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Journal American Rhododendron Society

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Dr. Glen Jamieson ars.editor@gmail.com


Volume 43, Number 2
Spring 1989

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Names Of Plants: Sense and Sound - Part Five
Theo Smid
Hayward, California

This series, "Names of Plants: Sense and Sound", continues with Part Five, a listing of rhododendron and other ericaceous genera beginning with G, H, I, J and K. The first installment was in the ARS Journal, Vol.42:1, Winter 1988. It will continue in future issues.
        Mispronunciation of plant names is not uncommon. Generally mispronounced are words that end in the Greek -ides "likeness or resemblance," common in botany, biochemistry and medicine, e.g. hippophaeoides, in which o creates the combining form of the basic word: -o-eye-des or -o-i-des. This construction is not to be confused with the dipthong in a word like android or adenoid.
        Some species are named for persons of various nationalities. The sound of ch, in particular, varies. It is gutteral ch in German, e.g. R. bachii; sh in French, e.g. R. chevalieri; k in Italian, e.g. R. scortechinii. Rhododendron stresemannii, German, begins with shtr. The hs in R. chihsianum is pronounced approximately as sh.

Rhododendron Species — G
R. galactìnum Balf. f. ex Tagg (G. galaktos of milk) Ch. "milky-yellow-leaf r."
R. gardènia Schlechter (Named for Dr. Alexander Garden, 1730-1791, M.D. Glasgow, who moved to Charleston, S.C. He was a strong supporter of John Bartram and Cadwallader Colden and corresponded with Linnaeus in Sweden and Peter Collinson in England.)
R. gaultheriifòlium J.J. Sm. (with leaves like Gaultheria)
R. gemmíferum Philipson & Philipson (L. gem-producing)
R. genestierànum Forr. (of Père A. Genestier, b. 1858, Fr. Tibetan Mission, friend of George Forrest) Ch. "gray-white r."
R. gilliàrdii Sleumer (of E. T. T. Gilliard, who collected in n.e. New Guinea); perhaps a hybrid
R. giulianétti Lauter (of a Mr. Giulianetti, who collected in New Guinea)
R. glabriflòrum J.J. Sm. (L. smooth flower)
R. glabrius Nakaibe (L. smoother) Japanese Azalea. The name was assigned to the azalea, R. japonicum, when R. japonicum (Blume) Schneider replaced R. metternichii. See R. japonicum.
R. glandulíferum Franch. (L. gland-bearing)
R. glandulostyum Fang et M. Y. He (L. glandular style) Ch. "glandular-style azalea"
R. glandulòsum Standley ex Small (L. very glandular)
R. glaucophýllum Rehd. (G. glaucous leaf) intr. c. 1850
    var. tubifórme Cowan & Davidian (L. tubular)
R. glischrum (glis-chrum) Balf. f. & W. W. Sm. (G. glischros gluey, i.e. young shoots) Ch. "sticky-haired r."
    ssp. glischroìdes (Tagg & Forr.) Chamb. (resembling R. glischrum)
    ssp. rùde (Tagg & Forr.) Chamb. (L. rough)
R. goodenoúghíi Sleumer (of Goodenough, a volcanic island 20 miles s.e. of New Guinea)
R. graciléntum F. v. Mueller (L. slender)
R. gránde Wight (L. large)
R. gràtum T. L. Ming (L. pleasing, welcome) Ch. "lovely r."
R. griersoniànum Balf.f. & Forr. (of C. Grierson, Chinese Maritime Customs at Tengyueh and friend of George Forrest)
R. griffithiànum Wight (of William Griffith, 1810-1845, surg. in Madras; collected in Assam with N. Wallich and in Bhutan, Afghanistan, Malaya; supt. Calcutta Botanic Garden.) Notulae ad Plantas Asiaticas, 1847-54, 4 vols. Criffithia Wright & Arnott
R. guangnanénse R. C. Fang (of Guangnan, Yunnan)
R. guanxianénse (gwahn-she'en-) Not yet described, but reported in The Rhododendron Species Foundation Newsletter, July, 1968 (of Guan Xian [County], Sichuan)

