Wolfram. 1986. American Speech 61.345-52.
Elizabeth Greear. 1955. A lexical study of the vocabulary of Harriette Arnow's
regional novel, Hunter's Horn. Charlottesville: University
of Virginia thesis. 53 pp. Continues approach of Armstrong for second third of
novel (pp. 150-300).
Cal. 1979. The Walton war and tales of the great smoky mountains. Lakemont, GA:
Anthony. 1990. A folk medical lexicon of south central Appalachia. Johnson
City, TN: East Tennessee State University.
Maristan. 1928. Glossary. The happy mountain, pp. 311-13. New York: Literary
Guild. Eighty-eight terms from novel.
Maristan. 1929. Glossary. Homeplace, pp. 273-75. New York: Viking. Eighty-six
terms from novel, many the same as from preceding item.
Maristan. 1932. Glossary. The weather tree, pp. 297-98. New York: Viking.
Sixty-one terms from novel.
Maristan. 1933. Glossary. Glen hazard, pp. 321-22. New York: Knopf.
Twenty-three terms from novel.
Richard. 1943. [Glossary]. The jack tales: told by R. M. Ward and his kindred
in the Beech Mountain section of Western North Carolina and by other
descendants of Council Harmon (1803-1896) elsewhere in the Southern mountains;
with three tales from Wise County, Virginia, ed. by Richard Chase, pp. 201-02.
New York: Houghton-Mifflin. Twenty-nine terms.
Mary Ruth. 1980. Logging lingo: Compiled from oral history tapes and otherwise
as noted. ts, Great Smoky Mountains National Park Library.
Joe. 1986. Explanation of Tennessee words and terms. The Tennessee sampler, ed.
by Peter Jenkins et al., p. 276. Nashville: Thomas Nelson. Ten items.
Joseph D. 1962. Folk speech from North Carolina. Southern Folklore Quarterly
26.301-25. List of 750 items of dialect, slang, and colloquial usage collected
from freshmen students at North Carolina State and compared to dictionaries and
Frank Brown collection of North Carolina folklore materials.
Joseph D. 1962. Folk speech from North Carolina. North Carolina Folklore
10.6-12. List of 649 items.
Kenneth, and Mary Clarke. 1974. Kentucky words and brief expressions. The
harvest and the reapers: oral traditions of Kentucky, pp. 17-31. Lexington:
University Press of Kentucky. Surveys early observation of Kentucky folkspeech
Mary Washington. 1964. Jesse Stuart's writings preserve passing folk idiom.
Southern Folklore Quarterly 28.157-98. [Northeast Kentucky]. Generous sampling
of vocabulary items from Stuart's fiction.
Mary Washington. 1972. To dance in a hog trough: a folk expression. Kentucky
Folklore Record 18.68-69. Says term still has currency in Kentucky as humorous
remark to any girl whose younger sister is likely to marry first.
Josiah H. 1918. A word-list from the South. Dialect Notes 5.31-40. Mainly
mountain English from Arkansas, Kentucky, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia.
Josiah H. 1921. Kentucky items. Dialect Notes 5.118-19. Twenty-seven words and
Josiah H. 1921. Transpositions and scrambled words. Dialect Notes 5.119.
[Kentucky]. Eleven items, mostly metathesis.
Josiah H. 1922. A word-list from Georgia. Dialect Notes 5.183-84. From Uncle
Remus stories; words said to be used by blacks and Kentucky mountaineers.
Josiah H. 1923. Addenda from Kentucky. Dialect Notes 5.242-43. Twenty-one
Josiah H. 1944. A word-list from the Southern highlands. Publication of the
American Dialect Society 2.17-23. [Southern Appalachia]. Includes list of
figures of speech and idioms.
Josiah H. 1959. Dialect terms in boys' games. Kentucky Folklore Record
5.30,136. Nine terms from Knott Co, Kentucky.
Rodger. 1971. Appalachian / part naI/ "almost": a notice and various
etymologies. American Speech 46.304. [West Virginia, Kentucky]. Believes term,
equivalent to "pretty nigh," is influenced by Scotch-Irish pronunciation
of Gaelic term.
Joseph Earl. 1974. A chronicle of corn whiskey from King James' Ulster
plantation to America's Appalachians and the moonshine life. New York:
Scribner's. Pp. xix-xvi, glossary of terms used in Southern Appalachian
Alford P. 1950. A word-list from southern Kentucky. Publication of the American
Dialect Society 13.22-23. Twenty-two miscellaneous items compared to British
Christine B. 1981. Appalachia: a separate place, a unique people. Parsons, WV:
McClain. Why do Appalachians talk that way?, pp. 30-35; Polyfoxing, a lost art being revived,
p. 63. Presents standard case that mountain English is "older in its forms
and rich in unique vocabulary and in that sense at least is purer English"
and explains polyfoxing as the "art of making homemade
Hubert J. 1973. Glossary. "Pon my honor hit's the truth": tall tales
from the mountains, pp. 93-102. Murfreesboro, NC: Johnson. Glossary of 323
Zeta C. 1953. A word-list from the Appalachians and the Piedmont area of North
Carolina. Publication of the American Dialect Society 19.8-14. [North Carolina,
Kentucky, Tennessee]. 113 items collected over period of 30 years.
Ruth. 1960. Some queries about regionalisms. American Speech 35.298- 300.
[North Carolina, Arkansas]. Brief comments about three terms.
Meriwether B. 1941. A lexicographical study of the vocabulary of Greenup
County, Kentucky, set forth in Jesse Stuart's Beyond Dark Hills . Charlottesville:
University of Virginia thesis. [Northeast Kentucky]. 71 pp. Lists 250 words
from Stuart's autobiographical novel not in current dictionaries; points out
tautological expressions, Scottish retentions, and unusual types of compounds.
L. R. 1944. Tobacco words. Publication of the American Dialect Society 2.63-72.
[Kentucky, East Tennessee, Southwest Virginia]. Vocabulary of tobacco farming;
additions from Southern Virginia by George P. Wilson.
Doris S. 1955. A lexical study of the vocabulary of a part of Harriett Arnow's
regional novel, Hunter's Horn . Charlottesville: University
of Virginia thesis. 72 pp. Continues approach of Armstrong for final third of
Michael R. 1979. "Redd up." American Speech 54.141-45. Cites term from Pennsylvania to Carolinas and
attributes its distribution to early Scotch-Irish.
Fred A. 1946. "Swarp" and some other Kentucky words. American Speech
21.270-73. [Northeast Kentucky]. Glossary from Rowan County.
Bethany K. 1981. Appalachian glossary. An encyclopedia of East Tennessee, ed.
by Jim Stokely and Jeff D. Johnson, pp. 16-18. Oak Ridge, TN: Children's
Museum. 102 items.
Mary Lou. 1974/75. Mountain sayens: "dog days" to "dogwood
winter." Mountain Call 2.31
Paul. 1971. Dictionary for Yankees and other uneducated people. Highlands, NC:
Merry Mountaineesr. 36 pp. Compendium of unusual expressions and spellings,
with cartoons, for tourist trade.
Paul. 1975. Thangs Yankees don' know: dialect, lawin', greens, recipes, squar'
dancin', beauty aids, wild life, remedies, signs, stills, and folks-fire
things. Highlands, NC: Merry Mountaineers. 40 pp. Thangs yuh should larn!, pp.
4-5; Yore wrong!, p. 15; Shor and sartain: redundancies, p.
17; Folk expressions, p. 29; The way it was said!, p. 31. Collection
of unusual tidbits about mountain life for tourists.
Paul. 1976. Southern sayin's for Yankees and other immigrants: plus-- Yankee
woids that "break up" Southerners. Highlands, NC: Merry Mountaineers.
36 pp. Compendium of unusual expressions and spellings, with cartoons, for
T. J. 1936. Folk speech of middle Tennessee. American Speech 11.275- 76.
Reports sixty-three words and expressions used in at least five counties.
T. J. 1939. The language of the Tennessee mountain regions. American Speech
14.89-92. 150 items collected in five counties of Middle Tennessee.
T. J. 1940. More Tennessee expressions. American Speech 15.446-48. Additions to
earlier Tennessee lists.
Ph. H. 1936. "Few of" and "few bit." American Speech 11.278-79. [Giles
County, Southwest Virginia]. Reports two expressions as intensifiers equivalent
H. A. and Edith M. Fairchild. 1895. Tennessee mountains
in word lists. Dialect Notes
Harold and J. Karl Nicholas. 1993. Smoky mountain voices:
Harold and J. Karl Nicholas. 1993. Smoky mountain voices: A lexicon of southern
Appalachian speech. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky.
Paul M. 1974. Bits of mountain speech gathered between 1910 and 1965 along the
mountains bordering North Carolina and Tennessee. Boone, NC: Appalachian
Consortium. 31 pp. Dictionary of 556 items, with citations. Review: R. Whitener. 1975. Appalachian Journal
Christine D. 1952. A word geography of Kentucky. Lexington: University of
Kentucky thesis. Data from questionnaire. iv + 122 pp. 49 maps. [89 speakers,
29 counties]. Based on postal survey, finds that Kentucky "is intercepted
by no main linguistic boundaries, but lies entirely within the broad Midland
speech area" and that the state's vocabulary is "South Midland with
restricted occurrence of occasional Southern terms."
Aubrey. 1976. Mountain-ese: basic grammar for Appalachia. Radford, VA:
Commonwealth. 105 pp. Popular dictionary of Southern Appalachian speech, with
illustrative citation for each entry.
Hazel. 1967. Some folk expressions from northeastern North Carolina. North
Carolina Folklore 15.56-57. Layman's collection of localisms, all well known.
Charles S. 1966. Corn: the mainstay of the Cumberland Valley. Kentucky Folklore
Record 13.87-91. Includes comments on localisms.
Charles S. 1968. Tobacco: cash crop of the Cumberland Valley. Kentucky Folklore
Record 14.38-43. Tobacco lexicon used in Central Kentucky.
Joseph S. 1972. Sayings from Old Smoky. Asheville, NC: Cataloochee. 149 pp.
