Names Of Plants: Sense and Sound - Part Four
"Names of Plants: Sense and Sound - Part Four" continues with a listing of rhododendron and other ericaceous genera beginning with E and F. This series began in the ARS Journal with Vol. 42:1, Winter 1988 and will continue in future issues.
In both English and Latin the stress falls on the penult (second-last syllable) when the vowel is long, e.g. de-có-rum. When that vowel is short, the stress falls on the antepenult (third-last syllable), e.g. af-ghán-i-cum. However, a short vowel is long by position when it is followed by a double consonant, creating a stop, e.g. a-mán-dum, cal-o-phýl-lum.
A diphthong is long, e.g. tel-ma-tel-um. Penultimate vowels that are long in Latin or Greek are long in English and are pronounced as English long vowels. In California we have numerous examples of the difference because Spanish vowels are pronounced like Latin ones, e.g. Salinas is pronounced Sa-lee-nas, but in Kansas Salina is pronounced Sa-leye-na. Examples: auriculatum, -lay-tum; occidentale, -tay-le; orbiculare, -lay-re; cinnabarinum, -eye-num; imped-itum, -eye-tumn; racemosum, -o-sum; Greek: chrysodoron, -doe-ron; ssp. xanthocodon, -coe-don.
The common ending -ii, indicating possession, contains both short and long i, e.g., maddénii. The feminine form appears in ánnae, pronounced ann-ee.
A name of Greek origin, like schizostigma (σχιζειυ to split + στιγμα a brand), begins with sk-, as in school, but the British unaccountably pronounce some with sh-: Schizanthus, schedule.
Rhododendron Species — E
R. edécteum Balf.f & Forr. (L. picked out) Ch. "variegated r."
var. bellátulum Balf. f. exTagg (L. somewhat pretty)
R. edánoi Merry & Quisumb. (of C. Edano, a Philippine collector)
R. edgewórthii Hook. f. (of Michael P. Edgeworth, 1812-1881, Bengal Civil Service, 1821-81; collected plants in Aden, India, Ceylon; "Plants from Northwestern India," Trans. Linn. Soc. v. 20, 1851), etc. Edgeworthia Meissner
R. elegántulum Tagg & Forr. (L. somewhat elegant)
R. elliótti Watt ex Brandis (of a Mr. Elliott, a friend of Sir George Watt, 1851-1930, who discovered it); see R. wattii.
R. emarginàtum Hemsl. & Wils. (L. with a margin, i.e. a shallow notch) Ch. "notched-tip r."
R. englerànum Koorder (of Victor C. A. Engler, 1885-1917)
R. erástum Balf.f. & Forr. (G. lit. beloved)
R. ericòides Low ex Hook. f. (resembling Erica
R. erosipétalum J. J. Sm. (L. lobe eaten away)
R. esetulòsum Balf.f. & Forr. (L. hairless)
R. esquiròlii Lévl. (of Père Joseph-Henri Esquirol, who collected in Yunnan, 1907-17)
R. eùchroum Balf. f. & Ward (G. lit. fresh-looking)
R. eudóxum Balf.f. & Forr. (G. lit. of good report)
var. brunneifòlium (Balf. f. & Forr.) Chamb. (G. bruon moss + L. leaf)
var. mesopòlium (Balf. f. & Forr.) Chamb. (G. mesos in the middle + polis a city, by extension, metropolitan)
R. euonymifòlium Tagg & Forr. (with a leaf like Euonymus) Ch. "euonymus-leaved r."
R. eurýsiphon Tagg & Forr. (G. euros breadth + siphon tube, especially the one used to draw wine out of a cask)
R. exasperàtum Tagg (L. rough)
R. excéllens Hemsl. &Wils. (L. excelling) Ch. "large-trumpet r."
R. excélsum Chevalier (L. elevated)
R. exquìsitum J. L. Ming (L. choice) Ch. "exquisite r."
R. extrórsum J. J. Sm. (L. [growing] outwardly)
R. èytnae Sleumer ("after the Dutch botanist collector P. Eyma, 1903-1945, who died in a Japanese concentration camp," Sleumer)
Rhododendron Species — F
R. fàberi Hemsl. (of Rev. E. Faber, who collected near Tatsienlu, now Kang-ding,China, 1887-91)
ssp. práttii (Franch.) Chamb. (of Antwerp E. Pratt, fl. 1880s-1910s, explorer & professional zoological collector of insects and plants in China, New Guinea, So. Amer., who discovered it.) To the Snows of Tibet through China, 1891; Two Years among New Guinea Cannibals, 1906 Clematis prattii Hemsl. Ch. "Jinding r."