Comprehensive dictionary (pp. 36-144) based on personal interviews and
observations, as well as on other printed sources. Reviews: L. Montell. 1972. Kentucky Folklore
Record 18.87; C. Williams. 1973.
Appalachian Journal 1.61.
Joseph S. 1978. Glossary. Yarns and tales from the Great Smokies, pp. 74-76.
Asheville, NC: Cataloochee. 54 items. Review: K. B. Harder. 1980. Tennessee Folklore Society Bulletin
Francis. 1941. The way we see it. North Georgia Review 6.129-30. Glossary of
twenty-nine expressions mainly from Southern Appalachian area.
Norman A. 1959. A vocabulary of burley tobacco growing in Fayette County,
Kentucky. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University thesis. [North Central
Kentucky]. Compiles list of 275 lexical items used by burley tobacco growers to
show usefulness of topical investigation of vocabulary of local industry.
Norman A. 1966. A burley tobacco word list from Lexington, Kentucky.
Publication of the American Dialect Society 45.1-27. [North Central Kentucky].
Revision of preceding item.
William W. 1986. In a manner of speaking. Around home in Unicoi county, 373-81.
Johnson City, TN: Overmountain Press.
Atcheson L. 1939. To come to fetch fire. Journal of American Folklore
53.123-24. Says the Chaucerian idiom, meaning "to come for a moment and
then leave," is still used in Virginia and elsewhere in the South.
Martha C. 1981. Fifty years later and less: dialect loss in West Virginia.
Abstract in Newsletter of the American Dialect Society 13.3.7. Claims degree of
lexical dialect loss in state since Woofter's study can be correlated with
degree of speakers' education and with educational level of school teachers in
Sharon Elaine. 1982. Appalachian words. Smokies heritage book I, 98-99.
Gatlinburg, TN: Crescent.
Loyal and Jim Wayne Miller. 1992. Glossary of mountain speech. Southern
mountain speech, 63-120. Berea, KY: Berea College Press.
Audrey A. 1965. The Southern fiddling convention--a study: part I music and
musicians. Tennessee Folklore Society Bulletin 31.7-16. [North Carolina.
Virginia]. Includes comments on vocabulary.
Claire. 1961. Comment on "Brief lexical notes." Kentucky Folklore Record 7.77-78.
[Kentucky]. Comments on eight items in Woodbridge's article (Kentucky Folklore
Record 5.107-10 (1959).
Horace. 1917. A word-list from the mountains of Western North Carolina. Dialect
Notes 4.407-19. Extensive list, most items discussed in Kephart's Our
John T. 1939. West Virginia peculiarities. American Speech 14.155-56. A dozen
Hans. 1949. A word geography of the Eastern United States. Ann Arbor:
University of Michigan Press. xii + 252 pp. Based on Linguistic Atlas of New
England and Linguistic Atlas of the Middle and South Atlantic States, this atlas
shows geographical, but not social, distribution of traditional vocabulary from
Maine to South Carolina on 163 maps and subdivides Eastern states into eighteen
primary dialect areas based on distinctive vocabulary patterns. First study of
dialect geography of Atlantic states using Linguistic Atlas records; first
conclusive demonstration of three principal Eastern dialect areas--Northern,
Midland, and Southern--and their subareas. Reprinted in 1966. Reviews: E. B. Atwood. 1950. Word 6.194-97; E. B. Atwood. 1950. Geographical Review
40.510-12; C. Bonfante. 1951.
American Anthropologist 53.103-05; A. L. Davis. 1950. Journal of English and Germanic Philology 49.431-32; E. Dieth. 1953. English Studies
34.122-26; N. E. Eliason. 1951.
Modern Language Notes 66.487-89; H. M. Flasdieck. 1951. Anglia 70.335-36; L. Florez. 1952. Thesaurus 8.217-18; W. C. Greet. 1950. New York Times, p.
22 (Jan. 22); L. Grootaaers. 1954.
Leuvense Bijdragen 44.17; S. B.
Liljegren. 1952-53. Studia Neophilogica 25.193; R. I. McDavid, Jr. 1950. New York History 31.442-44; J. B. McMillan. 1951. Language
27.423-29; R. J. Menner. 1950.
American Speech 15.122-26; F. Mosse. 1951. Bulletin de la Societee Linguistique
de Paris 46.154-55; V. Pisane. 1952. Paideia 7.317-18; C. E. Reed. 1951. Modern Language
Quarterly 12.245-47; H. L. Smith,
Jr. 1951. Studies in Linguis tics 9.7-12; A. Sommerfelt. 1954. Norsk Tidsskrift for Sprogvidenskap 17.564-66; C. K. Thomas. 1950. Quarterly Journal
of Speech 36.262; J. N. Tidwell.
1954. Journal of American Folklore 67.222-23; H. Whitehall. 1950. Yale Review n.s. 39.556-58; R. M. Wilson. 1951. Year's Work in
English Studies 30.37.
Hugh C. 1944. A word-list from Buncombe County, North Carolina. Publication of
the American Dialect Society 2.24-27. [Western North Carolina]. Glossary of
items common to Buncombe County, North Carolina, and Logan County, Ohio.
Ted Roland. 1975-76. Folk vocabulary of Western North Carolina: some recent
changes. Appalachian Journal 3.279-84. [100 natives, ages 18-20, Western North
Carolina]. Investigates extent to which folk vocabulary is still known in four
areas of terminology: the house, the farm, common animals, and food; finds
"a striking loss of some local terms."
Dean B. 1936. Idioms in West Virginia. American Speech 11.63. Six miscellaneous
Raven I., Jr. and Virginia G. McDavid. 1973. The folk vocabulary of Eastern
Kentucky. Lexicography and dialect geography: festgabe for Hans Kurath, ed. by
Harald Scholler and John Reidy, pp. 147-64. Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner Verlag.
Same as Zeitschrift fur Dialektologie und Linguistik heft 9. 13 maps. Analyzes
distribution of Midland and Southern vocabulary in East Kentucky, using data
from Linguistic Atlas of the North Central States records made in 1950s.
Richard R., and Walburga von Raffler-Engel. 1975. A semantic analysis of some
religious terms of a snake-handling sect in Appalachia. Views on language, ed.
by Reza Ordoubadian and Walburga von Raffler-Engel, pp. 182- 91. Murfreesboro:
Middle Tennessee State University. Based on research in four Pentecostal
churches in Tennessee, studies terminology used in the Pentecostal experience
Virginia P. 1946. Folk speech of Pine Mountain, Kentucky. American Speech
21.188-92. [Southeast Kentucky]. Glossary, with explanatory notes, of
twenty-seven terms observed in two summers in the KY mountains.
Virginia P. 1952. A wordcatcher asks your help. Mountain Life and Work
28.3.23-24. Appeals for help in recording Southern Appalachian speech.
David W. 1949. The argot of the moonshiner. American Speech 24.3- 13. Glossary
of a hundred items, prefaced by comments on manufacture and prevalence of
illegal whisky in Kentucky.
David W. 1974. Kentucky moonshine. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky. The
argot of the craft, pp. 105-11; Glossary, pp. 113-27. Reviews: Anonymous. 1975. Journal of Southern
History 41.284-85; C. S. Guthrie.
1975. Kentucky Folklore Record 21.2.63-64; L. Pederson. 1979. American Speech 54.52-55.
David W. 1981. Language in the underworld. Lexington: University Press of
Kentucky. 417 pp. Includes scattered Southern material, including chapter on
Kentucky moonshiner argot (pp. 370-80) revised and expanded from preceding
item. Reviews: A. Burgess. 1982.
Times Literary Supplement, Jan. 22, p. 74; J. R. Gaskin. 1984. Sewanee Review 92.114-21; J. Hall. 1983. South Atlantic Quarterly
82.341-42; K. B. Harder. 1982.
American Speech 58.288; W. K.
McNeil. 1982. Mid-America Folklore 10; R. I. McDavid, Jr. 1983. American Studies 24.1,115; J. B. McMillan. 1982. Southeastern
Conference on Linguistics Review 6.138-39; G. Nunberg. 1982. New York Times Book Review, May 2, p.
9; L. Pederson. 1983. Modern
Philology 81.105-07; M. Salovesh.
1982. American Anthropologist 84.456-57; L. E. Seits. 1983. Names 31.211-13.
Jim Wayne. 1969. The vocabulary and methods of raising burley tobacco in
Western North Carolina. North Carolina Folklore 17.1.27-38. Explains terminology
used in production and marketing of tobacco.
Jim Wayne. 1979. An interview with Jim Wayne Miller. Appalachian Journal
6.207-25. P. 214, discusses treatment of taboo word bull and explains
substitutes for it in Southern Appalachia.
William E. 1940. Localisms. American Speech 15.83. Nine miscellaneous items
from mountains of West Virginia and Pennsylvania.
William Lynwood. 1975. Glossary. Ghosts along the Cumberland: death lore in the
Kentucky foothills, pp. 217-20. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press.
[South Central Kentucky]. Forty-six items.
William Lynwood. 1983. Glossary. Don't go up Kettle Creek: verbal legacy in the
upper Cumberlands, pp. 197-201. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press.
[South Central Kentucky]. Reviews: R. E. Corlew. 1984. Journal of Southern History 50.143-44; G. B. McKinney. 1984. Appalachian
Journal 11.255.59; J. H. Speer.
1984. Journal of American Folklore 97.480-81.
English: collection of mountain expressions reproduced for your enlightenment.
n.d. Asheville, NC: Tarmac Audio Visual Company. 10 pp. Popular glossary of
mountain terms in modified spelling with definitions; most items identical to
Weals item below.
vocabulary. 1932. Mountain Missionary, January.
words. 1982. Smokies heritage book I, 66-67. Gatlinburg, TN: Crescent.
J. Alexander, and Gordon Boger. 1983. Sayin's and meanin's. Recollections of
the Catawba Valley, pp. 63-64. Boone, NC: Appalachian Consortium. Thirty-seven
North Carolina terms that author says are misunderstood in the North.
Marvin H. 1957. The word-book of a backwoodsman. Ceres, VA: Backwoods Press. xi
+ 49 pp.
Mary C. 1958. A comparative study of the dialect vocabulary of East Tennessee
and Western North Carolina using selected words: a report of a special study.
Maryville, TN: Maryville College. [99 speakers, most natives, East Tennessee,
Western North Carolina]. Based on local questionnaires and on data from
Linguistic Atlas, finds predominant Midland usage but that education had little
correlation with use and recognition of vocabulary; also finds some differences
between North Carolina and Tennessee.
Phyllis J. 1946. A glossary of Virginia words. Publication of the American
Dialect Society 5.3-43. Preface by Hans Kurath. Based on 138 Virginia
Linguistic Atlas of the Middle and South Atlantic States field records; notes
geographical and social distribution of terms; gives thorough picture of
Virginia usage and greatly supplements B. W. Green. Reviews: R. I. McDavid, Jr. 1947. Studies in
Linguistics 5.21-24; B. J.
Whiting. 1946. Publication of the American Dialect Society 6.44-46. Comments
and additions by T. A. Kirby, W. L. McAtee, W. M. Miller, R. V. Mills, F. W.
Palmer, H. H. Petit. 1947. Publication of the American Dialect Society 8.11-38.
Carolina word list. 1918. Dialet Notes 5.18-20.
Carolina Department of Commerce. n.d. A dictionary of the Queen's English.
Raleigh, North Carolina. 24 pp. [North Carolina]. Booklet for tourists with
three short glossaries stressing archaic expressions still heard in state,
where English spoken is "not prose but metaphor."
Raymond K., and John B. Hopkins. 1977. The southern mountain vocabulary in the
low country of South Carolina and Georgia. An Appalachian symposium: essays
written in honor of Cratis D. Williams, pp. 215-23. Boone, NC: Appalachian
State University. Detailed study of "the geographical distribution of the
ten vocabulary items that were ... most frequently cited in early word lists of
mountain speech" and speculates whether their occurrence in the low
country is due to common sources in England or to diffusion in colonial times.
George C. 1934. Testimonies. American Speech 9.236. Reports goober grabber in Chattanooga for
"an Alabamian" and hairydick, "maverick," and Indian
River chicken .
Lee A. 1975. Sourmilk. American Speech 50.49. [Tennessee]. Reports term for
clabber having primary-secondary stress pattern.
Lee A. 1977. The dugout dairy. Tennessee Folklore Society Bulletin 43.88-89.
[East Tennessee]. Notes several senses of word dairy , including
reference to room in dugout area.
Lee A. 1981. Hey, Lucy. American Speech 56.63. [Jacksboro, Tennessee]. Points
out difficulty of ordering senses in Linguistic Atlas of the Gulf States
legendry, dictionary component of the atlas.
Paul E. 1930. How the "wood hicks" speak. Dialect Notes 6.86-89.
Words and phrases from Buckhannon, West Virginia.
Herbert H. 1947. Terms in a word-list from Virginia and North Carolina
(Publication of the American Dialect Society 6) common in the Blue Grass region
of Kentucky. Publication of the American Dialect Society 8.21-23. Confirmation
of findings of Woodard (see item below) by Kentucky native.
Mary O. 1915. Terms from the Tennessee mountains. Dialect Notes 4.242-43.
Twenty-four items from Gatlinburg; brief note on phonological and grammatical
Dennis R. 1969. Bituminous coal mining vocabulary of the eastern United States:
a pilot study in the collecting of geographically distributed occupational
vocabulary. Madison: University of Wisconsin dissertation. Abstract in
Dissertation Abstracts International 39.3929-30A. Reprinted in 1973 as
Bituminous coalmining vocabulary of the Eastern United States. Publication of
the American Dialect Society 59. 128 pp. Lexicon of 489 terms used by
bituminous coal miners in ten states in Midland and Midwest regions. Finds
northern coal-mining areas preserve more British terms while southern areas
have more native American ones. Review: K. Hameyer. 1980. Zeitschrift fur Dialektologie und Linguistik
Leonard. 1962. Additional notes on Archer Taylor's On Troublesome Creek. Kentucky Folklore
Record 8.142-44. [Kentucky]. Explains six terms cited by Woodbridge that come
from James Still's fiction, including bunty bird and corn capping.
Nellie Georgia. 1929. A word study of Mary Noailles Murfree's stories of the
Tennessee mountains. Chicago: University of Chicago thesis. Analyzes and
compiles regional vocabulary from seven of Murfree's novels.
Ronald G., and William S. Hooks. 1994. Glossary. Whistle over the mountain:
Timber, track and trails in the Tennessee smokies. Graphicom.
Steven A. 1973. Logging terms from the upper Cumberland river. Tennessee
Folklore Society Bulletin 39.35-36. [Western Kentucky]. Twenty- seven terms
from the logging industry.
Hubert G. 1911. An Eastern Kentucky dialect word-list. Dialect Notes 3.537-40.
150 items, many in modified phonetic transcription.
Henry W. 1930. Thirteen hundred old time words. Altoona, PA: Times Tribune. 75
Hugh Ike, II. 1951. A lexical study of the vocabulary of Alberta Pierson
Hannum's regional novel Thursday April . Charlottesville: University
of Virginia thesis. Identifies dialect and unusual words used by W North
Carolina novelist and crossreferences them to eight dictionaries.
Ted R. 1976. Folk vocabulary of Western NC: some recent changes. Appalachian
Journal 3.277-84. Discusses massive generational changes in folk vocabulary for
house and farm items and for wild and domestic animals.
Kathy, ed. 1976. The Thompson family dictionary. Touching home: A collection of
history and folklore from the Copper Basin, Fannin County area, 12-18. Blue
Richard H. 1916. Comment on "A word-list from Virginia." Dialect Notes 4.349-50. [Southwest
Virginia]. Discusses seven older items. Compare Dingus item in chapter one.
Argus. 1940. Some Virginia provincialisms. Quarterly Journal of Speech
26.262-69. Lexical notes on unusual terms in old-fashioned Virginia speech of
Tidewater, Piedmont, and mountain areas; also discusses German contributions to
H. C. 1957. Some unrecorded hunting terms found in Kentucky. Kentucky Folklore
Florence. 1942. The dialect of Garrett County, Maryland. Privately printed. 16
pp. [Western Maryland]. Popular glossary of words and phrases collected of
Appalachian area of Maryland from 1900-1918.
Floyd C. 1963. Yesterday in the hills. Chicago: Quadrangle. Cherokee County,
Georgia, folk culture, including lexicon.
Vic. c1959. Hillbilly dictionary (revised): an edifying collection of mountain
expressions. Gatlinburg, TN: privately printed. Dictionary of 175 lexical,
grammatical, and phonological items.
Abigail. 1910. A word list from Barbourville, Kentucky. Dialect Notes 3.456-57.
H. L. 1922. The dialect of the Southern highlands. 14 pp. manuscript in Berea
College Library. Comments on lack of foreign terms in Appalachian speech and
devises ten categories of distinctive Appalachian words. Based mainly on lists
in Dialect Notes.
Harold. 1944. American dialect dictionary. New York: Crowell. 747 pp. Large
volume containing more than 15,000 terms (many not appearing in another index
or dictionary) that vary geographically in pronunciation, form, or meaning,
these terms compiled from wordlists published in Dialect Notes and American
and from unpublished collections. Reviews: 1944. Christian Science Monitor, July 22, p. 11; 1944. New York Times, July 23, p. 25.; 1944. New Yorker, July 29, p. 64; 1944. Wisconsin Library Bulletin, Nov.,
Don. 1957. "Hill-billy," "plowboy," "wool-hats,"
and "crackers." Southern Newsletter 2.10.6-8. Says four terms are
used in prejudicial and erroneous way to imply that poor whites are responsible
for persecution of blacks.
J. Hutson. 1960. Highland language of the Cumberland coal country. Mountain
Life and Work 36.18-21.
Edward M. 1963. The vocabulary of marbles in Eastern Kentucky. Kentucky
Folklore Record 9.57-74. 4 maps. See also K. B. Harder, Publication of the
American Dialect Society 23.3-33 (Apr. 1955), and J. H. Combs, ibid., 33-34.
Linda C. 1975. Unemphatic love. Western Folklore 34.154. Describes use of word love in "an
unemotional, often negative vein" in Cumberland County, Kentucky.
Roy, Jr. 1975. You all spoken here: a handy, illustrated guide to carryin' on
in the South. First verse. Spring Hope, NC: Gourd Hollow Press. 20 pp. Popular
"collation of words and phrases and expressions in common and ordinary
day-by-day use in the South"; includes many figures of speech.
Roy, Jr. 1976. You all spoken here: a handy, illustrated guide to carryin' on
in the South. Second verse. Spring Hope, NC: Gourd Hollow Press. 20 pp. Sequel
to preceding item, with same kind of material.
Roy, Jr. 1977. You all spoken here: a handy, illustrated guide to carryin' on
in the South. Third verse. Spring Hope, NC: Gourd Hollow Press. Sequel to
preceding item, with same kind of material.
Roy, Jr. 1984. You all spoken here. New York: Morrow. 213 pp. Lengthy
compilation of colorful expressions, collected by personal observation and from
reading newspapers, books, and magazines; lacks information on regional or
social distribution or on source of material. Review: J. Burges. 1986. Southern English Newsletter 4.5-6.
D. K. 1959. Down our way: who's in town? Kentucky Folklore Record 5.1-8. Describes eight children's games and
their unusual terminology.
D. K., and L. Montell. 1959. Notes: "uker." Kentucky Folklore Record 5.130. Describes marble game by the
Cratis D. 1944. A word-list from the mountains of Kentucky and North Carolina.
Publication of the American Dialect Society 2.28-31. [Mainly East Kentucky,
Western North Carolina]. Fifty-two items.
George P. 1944. A word-list from Virginia and North Carolina. Publication of
the American Dialect Society 2.38-52. Glossary of items crossreferenced to
Oxford English Dictionary and English Dialect Dictionary where possible.