R. facètum Balf. f. & Ward (L. elegant)
R. fáithae Chun (of Miss Faith Chun, niece of the author) She was a staff member of the Botanical Institute, College of Agriculture, Sun Yat-sen University, Canton. Ch. "large-cloud-brocade r."
R. falcóneri Hook. f. (of Hugh Falconer, 1808-1865, M.D. Edinburgh; surgeon E. India Co., Bengal; supt. Saharanpar Garden, Calcutta Botanic Gardens; prof, of botany, Calcutta Med. Coll.; plants at Kew.) Falconera Royle.
ssp. exímium (Nutt.) Chamb. (L. excellent)
R. fallacìnum Sleumer (L. somewhat deceitful)
R. farinòsum Lévl. (L. mealy)
R. fàrrerae Tate apud Sweet (of the wife of Capt. Farrer, E. India Co., who introduced it in 1829); reintr. by Robert Fortune in 1844. Farrer's or Lilac Azalea. Ch. "lilac r."
R. fastigiàtum Franch. (L. branches erect & close together) Ch. "densely-branched r."
R. faùcium Chamberlain (L. of the gorges, s.e. Xizang = Tibet).
R. féddei Lévl. (of Friedrich K. G. Fedde, 1873-1942, after whom the journal Fedde Reppertorium is named)
R. ferrugíneum L. (L. rusty, i.e. in color) intro. 1752
R. flámmeum (Michx.) Sargent (L. anc. Rom. bridal-veil, orange-red) Oconee Azalea; 1st described by Aiton in 1789 as A. nudiflora var. coccinea
R. flavánthera Hutch. & Ward (L. yellow anther)
R. flàvidum Franch. (L. somewhat yellow) intr. 1905 Ch. "light-yellow r."
var. psilostylum Rehd. &Wils. (G. psilos bare + style)
R. fletcherànum Davidian (of Harold R. Fletcher, 1907-1919, Regius Keeper, Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh)
R. fleúryi Dop (of Francis Fleury, 1881-1919, who collected in Afr., Fr. lndo-China, 1907-10, 1916)
R. floccígerum Franch. (L. carrying a bit of wool, red "wool" on shoots) Ch. "woolly r."
R. floribúndum Franch. (L. free-flowering) Ch. "abundantly-flowering r."
R. flumíneum Fang et M.Y. He (L. at the river) Riverside Azalea
R. formosànum Hemsl. (of Formosa, i.e. Taiwan)
R. formòsum Wallich (L. beautiful)
var. inaequàle (Hutch.) Cullen (L. unequal, i.e. in size)
Iteophýllum Group (G. itea willow + leaf)
R. forréstii Balf. f. ex Diels (of George Forrest, Scot. 1873-China 1932) Ch. "purple-backed r."
Rèpens Group (L. creeping)
ssp. papillàtum Chamb. (L. pimpled)
Forrest made seven collecting trips to Yunnan between 1904-32, during which he sent to Edinburgh an enormous number of plants, including Abies forrestii, Acer forrestii, Gentiana sino-ornata, Rhododendron forrestii, R. sinogrande and R. giganteum (now a variety of R. protistum), to name a few, but above all he was the collector for the specialist in rhododendrons and primulas, for the alpine house and the rock garden.
His first journey was financed by Arthur K. Bulley, a wealthy Liverpool cotton-broker, through Bayley Balfour at the Edinburgh Botanic Garden, to whom he sent his new species for identification. This was a period of border wars between China and Tibet. In July, 1905, a party of about 80 - Forrest with 17 servants and collectors, and two aged French missionaries with their Chinese converts and their families - set out from Tengyueh at night. The Tibetans attacked, the party panicked and scattered. All but 14 were slain or captured, one priest killed on the spot and the other tortured to death. Forrest accidentally fell, rolled down into the jungle and was saved.