George P. 1958. Some folk sayings from North Carolina. North Carolina Folklore
Gordon. 1963. Studying folklore in a small region--IV: regional words.
Tennessee Folklore Society Bulletin 29.79-86. Discusses rustic vocabulary and
place names; calls for more interest in folk language.
Gordon. 1964. Words relating to plants and animals in the Mammoth Cave region.
Publication of the American Dialect Society 42.11-25. Reprinted in Folklore of
the Mammoth Cave Region (Bowling Green: Kentucky Folklore Society, 1968), pp.
12-26. More than 200 items collected in W Kentucky.
Gordon. 1965-66. Mammoth cave words. Kentucky Folklore Record 11.
Sections: I Around the house.
Kentucky Folklore Record 11.5-8; II Around the house some more. Kentucky Folklore Record 11. 28-31
(Apr.-June, 1965); III
Neighborhood doings. Kentucky Folklore Record 11.52-55 (July-Sept., 1965); IV More neighborhood doings. Kentucky
Folklore Record 11.78-81 (Oct.-Dec., 1965); V Some good regional verbs. Kentucky Folklore Record
12.15-20 (Jan.- Mar., 1966); VI
Some folk nouns. Kentucky Folklore Record 12.67-71 (Apr.- June, 1966); VII Some more folk nouns. Kentucky
Folklore Record 12.93-98 (July-Sept., 1966); VIII Some useful adjectives. Kentucky Folklore Record
12.73-74 (Oct.-Dec., 1966). First four articles reprinted in Folklore of the
Mammoth Cave Region, edited by Lawrence Thompson (Bowling Green: Kentucky
Folklore Society, 1968).
Gordon. 1969. Some Mammoth Cave sayings: I. Sayings with a farm flavor.
Kentucky Folklore Record 15.12-21; 15.37-44 (Apr.-June, 1969): 15.69- 74
Gordon. 1970-71. Origins of the people of the Mammoth Cave region as shown by
their surnames and regional words. Kentucky Folklore Record 17.10-18, regional
words I; 17.31-39, regional words
Gordon R. 1958. A list of words from Tennessee. Publication of the American
Dialect Society 29.3-18. 152 items, submitted mostly by the public in response
to newspaper solicitations from the writer.
Gordon R. 1959. Report on dialect collecting in Tennessee. Abstract in South
Atlantic Bulletin 24.3.4. Progress report on postal questionnaire.
Gordon R. 1960. Heard in the South: the progress of a word geography. Tennessee
Folklore Society Bulletin 26.1-7. Discusses early stages of author's
large-scale postal survey of Southern vocabulary.
Gordon R. 1963. Dialect contours in the Southern states. American Speech
38.243-56. 7 maps. Discusses major lexical isoglosses showing Midland-Southern
boundary in eight states in interior South that were settled after 1800 and
correlates vocabulary with three stages of settlement history of region:
advancing frontier, growth of towns, and increase of regional communication.
Gordon R. 1971. Vocabulary change: a study of variation in regional words in
eight of the Southern states. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press.
Comprehensive work based primarily on postal questionnaire of over 1,000
informants that studies generational and subregional patterns of nearly 1200
words and expressions in the mid-South. Uses ninety-four figures and maps to
relate these patterns to agricultural regions and to 19th-century migration
across the South. Reviews: W. J.
Griffin. 1972. Tennessee Folklore Society Bulletin 38.82-83; J. B. McMillan. 1972. Mississippi
Quarterly 8.101- 04; H. W.
Marshall. 1974. Journal of American Folklore 87.101-02; L. Pederson. 1973. Language 49.184-87.
C. M. 1946. A word-list from Virginia and North Carolina. Publication of the
American Dialect Society 6.4-43. [Primarily Pamplico County, North Carolina,
Salem, Virginia]. Extended wordlist, with notes of frequency of use; includes a
ten-page list of sayings and similes.
Hensley C. 1956. 1. "To funk." 2. "Dog run." American Speech 31.309-10. First is Kentucky term meaning "to spoil
tobacco"; second cited term from AR and FL and refers to dogs trotting
over loose, dry boards.
Hensley C. 1957. Some unrecorded hunting terms found in Kentucky. Kentucky
Folklore Record 3.153-58. Discusses twenty-nine terms, most from Harriette
Arnow's Hunter's Horn ; based on Armstrong, Cauthern, and Dominick.
Hensley C. 1958. Americanisms in James Still's The Nest . Kentucky Folklore
Record 4.63-64. [Kentucky]. Six terms, including crawdabber and battle out , not appearing in
Matthews' Dictionary of Americanisms .
Hensley C. 1958. Flats and bottoms. Kentucky Folklore Record 4.175. Use of
these terms, referring to land bordering water, in Hopkins County, Kentucky.
Carey. 1927. Dialect words and phrases from West-Central West Virginia.
American Speech 2.347-67. [Central West Virginia]. Extended word- list from
Little Kanawha Valley.
- PHONOLOGY AND PHONETICS
H. E., and Darrell L. Gregg. 1929. A study of dialect differences. American
Speech 4.216-23. [North Carolina]. Early acoustic comparison of phonograph
recordings of speakers from North Carolina and South England, analyzing length
of words in millimeters of film per second, frequency of double vibrations, and
E. Bagby. 1950. Grease and greasy: a study of geographical variation.
University of Texas Studies in English 29.249-60. Analyzes distribution of [s]
and [z] pronunciations in New England and Atlantic states and finds [z] pronunciations
dominate from Western Pennsylvania southward; compares results to Hempl and
Thomas. Reprinted in H. B. Allen. 1958. Readings in Applied English
Linguistics. 1st ed., 158-67; 1964. 2nd ed., 242- 51; Bobbs-Merrill Reprint
Charles-James N. 1985. English phonetic transcription. Dallas, TX: Summer
Institute of Linguistics. 265 pp. Textbook on phonetics for students of
linguistics, with many examples from Southern English; includes suprasegmentals
and intonation. Review: G. Bailey. 1988. Southern English Newsletter 5.
Guy. 1979. Folk speech on the Cumberland plateau: a phonological analysis.
Knoxville: University of Tennessee dissertation. Abstract in Dissertation
Abstracts International 40.5031A. [Older, less educated Whites, East
Tennessee]. Outlines segmental phonemic structure of speech of area, describing
phonological processes and offering phonetic, contextual, and historial
explanations for variants.
Carolyn. 1969. Consistency of spelling and pronunciation deviations in
Appalachian students. Modern Language Journal 53.347-50. [High school students,
West Virginia]. Studies "pronunciation of certain words by Appalachian
students and analyzes the consistency betwen the Appalachian dialectal pronunciation
of certain vowels and the spelling of words" in which they appear";
identifies four "vowel shifts" in Appalachian speech, three dealing
with pronunciation of front vowels before /l/.
Carolyn. 1970. Improving oral communication of Appalachian youth through rhyme.
Modern Language Journal 54.188-89. Discusses a model "from which
Appalachian students can learn to differentiate between their dialectal
pronunciation of certain vowels and pronunciation of those vowels in Standard
American English" and reports on project using five pilot lessons, based
on an aural-oral approach, to assist such students.
Ronald R. 1981. Unstressed vowels in Appalachian English. American Speech
56.104-10. Discusses constraints on raising of final unstressed schwa in
Appalachian speech and tries to unite interpretations of Wolfram and Christian
and Kurath and McDavid.
Robert E. 1973. Indications of regular sound shifting in an Appalachian
dialect. Appalachian Journal 1.238-40. Says dialect spellings in Dargan's 1932
Appalachian novel Call Home the Heart reveal systematic differences
between Appalachian dialect and standard English that can demonstrated by
Anthony Patterson. 1974. A phonemic and phonetic analysis of the folk speech of
Bedford County, Tennessee. Knoxville: University of Tennessee thesis. [5 Whites
over 70, South Central Tennessee]. Study undertaken to provide baseline data
for Linguistic Atlas of the Gulf States and other work in Middle Tennessee; no
comparison with speech elsewhere. Uses approach developed by Harold Orton.
Cindy A., Judith Harkins, and Karl Nicholas. 1978. A good mill will make you
fill better. Southeastern Conference on Linguistics Bulletin 2.2.62- 66. [91
Western North Carolina, ages 7 to 79]. Investigates laxing of /i/ before /l/ as
change in progress; finds orthographic <ea> more likely to lax than
Arthur Kyle, Jr., and Archibald A. Hill. 1933. Dialect notes on records of folk
songs from Virginia. American Speech 8.4.52-56. [Southwest Virginia].
Discriminates which features of recorded folk songs are due to rhythm and other
effects of singing and which are of genuine interest to dialectologists and
focuses on vowel quality, postvocalic /r/, pronunciation of normally unstressed
function words when stressed, verb principal parts, and other features.
Margaret B. 1975. A study of East Tennessee regional phonology: its influence
on reading performance. Knoxville: University of Tennessee dissertation. 88 pp.
Abstract in Dissertation Abstracts International 36.7183A. [20 White 1st, 3rd
graders, 20 White elementary teachers, Sevier County, East Tennessee]. Finds
that both students and teachers differed from expected pronunciations and that
both groups showed wide variation in pronunciation.
N. Louanna. 1972. Transcription of Appalachian child's English. Culture, class,
and language variety: a re-source book for teachers, ed. by A. L. Davis, pp.
212-13. Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English. Orthographic and
brief phonetic transcript of ten-year-old child from Barboursville, Kentucky.
Timothy. 1980. Sound change in farmer city: a sociolinguistic study based on
acoustic data. Urbana: University of Illinois dissertation. Abstract in
Dissertation Abstracts International 41.655A. 441 pp. [7 speakers, 3
generations, Somerset, Kentucky, 40 speakers from Illinois]. Spectrographic
analysis of generational differences in vowel offglides and placement of /u/
vowel. Includes comments on southern drawl.
William A. 1940. An analysis and suggested solution of the educational problem
resultant from dialectal pronunciations in the Southern Appalachians. Columbus:
Ohio State University dissertation.
Lulu Cooper. 1930. A study of English pronunciation in Kentucky. Lexington:
University of Kentucky thesis. 60 pp. [44 Univ. of Kentucky students from 33
counties]. Discusses pronunciation of vowels, diphthongs, and two consonants
(postvocalic /r/ and final velar nasal); includes alphabetical list of words.
Joseph S. 1942. The phonetics of Great Smoky Mountain speech. Also in American
Speech 17 (Apr., 1942), part 2. Same as American Speech Reprints and
Monographs, No. 4. New York: Columbia University Press. Bibliography, 107- 10.
New York: Columbia University dissertation. [Tennessee, North Carolina]. Study
based on seventy-three recordings of "Arthur the Rat" story and on
folk and local stories recorded between 1937 and 1940, covering stressed
vowels, unstressed vowels, and consonants, but little attention to social
variation. Reviews: R. I. McDavid,
Jr. 1943. Language 19.184-95; A. H. Marckwardt. 1942. Quarterly Journal of
Speech 28.487; L. Roberts. 1964.
Mountain Life and Work 40.4.225; D. Whitelock. 1944. Year's Work in English
Alberta. 1948. Southern mountain dialect. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State
University thesis. Abstract in Louisiana State University Bulletin, n.s. 41.87
(1949). 116 pp. [Southern Appalachia, Ozarks, East Texas]. States there is
little difference in pronunciation between three areas, based on evidence
collected from personal observation, classroom teaching, published literature,
and recordings made by author.
Erika. 1981. The front vowels before r of the north-central states. Chicago:
Illinois Institute of Technology dissertation. Abstract in Dissertation
Abstracts International 42.3137A. [Includes Kentucky]. Discusses diminishing
contrasts in phonemic system as revealed in Linguistic Atlas of the North
Central States field records.
Vernon David. 1972. The pronunciation of English in Kentucky, based on the
records of the Linguistic Atlas of the North-Central states. Chicago: Illinois
Institute of Technology dissertation. Abstract in Dissertation Abstracts
International 33.4388A. Describes vowels of Kentucky speech, using binary
analysis; includes chapter on methods of field work, informants, settlement
history, and dialect areas.
Hans, and Raven I. McDavid, Jr. 1961. The pronunciation of English in the
Atlantic States. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. xi + 364 pp. 180
maps. Paperback edition 1982 published by University of Alabama Press.
[Includes Maryland, West Virginia, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina,
Georgia]. Authoritative phonological demarcation of dialect areas based on
field records of Linguistic Atlas of the Middle and South Atlantic States and
Linguistic Atlas of New England interviews. Presents pronunciation of educated
natives in series of seventy synoptic charts of pronunciation of individual speakers,
detailed descriptions of how specific words are pronounced throughout the
Atlantic states, and 180 large maps that show distribution of various
pronunciations of key words. Reviews: W. S. Avis. 1965. Canadian Journal of Linguistics 11.63-70; F. H. Beukema. 1967. Orbis
16.577-79; A. J. Bronstein. 1962.
Quarterly Journal of Speech 68.440-41; R. M. Dorson. 1963. Ohio History 72.73-75; N. E. Eliason. 1962. South Atlantic Quarterly
61.121-22; T. Hill. 1962. Modern
Language Review 58.624-25; S. J. Keyser.
1963. Language 39.303-16; L'Annee
Sociologique. 1963. Ser. 3.531; Leuvense Bijdragen. 1963. 52.180-81; F. F. Lewis. 1962. Professional Geographer 14.35; J. Y. Mather. 1963. Review of English
Studies 14.216-18; J. E. Medcalf.
1962. Notes and Queries n.s. 9.402-03; G. Scherer. 1962. Beitrage zur Geschichte der Deutschen Sprache und
Literatur 84; A. W. Stanforth.
1963-64. Zeitschrift fur Mundartforschung 30.374-75; B. Trnka. 1962. Philologica Pragensia 5.176-77; B. Trnka. 1962. Casopis pro Moderni
Filologii 44.188-90; E. T. Uldall.
1962. Le Maitre Phonetique 117.29-31; W. Viereck. 1967. Lebende Sprachen 12.58-59; R. M. Wilson. 1963. Year's Work in English Studies
42.51; K-H Wirzburger. 1966.
Zeitschrift fur Anglistik und Amerikanistik 14.215-16.
Raven I., Jr. 1943. Review of The phonetics of Great Smoky Mountain speech by
Joseph S. Hall. Language 19.84-95. Extended review criticizing Hall's fieldwork
and presentation of material.
Raven I., Jr., and Virginia Glenn McDavid. 1952. h before semivowels
in the Eastern United States. Language 28.41-62. Initial consonants in whip , whetstone , wheelbarrow , whinny , wharf , whoa , and humor in atlas records;
includes Maryland, Virginia, West Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and
Lucia C. 1970. The status of /r/ among North Carolina speakers. Essays in honor
of Claude M. Wise, ed. by Arthur J. Bronstein, Claude L. Shaver, and C.
Stevens, 167-86. New York: Speech Association of America. [120 Whites, 15 Blacks
native to North Carolina, ages 5-87]. 21 maps. Analyzes regional and age
differences in pronunciation of postvocalic /r/ within state.
Karl. 1982. Think you for the wedding rang. Southeastern Conference on
Linguistics Review 6.131-37. [77 Whites, Western North Carolina; 25 Whites,
Central North Carolina]. Finds raising of vowel before nasal in words like thank and sang is strong in lower
working class mountain speech and is increasing in North Carolina Piedmont.
Martha. 1973. A phonology of the speech of Floyd County, Georgia. Penn Review
of Linguistics 1.1-12. [Northeast Georgia]. Detailed analysis of vowels in
stressed syllables and sibilants and phonological processes affecting them.
Martha Carswell. 1982. The story of "s" or everything you always
wanted to know about sibilants but were afraid to ask. Philadelphia: University
of Pennsylvania dissertation. Abstract in Dissertation Abstracts International
43.3585. [Rome, Georgia]. Investigates form and phonological and social
distribution of sibilants in Rome area; finds that backing of some types of
sibilants expresses "local and rural identity and solidarity, particularly
among males," that these sibilants "may be an expression of an
American country-western image and so may be increasing in frequency."
James Robert. 1983. Intonational variation in southern Appalachian English.
Abstract in Newsletter of the American Dialect Society 15.2.5. Suggests
computer analysis of pitch, stress, vowel length, and juncture can be used to
identify and classify dialects in Southern Appalachian region.
Charles Kenneth. 1939. A composite transcription from Knox County, Tennessee.
American Speech 14.125-26; 15.85 (Feb. 1940). Composite transcription of
twenty-six Knox County natives who were students at the University of
Thomas H. 1959. The low-central and low-back vowels in the English of the
Eastern United States. Publication of the American Dialect Society 32. Abstract
in Dissertation Abstracts International 18.1423. Ann Arbor: University of
Michigan dissertation, 1957. Analyzes and describes low-central and low-back
vowel phonemes, their phonic characteristics, and their incidence in the
Eastern U.S., based on Linguistic Atlas of New England and Linguistic Atlas of
the Middle and South Atlantic States field records. Includes W North Carolina,
pp. 59-68. Reviews: M. L. Gateau.
1963. Word 18.362; C. K. Thomas. 1961.
American Speech 36.201-03; K.
Wittig. 1962. Anglia 80.161-64.
Dorothy. 1934. Improving the pronunciation of high school seniors. Morgantown:
West Virginia University thesis. [West Virginia]. Discusses nonstandard
pronunciations of supervisors, teachers, and students at university laboratory
Cratis D. 1961. The "r" in mountain speech. Mountain Life and Work
37.5-8. Argues "a heavy r is a general
characteristic" of Appalachian speech that sets "it apart,
quantitatively rather than qualitatively, from that of other Southern and
Midwestern groups descended from similar pioneer stock"; exemplifies
epenthesis and other processes and discusses pronunciation of vowels and
diphthongs before /r/.
Claude Merton. 1957. Applied phonetics. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall.
Mountain speech, pp. 303-21. Presents inventories of phonetic and phonological
features, with transcription exercises.
- GRAMMAR AND SYNTAX
Mary Sheila. l953. Survivals in Kentucky. American Speech 28.306-07.
[Kentucky]. Reports compound adjectives like disgraceful indecent in novel by
Kentuckian Harriet Arnow that are similar to Shakespearian usages.
E. Bagby. l953. A survey of verb forms in the Eastern United States. Ann Arbor:
University of Michigan Press. [Maine to Northeast Florida]. Using records from
Linguistic Atlas of New England and Linguistic Atlas of the Middle and South
Atlantic States, details regional patterns in eighty-eight verb features,
including principal parts, subject-verb agreement, negative constructions,
infinitives, and modals.
Lowry. 1927. "You all" and "we all" again. American Speech
2.343-45. Comments on use of you'uns and you all ; says in lifetime
of experience he has "never heard any person of any degree of education or
station of life use the expression you all " as singular.
Lowry. 1928. West Virginia dialect. American Speech 3.456. Notes many items in
Carey Woofter article that he finds in Savannah, Georgia.
Kendall Russell. 1984. The relationship of English composition grades to oral
(social) dialect: an analysis of dialectal and non-dialectal writing errors.
Cultural language differences: their educational and clinical-professional
implications, ed. by Sol Adler, pp. 29-43. Springfield, IL: Charles Thomas. [9
Blacks, 26 Whites, Univ. of Tennessee students]. Claims strong correlation
between oral dialect use (based on instructor rating) and errors in written
composition (based on Harbrace College Handbook ).
Linda L. 1974. The verb system in Breathitt County, Kentucky: a sociolinguistic
analysis. Chicago: Illinois Institute of Technology dissertation. Abstract in
Dissertation Abstracts International 35.7888-89A. [22 speakers, East Kentucky].
Analyzes dialect patterns of subject-verb concord, auxiliary deletion, tense
marking, and negation and finds all very frequent; concludes "that the
verb system, as a whole, has undergone a great deal of morphological
Linda L. 1975. The verb system in Breathitt County, Kentucky: a sociolinguistic
analysis. Reviewed in Newsletter of the American Dialect Society 8.3.13. Finds
disagreements in studies of Appalachian English in West Virginia and Kentucky
and reasons to doubt such an entity as Appalachian English exists.