He discarded his boots to avoid making tracks and wandered for nine days with only some grains of wheat and parched peas for food. Since he had been able to retain firearms, he decided to hold-up a small Lissu village. However, the headman was friendly, hid and fed him meal of parched barley-flour, the only food available. Forrest gorged himself on this so that he suffered gastric pains for weeks afterward. The headman passed him on to another, who supplied him with guides over the dividing range to the Mekong valley. This phase of the journey required hacking a way through wet jungle and struggling through the snows, glaciers and rocks of a 17,000-foot ridge.
J. C. Williams of Caerhays, Cornwall, was the principal backer of subsequent trips. On 5 January, 1932, Forrest packed for a tour of botanizing, set out, but suddenly collapsed and died before he could be reached. He was buried in Tengyueh near his friend, G. L. Litton, the British consul.
R. fortùnans J. J. Sm. (L. prospering)
R. fortùnei Lindley (of Robert Fortune, Scot. 1812-1880) Ch. "cloud-brocade r."
ssp. discolor (Franch.) Chamb. (G. dis- twice + L. color)
Houlstónii Group (of G. Houlston, Chinese Imperial Maritime Customs, and friend of E. H. Wilson)
Robert Fortune went to China under the terms of the Treaty of Nanking, 1842, which permitted Europeans to travel only 20-30 miles beyond treaty-ports. Most of his journeys were made from his base at Shanghai. At the outset he engaged in a gun battle with five vessels of pirates in the South China Sea during which most of his crew disappeared below-deck during the fighting. As collector for the Horticultural Society of London he shipped his materials in Wardian cases, the first long-distance use of those devices. Included among his acquisitions were the first forsythia, the first weigela, three fine viburnums and other plants now common in gardens. Instead of returning to China as expected, he served as curator of Chelsea Physic Garden.
When he did return in 1848 he grew bolder, disguising himself as a Chinese and, with a minimum of helpers, traveled hundreds of miles inland in quest of tea. He obtained plants and seeds of green tea near Sung-lo Shan, a center of its production, and of black tea at Chung-ngan. These introductions formed the basis for the production of tea in India.
In October 1855 he collected seed of R. fortunei at Poo-in-che after hearing its praise from the local people; this he sent to Messrs. Glendinning of Chiswick. At the behest of the American government, which wanted to grow tea experimentally in the South, he made another trip in 1858-59.
After Commodore Matthew Perry had opened the ports of Japan to trade, plant-collectors and others swarmed there. In late 1860 Fortune arrived from China, but confined his search mainly to nurseries in the principal cities. Among his introductions were Lilìum auratum, which he had seen growing in the wild, Cryptomeria and Primula japonica, he considered the male form of Aucuba japonica to be the best because only the female form had been available in Britain.
Three Years' Wanderings in the Northern Provinces of China, 1847; Journey to Tea Countries of China, 1852 (available from the RHS in paperback, 1988); etc. Fortunea Lindley; Fortunella Swingle
R. fragariiflòrum Ward (L. of strawberry, flower, i.e. red)
R. fràgrans (Adams) Maxim. (L. fragrant)
R. frèywisstingii J. J. Sm. (of A. Frey-Wissling, Swiss botanist, who collected on Sumatra)
R. fùchsii (foox) Sleumer (of "H. P. Fuchs, Swiss botanist and collector, who collected on Mt. Kinabalu in 1963 and was the first to reach the north face of that massif; possibly a hybrid," Sleumer)
R. fúlgens Hook.f. (L. shining)
R. fúlvum Balf. f. & W. W. Sm. (L. tawny) Ch. "sickle-capsule r."
Other Ericaceous Genera — E
Ellióttia Muhlenberg ex Elliott (of Stephen Elliott, 1771-1830, Amer. botanist who wrote a flora of So. Carolina), 4 spp. Japan, No. Amer., including former Cladothamnus
E. racemòsa Muhl. ex Ell. (L. flowers in an un-branched indeterminate inflorescence), pine-barrens, e. Ga.-s. So. Car.
Enkiánthus Loureiro (G. egkuein to be pregnant + anthos flower, i.e. the large colored involucre of E. quinqueflorus resembles a flower enclosing other flowers) 10 spp. Himal. -Japan; deciduous shrubs with form of a pagoda.