Linda. 1977. How nonstandard is "Appalachian English"? Abstract in Newsletter of the American
Dialect Society 9.3.7-8. Argues that most previous descriptions of Appalachian
speech were distorted by focusing on only nonstandard forms, and claims that
for grammatical categories Appalachian speech is far less nonstandard than
Ronald R., and Kristin Stettler. 1986. Causative and existential "have ...
to." American Speech
61.184-90. [57 Duke University students]. Finds structure used almost
exclusively by Southerners and South Midlanders and less by females than males.
Donna. 1975. Non-participle "done" and non-productive classification.
Eric Document 116 499. 26 pp. Examines proposals for classifying auxiliary done and, using data
from Appalachian English, says that both semantic information (perfectiveness)
and pragmatic information (emphasis) must be added to the syntactic information
before classifying it.
Donna M. 1978. Aspects of verb usage in Appalachian speech. Washington:
Georgetown University dissertation. Abstract in Dissertation Abstracts
International 39.7317A. [26 Males, 26 Females, ages 7-93, Southern West
Virginia]. Examines patterns in irregular verb principal parts and subject-verb
concord and provides evidence for language change in progress. Classifies verbs
with nonstandard principal parts into five categories and finds nonstandard
subject-verb concord "occurs only with plural subjects, with the exception
of the item `don't'."
Donna. 1982. The personal dative in Appalachian speech. Abstract in Newsletter
of the American Dialect Society 14.3.6. [West Virginia]. Describes
characteristics of personal dative and compares it to for -dative
William L. 1975. Multiple modals in Southern states English. Bloomington:
Indiana University dissertation. Abstract in Dissertation Abstracts
International 36.2174-75A. Using quantitative analysis and implicational
scaling, identifies three regional patterns of multiple modal variation in
North Carolina with range of acceptable modal combinations increasing from east
William L. 1975. Regional distribution of double modals usage in North
Carolina. Abstract in Newsletter of the American Dialect Society 8.3.10. [179
informants from North Carolina, mostly from Piedmont area]. Uses implicational
scales to show how acceptability of double-modal constructions is regionally
Julia C. 1981. The Gaelic roots of a -prefixing in Appalachian
English. American Speech 56.314. Says form reported by Wolfram derives from
Gaelic verbal noun construction and results "not from a careless handling
of English grammar but from a careful preservation of Scottish Gaelic grammar,
learned generations ago and applied to English long before the migration to
Louise C[rawford]. 1976. A sociolinguistic study of Alabama white English: the
verb phrase in Anniston. 2 vols. Washington: Georgetown University
dissertation. Abstract in Dissertation Abstracts International 38.3445A.
Published in abridged form as Feagin 1979 below.
Crawford. 1979. Variation and change in Alabama English: a sociolinguistic
study of the white community. Washington: Georgetown University Press. Foreword
by William Labov. 395 pp. [67 urban, 15 rural, 34 teenagers; 5 middle aged, 43
older; 44 Females, 38 Males, Anniston, Alabama]. Monumental analysis of
linguistic and social (class, urban/rural, age, gender) constraints on features
of verb phrase (tense, aspect, person- number agreement, modality, negation,
etc.) in white speech in Anniston, Alabama, comparing it to black and to
British speech. Reviews: R.
Butters. 1981. Language 57.735-38; B. Davis. 1982. Language in Society 11.139-41; T. C. Frazer. 1980. Journal of English Linguistics
14.41-44; R. McDavid, Jr. 1982.
English World-Wide 2.99-110; J. B.
McMillan. 1980. Southeastern Conference on Linguistics Bulletin 4.86-88; M. I. Miller. 1981. American Speech
56.288-95; B. Rigsby. 1981.
Australian Journal of Linguistics 1.122- 27; H. Ulherr. 1982. Anglia 100.484-85; H. B. Woods. 1981. Canadian Journal of
Robert G. 1973. Appalachian English: a sociolinguistic study. Washington:
Georgetown University dissertation. Abstract in Dissertation Abstracts
International 33.6893A. [39 speakers, Nicholas County, West Virginia]. Finds
subject-verb concord is grammatical feature with most nonstandard forms,
subject relative pronoun deletion is heavily favored by existential there , and a -prefixing "is
most likely to occur when there is a stress on the duration of the
action"; provides rough correlations of nonstandard forms with educational
and occupational indexes.
Robert. 1977. Language variation in Appalachia. Abstract in Newsletter of the
American Dialect Society 9.3.9. [75 speakers in Nicholas County, West Virginia].
Finds that nonstandard subject-verb agreement and nonstandard subject relative
pronoun deletion correlate with social class of speakers.
E. C. 1926. The plural forms of "you." American Speech 2.133. Notes you all used by cultivated
speakers in Florida and North Carolina, you'uns used by
uncultivated speakers in North Carolina and Tennessee mountains.
Hamill. 1935. "To" in West Virginia. American Speech 10.314-15.
Preposition equivalent to stative at and equivalent to with /under in phrase take a
course to a professor .
Barbara D. 1986. Appalachian and urban grammatical patterns: a note on
standardized tests. Ohio University Working Papers in Linguistics and Language
Raven I., Jr., and Virginia G. McDavid. 1964. Plurals of nouns of measure in
the United States. Studies in languages and linguistics in honor of Charles C.
Fries, ed. by Albert H. Marchwardt, pp. 271-301. Ann Arbor: University of
Michigan English Language Institute. 12 maps. Examines distribution of zero
plurals of seven nouns (including foot , pound , and bushel ) in Linguistic
Atlas of New England, Linguistic Atlas of the Middle and South Atlantic States,
Linguistic Atlas of the Noth Central States, and Linguistic Atlas of the Upper
Midwest data; finds regional variation more significant than social variation
and no black-white differences at all.
Raven I., Jr. and Virginia G. McDavid. 1986. Kentucky verb forms. Language
variety in the South: perspectives in black and white, ed. by Michael
Montgomery and Guy Bailey, pp. 264-93. University: University of Alabama Press.
Details social and regional distribution of variant principal parts for
thirty-eight strong verbs among Linguistic Atlas of the North Central States
informants in Kentucky; compares patterns to Linguistic Atlas of the Middle and
South Atlantic States and Linguistic Atlas of New England data.
Virginia Glenn. 1958. Verb forms of the north central states and upper midwest.
Minneapolis: University of Minnesota dissertation. Includes Kentucky data.
Virginia G[lenn]. 1977. The social distribution of selected verb forms in the
Linguistic Atlas of the North Central states. James B. McMillan: essays in
linguistics by his friends and colleagues, ed. by James C. Raymond and I.
Willis Russell, pp. 41-50. University: University of Alabama Press. Examines
principal parts for ten strong verbs in Linguistic Atlas of the North Central
States; finds "a generally lower use of standard forms" and "a
higher use of relic forms" in Kentucky.
Celia H. 1980. Selected verb features in Haywood County, North Carolina: a
generational study. Indiana, PA: Indiana University of Pennsylvania
dissertation. Abstract in Dissertation Abstracts International 41.2089A. [30
speakers, ages 10-75, Western North Carolina]. Studies retention of older verb
forms such as a -prefixing and variation in principal parts of
twenty-four irregular verbs in three generations and finds that "while the
dialect is not preserving older forms to any large extent, it is maintaining a
high degree of nonstandard usage in irregular verb forms."
Michael B. 1978. Left dislocation: its nature in Appalachian speech.
Southeastern Conference on Linguistics Bulletin 2.55-61. [20 Whites, Southern
West Virginia]. Using data from W. Wolfram-D. Christian study, shows functions
and varieties of patterns in which left dislocation occurs.
Michael B. 1979. A discourse analysis of expository Appalachian English.
Gainesville: University of Florida dissertation. Abstract in Dissertation
Abstracts International 40.5036A. [18 Males, 22 Females, ages 16-87, East
Tennessee]. Studies distribution and discourse functions of grammatical and
rhetorical devices such as left dislocation, deictic pronouns, and conjunctions.
Michael B. 1979. The discourse organization of explanatory Appalachian speech.
Papers of the 1978 Mid-America Linguistics Conference, ed. by Ralph E. Cooley,
et al., pp. 293-302. Norman: University of Oklahoma. Excerpt of preceding item.
[18 Males, 22 Females, ages 16-87, East Tennessee]. Examines patterning of left
dislocation and other syntactic patterns for presenting new information in
Michael B. 1980. Inchoative verbs in East Tennessee English. Southeastern Conference
on Linguistics Bulletin 4.77-85. [40 Whites, East Tennessee]. Study of syntax
and semantics of verbs go to , get to , and get to be .
Michael B. 1983. The functions of left dislocation in spontaneous discourse.
The ninth LACUS forum, ed. by John Morreall, pp. 425-32. Columbia, SC: Hornbeam
Press. Excerpt of Montgomery dissertation showing subtleties of syntactic
patterning of left dislocation.
Michael. 1999. A superlative complex in Appalachian English. The SECOL Review
Louise Sublette. 1941. A study of the pronoun "hit" in Grassy Branch,
North Carolina. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University thesis. [62 speakers,
ages 5-87, Western North Carolina]. 58 pp. Says that aspirated variant of it appears most commonly
in initial positions, after a pause, and in stressed and emphatic contexts, and
it is used primarily by older and less educated speakers.
Gary N. 1983. Mid-South, midwestern teachers, and middle-of-the-road textbooks.
Black English: educational equity and the law, ed. by John Chambers, Jr., pp.
81-96. Ann Arbor, MI: Karoma. Examines ten common syntactic features in the
"Mid-South" (Kentucky, Tennessee, Arkansas, Southern Missouri) that are socially marked when speakers
move to Midwest, and finds features are rarely mentioned in school textbooks.
Opal. 1945. Certain language habits and needs of the senior class of
Harrisville high school. Morgantown: West Virginia University thesis. Studies
nonstandard usage of verbs and pronouns.
M. Stanley. 1975. Dialectal syntax: plurals and modals in Southern American.
Linguistics 161.89-108. Investigates patterns of modals and associative
pronouns in Southern English and their relation to phrase structure rules of
other American English dialect systems; concludes that Southern English and
other systems can all be classified as dialects of one language.
Cratis D. 1962. Verbs in mountain speech. Mountain Life and Work 38.15-19.
Discusses verb principal parts and says that the "primitive strength of
mountaineer speech is exerted largely in verbs and the spare economy with which
Cratis D. 1964. Prepositions in mountain speech. Mountain Life and Work
40.53-55. Says mountain speakers rely heavily on prepositions to express
themselves rather than Latinate words and that mountain grammar tends not to
have "distinctions between prepositions and subordinate conjunctives and,
frequently, relative pronouns."
Gordon. 1967. Studying folklore in a small region XII: some folk grammar.
Tennessee Folklore Society Bulletin 33.27-35. [Mammoth Cave, Kentucky]. Survey
of noun, pronoun, and other morphological features from W Kentucky, gleaned
from freshman compositions and from lifetime of personal observation.
Walt. 1976. Toward a description of "a"-prefixing in Appalachian
English. American Speech 51.45-56. [100 + children and adults, Southern West
Virginia]. Examines syntactic properties, phonological constraints, and
semantic aspects of prefix; finds that it occurs mainly with -ing progressive verbs
and before stressed syllables beginning with a consonant and that it has no
apparent semantic content of indefiniteness or remoteness (contrary to Stewart
or of continuousness or intermittentness (contrary to Hackenberg).
Walt. 1980. "A"-prefixing in Appalachian English. Locating language
in time and space, ed. by William Labov, pp. 107-42. New York: Academic Press.
[Southern West Virginia]. Detailed analysis of syntactic and phonological
constraints on use of prefix; finds no evidence for semantic content.
Walt. 1982. Language knowledge and other dialects. American Speech 57.3-18.
Theoretical essay examining how accurately nonnative speakers of a- prefixing and
distributive be judge syntactic constraints for these features, in
attempt to support view that speakers may have more than one grammar for
different styles of their language.
- PLACE NAME STUDIES
1957. Buncombe--talking to Buncombe. North Carolina Folklore 5.2.23.
1967. Place name origins. Foxfire 1.62-72.
Terry. 1978. Local place-names are interesting. Mountain memories 11.14-16
Marjorie. 1946. Western North Carolina place-names. North Carolina English
Paul M. 1951. Some East Tennessee place names. Tennessee Folklore Society
Paul M. 1972. That's why they call it ...: the names and lore of the Great
Smokies. Gatlinburg, TN: Great Smoky Mountains Natural History Association.
Paul M. and Mylon H. Avery. 1937. The nomenclature of the Great Smoky
Mountains. East Tennessee Historical Society Publications 9.53-64.
Ralph. 1974. Place names of Tennessee. Bulletin 73, State of Tennessee
Department of Conservation, Division of Geology. Nashville.
Mike. 1986. A rose by another name is a damned brier. Appalachian Heritage
Andy. 1982-83. What's in a place name? Milepost IV.2.1.
Donald. 1974. British influence on Kentucky municipal place names. Kentucky
Folklore Record 20.9-13.
Donald. 1974. Municipal British-received place names in Tennessee. Appalachian
Mary B. 1985. Names in the New River Valley (Virginia). Proceedings New River
Symposium April 11-13, 1985, Pipestem, West Virginia.
Hamill. 1945. West Virginia place names: their origin and meaning, including
the nomenclature of the streams and mountains. Piedmont, WV: Place Name Press.
James R. 1956. The nomenclature of the upper Tennessee River. East Tennessee
Historical Society Publications 28.46-57. Reprinted in East Tennessee
Historical Society Publication 51.151-62 (1979).
Robert M. 1985. Traditional accounts of some Eastern Kentucky place names.
Appalachian Notes 13.2-17.
Robert M. 1987. Some Pike County names: Leonard Roberts' contributions to the
Kentucky place name survey. Appalachian Heritage 188.8.131.52.
Robert M. 1988. Place name derivations are not always what they seem.
Appalachian Heritage 16.1.50-62. [Kentucky].
James A. 1929-30. Place names in the Cumberland mountains. American Speech
States Geographic Board. 1934. Decisions June 30, 1932. Great Smoky Mountain
National Park North Carolina and Tennessee. Number 28. Washington: Government
Printing Office. 46 pp.
States Geographic Board. 1934. Decisions rendered April 5, 1933. Shenandoah
National Park Virginia. Number 35. Washington: Government Printing Office. 13
States Geographic Board. 1934. Decisions rendered April 5, 1933. Names in the
vicinity of Shenandoah National Park Virginia. Number 36. Washington:
Government Printing Office. 4 pp.
David S. 1977. On the naming of Appalachia. An Appalachian symposium, ed. by J.
S. Williamson. pp. 56-76. Boone, NC: Appalachian Consortium.
Virginia Heritage Foundation, comp. and ed. 1967. Origin of place names in West
Virginia. West Virginia heritage volume one. Richwood, West Virginia.
- PERSONAL AND MISCELLANEOUS NAMES
Josiah H. 1976. Combs: a study in comparative philology and genealogy.
Pensacola, FL: Privately printed. Traces naming patterns in Combs family since
Fayette. 1913. A tragedy of surnames. Dialect Notes 4.7-8. On Americanization
of family names of early settlers from Pennsylvania in Boyle County, Kentucky.
Avery F. 1970. The epithet "Guinea" in central West Virginia.
Philological Papers 17.41-44. Presents accounts of origin of term as it has
become applied to isolated triracial group in Barbour and Taylor counties, West
W. L. 1957. Folk names of birds in Kentucky. Kentucky Warbler 33.27-37. Lists
common, folk, and scientific names for birds in state.
William Emmett Morgan. 1955. The surnames of trans-Allegheny VA: 1750-1800.
Columbus: Ohio State University dissertation. Abstract in Dissertation
Abstracts International 16.960A. Investigates etymology and phonology of
surnames of early West Virginia north of the Kanawha, based on official public
records, and includes dictionary. Reprinted in 1973 as West Virginia Surnames:
the Pioneers. Parsons, WV: West
Virginia Dialect Society. 197 pp. Reviews: Raven I. McDavid, Jr. 1974. American Speech 49.149-51; Elsdon C. Smith. 1975. Names 23.53.
William E. 1956. Surnames of Trans-Allegheny Virginia, 1750-1800. Names 4.1-17.
Part II, Names 4.96-118 (1957). Based on preceding item.
Louis. 1967. Family names. Warning in Appalachia: a study of Wirt County, West
Virginia, pp. 15-32. Morgantown: West Virginia University Library.
Miriam M. 1933. Christian names in the Blue Ridge of Virginia. American Speech
8.2.34-37. Finds "little conscious attempt to preserve in Christian names
the family relationship of different individuals."
James C. 1986. Nicknames, coal miners and group solidarity. Names 34.134-45.
[33 White Males, 6 White Females]. Surveys prevalence and functions of
nicknames at four West Virginia and two Southwest Virginia coal mines.
James A. 1930. Christian names in the Cumberlands. American Speech 5.306-07.
Principal sourcs of given names and unusual naming practices.
Gordon. 1970-71. Origins of the people of the Mammoth Cave region as shown by
their surnames and regional words. Kentucky Folklore Record 16.73-78, surnames.
J. S. 1972. Whence the name Dula? One plausibility. North Carolina Folklore
Wilbur. 1970. Cultural variation in personal name patterns in the Eastern
United States. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 60.743-69.
Finds regional patterns in choice of given names, which confirm "the
existence of three basic early American culture areas: New England, the
Midland, and the South." Based on frequency of principal male names in sixteen selected counties
in Eastern U.S. in 1790 and 1968.
- FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE, EXAGGERATIONS, AND WORD-PLAY
Henry J. 1976. Speech patterns. Tennessee Folklore Society Bulletin 41.70-71.
104 figures of speech from Georgia, Alabama, Tennessee, and Kentucky.
Pearlleen D., and Mary Eva Repass, compilers. n.d. Granpa says ...
superstitions and sayings from Eastern Kentucky, pp. 18-22. Fredericksburg, VA:
Foxhound Enterprises. Cites sayings and idioms.
Marion E. 1938. The prevalence of older English proverbs in Blount County,
Tennessee. Tennessee Folklore Society Bulletin 4.1-24. [34 natives, East
Tennessee]. Investigates how many proverbs prevalent before 1500 are recognized
by heterogeneous group of Blount County, TN, natives.
Frances, and Herbert Halpert. 1954. Proverbial comparisons from an East
Tennessee county. Tennessee Folklore Society Bulletin 20.27-41. [East
Tennessee]. List of 1045 comparisons compiled in Scott County
George W. 1972. Tongue twisters and a few other examples of linguistic
folklore. Kentucky Folklore Record 18.49-51. Three dozen folk expressions,
mostly tongue twisters, from Mississippi and Kentucky.
Estelle D. 1978. Old folks sayings and home-cures. Tennessee Folklore Society
Bulletin 44.35-36. One dozen proverbial sayings.
Mary Washington. 1965. Proverbs, proverbial phrases, and proverbial comparisons
in the writings of Jesse Stuart. Southern Folklore Quarterly 29.142-63.
Nancy Emilia. 1939. Common comparisons and folk sayings. A study of folklore in
Adair County, Kentucky, 114-34. Nashville: George Peabody College thesis.
Anecdotal discussion of similes and list of 155 "epithets used to show
surprise, anger, disgust, or unhappiness."
Herbert. 1945. Grapevine Warp an' Tobacco Stick Fillin'. Southern Folklore
Quarterly 9.223-28. Songs, rimes, and sayings, most from Kentucky.
Herbert. 1951. A pattern of proverbial exaggeration from West Kentucky. Midwest
Folklore 1.41-47. A glossary.
Herbert. 1956. Some Wellerisms from Kentucky and Tennessee. Journal of American
Folklore 69.115-22. Sixty-two specimens, most from Kentucky and Tennessee.