E. campanulàtus (Miquel) Nichols (L. bell-shaped) cult, in U.S. 1870
var. albiflòrus Makino (L. white-flowered)
var. palibínii (Craib) Bean (of Ivan V. Palibin, 1872-1949)
E. cérnuus (Sieber & Zuccarini) Makino (L. nodding) cult. 1900
E. chinénsis Franch. (of China - western) intr. 1900
E. defléxus (Griffith) Schneider (L. bent abruptly down) cult. 1878
E. perulàtus (Miquel) Schneid. (L. pocket-like, i.e. flowers) intr. c. 1870
Epigaèa L. (C. epi on + gaia earth, ground) Ground Laurel, 3 spp
E. asiática Maxim. (Asiatic) Japan, cult. 1930
E. gaultherioides (Boissieu) Takhtadjan (resembling Caultheria) Caucasus, E. Asia Minor intr. 1885
E. repens L. (L. creeping), Mayflower, Trailing Arbutus, Fleur de Mai; e. U.S., intr. 1736
var. glabrifòlia Fern. (L. smooth-leaved)
var. glabrifòlia flòre plèna Rehd. (L. - double-flowered)
Erica L. (Latinised from Greek ereike; ancient name for E. arborea and f. multiflora; Pliny, N. H. 13, 114; 24, 64) c. 665 spp. S. Afr., trop. Afr. mts., Medit., Macronesia, Eur.; 520 of them endemic in so. Cape Prov. Some are listed here.
E. arbòrea L. (L. tree-like), intr. into cult. w. Eur. 1658
E. austràlis L. (L. southern, i.e. Sp. & Port.)
E. báccans L. (L. berried)
E. canaliculàta Andre (L. channeled, grooved)
E. capénsis Salter (of the Cape of Good Hope)
E. carnea L. (L. of flesh, i.e. color)
E. chamissònis (ka-) Klotzch ex Bentham (of Adalbert von Chamisso, Ger. 1781-1838)
E. ciliàrìs L. (L. fringed with hairs)
E. cinèrea L. (L. ashy, i.e. color)
E. cruénta Solander (L. bloody, i.e. color)
E. decípiens Kurt Sprengel (L. deceiving)
E. diáphana K. Spreng. (G. diaphanes seen through)
E. doliifórmis Salisbury (L. of the shape of a large wine-jar, tubby)
E. exsúrgens André (L. rising up)
E. glandulòsa Thunberg (L. very glandular)
E. glaüca Andre (L. bluish-gray or greenish-gray fol.)
E. globòsa Andre (L. spherical)
E. gradlis J. C.Wendland (L. slender)
E. hirtiflòra Curtis (L. with a shaggy flower)
E. hyemàlis Nichols (L. of winter)
E. lateràlis Willdenow (L. of the sides)
E. lusitánica K. Rudolphi (of Lusitania, anc. Roman name for Portugal)
E. mackaiàna Babington (of John J. Mackay, Eng. 1775-1862)
E. mammòsa L. (L. with nipples)
E. mediterrànea L. (of the Medit.)
E. melánthera L. (G. melano- black + anther)
E. multiflòra L. (L. many flowers)
E. persolùta L. (L. completely detached)
E. regérminans L. (L. regerminating)
E. scopària L. (L. like a sweeper, from resemblance to Broom)
E. sicifòlia (si-si) Salisbury (L. dagger-leaved)
E. sítiens Klotzch (L. being thirsty)
E. terminàlis Salisb. (L. flowers in terminal umbels)
E. tetràlix L. (G. with four spirals, name used by Theophrastus)
E. umbellàta L. (L. umbelled)
E. vagans L. (L. wandering)
X veìtchii Bean (of the Veitch Nursery: arboreax lusitanica)
E. ventricòsa Thunb. (L. belly-shaped)
E. versícolor J. C. Wendl. (L. variously-colored)
E. verticillàta Bergius (L. whorled)
E. viridipurpúrea L. (L. greenish-purple)
X williámsii Druce (of J. C.Williams, Caerhays, Cornwall: tetralix x vagans)