Kim, and Dana Holcomb. 1979. Ole time expressions. Foxfire 13.1.69-72.
[Northeast Georgia]. List of similes collected by high school students from
Leonard. 1952. Additional exaggerations from East Kentucky. Midwest Folklore
2.163-66. Ninety-four items listed in order "to show some insight into the
way of life in the hilly, dissected third of the state, where the hills rise
from choked valleys on a forty-five degree angle to sharp ridges."
E. G. 1950. Figurative language the folkway. Tennessee Folklore Society
Bulletin 16.71-75. Catalogs folk similes in eleven classes and presents list
metaphors, synecdoche, and hyperboles.
E. G. 1953. Some East Tennessee figurative exaggerations. Tennessee Folklore
Society Bulletin 19.36-40. List of ninety exaggerations heard in East
Archer. 1962. Proverbial comparisons and similes in On Troublesome Creek . Kentucky Folklore
Record 8.87-95. Figures of speech in James Still novel, set in Kentucky.
Isabelle Jeanette. 1963. A compilation of the proverbial expressions in the
works of Charles Egbert Craddock. Knoxville: University of Tennessee thesis.
Classifies material into twenty-eight categories.
Cratis D. 1962. Metaphor in mountain speech. Mountain Life and Work 38.9,11-12.
Reprinted in Bobbs-Merrill Series, Language-100. Says "speech of Southern
Mountaineers bristles with strong language, pungent metaphors, vivid similes,
and vigorous personifications" and discusses social uses of these figures
of speech; says similes far outnumber all other types of figurative
Cratis D. 1963. Metaphor in mountain speech. Mountain Life and Work 39.1.50-53.
Discusses figures of speech and traditional expressions for characterizing
great physical strength, unusual courage, honesty, strength of convictions, and
other personal traits in Southern Appalachian speech.
Cratis D. 1963. Metaphor in mountain speech. Mountain Life and Work 39.2.51-53.
Discusses and exemplifies exaggerations used in Southern mountains.
Gordon. 1956. Down our way: tell us what it's like. Kentucky Folklore Record
2.1-3. Sample similes based on ten adjectives such as big , crooked , etc.
Gordon. 1965. Proverbial lore. Tennessee Folklore Society Bulletin 31.99-104.
[Western Kentucky]. Classified list of proverbs from Mammoth Cave region.
Gordon. 1968. Similes from the Mammoth Cave region with a farm flavor. Kentucky
Folklore Record 14.44-50; 14.69-75; 14.94-99. [Western Kentucky].
Hensley C. 1957. Folklore in the works of Janice Holt Giles. Kentucky
Historical Society Register 55.330-37. [Kentucky]. Includes brief comments on
Anthony. 1925. Kentucky similes. Kentucky Folklore Bulletin, pp. 8-11.
Classification of more than hundred similes based on comparisons to vegetables,
animals, and minerals.
- LITERARY DIALECT
Walter, and Raven I. McDavid, Jr. 1983. The mirth of a nation: America's great
dialect humor. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Anthology of
19th-century dialect fiction writers; includes "Linguistic Note" (pp.
279-83) by McDavid explaining editorial alteration of dialect to make stories
more readable. Reviews: K. B.
Harder. 1983. Tennessee Folklore Society Bulletin 49.47; R. Higgs. 1983. Appalachian Journal
10.379-85; M. Dunne. 1984.
Southeastern Conference on Linguistics Review 8.74-75; L. Pederson. 1984. Journal of English
Linguistics 17.97-102; R. B.
Shulman. 1984. American Speech 59.365-67.
Carol. 1965. Sut's speech: the dialect of a 'nat'ral borned mountaineer. The
Lovingood Papers 4.36-42. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press. Reviews
arguments over authenticity and purposes of George Washington Harris' portrayal
of Sut Lovingood's speech and analyzes Harris' use of spelling to represent
dialect pronunciation and Harris' use of dialect grammar and local terms and
figurs of speech.
Carol D. 1966. A study of the phonology, morphology, and vocabulary of George
Washington Harris' Sut Lovingood yarns. Knoxville: University of Tennessee
thesis. v + 71 pp. Thorough study of dialect patterns in Harris' fiction; says
Harris was "careful, accurate craftsman" in rendering East Tennessee
dialect and indulged in eye dialect much less than his contemporaries.
Mary Washington. 1960. Folklore of the Cumberlands as reflected in the writings
of Jesse Stuart. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania dissertation.
Mary Washington. 1963. As Jesse Stuart heard it in Kentucky. Kentucky Folklore
Record 9.85-86. Folk expressions in Stuart's writings.
Jay L. 1942. The dialect writing of Charles Egbert Craddock in the light of the
author's background. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina thesis.
Durwood. 1979. Mary Noialles Murfree: a reappraisal. Appalachian Journal
6.197-206. P. 201, discusses early critical reception of author's portrayal of
Dorothy E. 1935. The dialect of the southern highlander as recorded in North
Carolina novels. Rochester, NY: University of Rochester thesis. Discussion of
Olive Dargon, Paul Green, DuBose Heyward.
Wade. 1970. "The truth is funny": a study of Jesse Stuart's humor.
Eric Document 048 250. 79 pp. Also appears in Indiana English Journal 5.2-4.
Examines ways Stuart uses material from his own life and observations as
subject matter in his fiction, and focuses on Stuart's use of dialect and
natural metaphors of folk speech.
M. Thomas. 1977. The Appalachian backgrounds of Billy de Beck's Snuffy Smith.
Appalachian Journal 4.120-32. Pp. 122-23, discusses George Washington Harris as
primary source of de Beck portrayal of Snuffy Smith's speech.
Louise M. 1930. A study of Kentucky mountain dialect based on Lucy Furman's Quare
Lexington: University of Kentucky thesis. 74 pp. [Knott County]. Study of
peculiarities of speech of East Kentucky mountains.
Paul E. 1979. Dialectal variation in the work of Harry Stillwell Edwards.
Abstract in Newsletter of the American Dialect Society 11.3.6. Says McClure
portrays many different types of dialects in his fiction.
Ruth D. 1963. A study of Smoky Mountain regional speech as used in Lanier's Tiger
Columbia: University of South Carolina thesis. 117 pp. Detailed analysis of
phonology, vocabulary, and grammar used in Lanier's story set in East Tennessee
and comparison of findings with linguistic research of Joseph Hall, Lester
Berrey, Horace Kephart, James Tidwell, and linguistic studies.
Joe. 1984. Hillbilly talk: Southern Appalachian speech as literary dialect in
the writings of Mary Noailles Murfree. Appalachian Heritage 12.3.37-45.
Earl F. Jr. 1971. An examination of the dialect in This Day and Time . Tennessee Folklore
Society Bulletin 37.31-39. [Sullivan County, Tennessee]. Examines validity of
representation of dialect in Anne Armstrong's novel by comparing lexical and
grammatical features to author's own ongoing research in area in 1970s.
Reprinted in R. J. Higgs, and Ambrose N. Manning, eds. 1977. Voices from the
hills: selected readings of Southern Appalachia, 460-73. New York: Ungar.
Bob. 1978. Colonial mimesis and the Appalachian renascence. Appalachian Journal
5.340-49. Pp. 346-47, says liveliness and freshness of Appalachian writers
comes from these qualities in the region's speech patterns.
Cratis D. 1975-76. The southern mountaineer in fact and fiction. Appalachian
Journal 3.8-61,100-62,186-261,334-92. Pp. 101-02, discusses James Hall's
handling of dialect in Harpe's Head: a Legend of Kentucky and Carroline M. S.
Kirkland's handling of dialect in his A New Home--Who'll Follow? or,
Glimpses of Western Life .
George P. 1961. Lois Lenski's use of regional speech. North Carolina Folklore
9.2.1-3. Defends North Carolina regional novelist's use of dialect in her
Lester G. 1980. On dialect and style in the work of some Appalachian writers.
Abstract in Newsletter of the American Dialect Society 12.3.8. Details how
treatment of mountain dialect by Apppalachian writers has evolved since
mid-19th century, when extreme eye dialect was prevalent, to present.
- LANGUAGE ATTITUDES AND SPEECH PERCEPTION
William L. 1978. Sociolinguistic aspects of language attitudes towards Southern
American English. Abstract in Newsletter of the American Dialect Society
11.1.12. [250 adults, North Carolina]. Measures attitudes toward nonstandard
Southern, standard Southern, and "Network English" with respect to
sex of speaker and sex, education, and age of judge.
- SPEECH ACT AND STYLE
Pat. 1972. Mountain hollerin. In the shadow of Big Bald: about the Appalachians
and their people, p. 64. Jonesboro, TN: Tri-Cities Press.
George Philip. 1925. [Rhetoric of Kentucky]. The English language in America,
vol. 2, pp. 297-306. New York: Ungar. Discusses development of folk tradition
of exuberant, exaggerated, and picturesque style in Kentucky and Old Southwest
region in first half of 19th century.
Bruce A. 1970. The art of the American folk preacher. New York: Oxford
University Press. Based on fieldwork in North Carolina, Virginia, Kentucky, and
Kathleen Claire. 1987. Narrative Appalachia. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan
dissertation. Abstract in DAI 48.429A.
bibliography. 1980. Morgantown, WV: West Virginia University Library.
Eleanor E. 1982. Speech, proverbs, and names. Tennessee folk culture: an
annotated bibliography, pp. 69-79. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press.
Arthur G. 1927. American sectional dialects. Bibliography of writings on the
English language, from the beginning of printing to the end of 1922, pp.
413-16. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University. Reissued 1961.
Ann Morton. 1980. An annotated bibliography of southern mountain speech.
Johnson City, TN: East Tennessee State University thesis.
Lee. 1968. An annotated bibliography of Southern states. Atlanta: Southeastern
Educational Library Monograph no. 1. Has 190 items, many annotated.
Charlotte T., ed. 1976. Bibliography of southern Appalachia. Boone, NC:
Appalachian Consortium Press.
Hensley C. 1958. A tentative bibliography of Kentucky speech. Publication of
the American Dialect Society 30.17-37. Includes references to local magazines