Rhododendron Species — H
R. hábbemae Koorders (of Lake Habbema, "named for D. Habbema who accompanied the Lorentz Expedition in New Guinea as leader of its military cover," Sleumer)
R. habrotríchum Balf. f. & W.W. Sm. (G. habros delicate + thrix, trichos hair)
R. haematòdes Franch. (G. lit. looking like blood) Ch. "bloodlike r."
    ssp. chaetomállum (kee-to) (Balf. f. & Forr.) Chamb. (G. chaite leaves + mallos a lock of wool) Ch. "silky r."
R. haematophthálmum Sleumer (G. lit. a bloody eye)
R. hainanénse Merrill (of Hainan Province) Hainan Azalea
R. hameliiflòrumWernh. (Hamelia-flower, Cent, and So. Amer. evergreen shrubs and small trees, Rubiaceae)
R. hanceànum Hemsl. (of Henry F. Hance, Ph.D., 1827-1886, Brit, consul at Canton, Amoy, Whampoa) Ch. "sparsely-leaved r." intr. 1909. Hancea Hemsl.
R. hangzhouénse Fang et M.Y. He (of Hangzhou, Zhejiang Prov.) Azaleastrum
R. haofùi Chun & Fang (of Hao Village, Guangxi Prov.) Ch. "glossy-branched r."
R. hàrtleyi Sleumer (of Th. G. Hartley, botanist of Canberra, who collected in New Guinea)
R. hataménse Beccari (of the Hatam tribe on the Vogelkop Penin. of New Guinea where Sleumer and Beccari collected)
R. hedyósmum Balf f. (G. & L. hedyosmos, a sweet-smelling mint in Theophrastus & Pliny)
R. heliólepis Franch. (G. helios the sun + lepis scale) Ch. "bright-scale r."     var. brevistýlum (Franch.) Cullen (L. short style)
    var. oporìnum (Balf. f. &Ward) A.L. Chang (G. & L. of autumn)
R. hellwígii Warburg (of F.C. Hellwig, 1861-1889, an early collector in e. New Guinea)
R. hélodes Sleumer (G. helos, low ground along a river)
R. hemitrichòtum Balf. f. & Forr. (G. hemi half + tricbotum hairy, i.e. fol. softly hairy above)
R. hemsleyànum Wils. (of William B. Hemsley, 1843-1924, LLD Aberdeen, Keeper, Kew Herbarium) Diagnoses Plantarum Novarum, 1878-80; Enumeration of all Plants known from China (with F.G. Forbes), 1886-1905. Hemsleya Cogniaux Ch. "wavy-leaved r."
R. hénryi Hance (of Augustine Henry, 1857-1930, med. officer in China, 1880-1900; collected in Ichang, Hupeh, Sichuan, Yunnan, Hainan, Taiwan; authority on Chinese materia medica; prof. of forestry, Coll. of Science, Dublin, 1913-26.) Trees of Great Britain and Ireland (with H.J. Elwes), 1906-13, 7 vols.; Forests, Woods and Trees in Relation to Hygiene, 1919 Ch. "curved capsule r."
    var. pubéscens K.M. Feng & A.L. Chang (L. becoming downy) Ch. "pubescent curved-capsule r."
R. herzógii Warb. (of a Mr. Herzog of New Guinea)
R. himantòdes Sleumer (G. himantion a small leather strap, i.e. with leathery bands)
R. hippophaeoìdes Balf. f. & W. W. Sm. (resembling Hippophae Sea-Buckthorn) Ch. "gray-backed r."
    Fimbriàtum Group (L. minutely fringed)
    var. occidentàle Philipson & Philipson (L. western)
R. hirsùtum L. (L. hairy, i.e. shoots and margins of lvs. bristly) intr. 1685
R. hírtipes Tagg (L. with hairy feet, i.e. pedicels)
R. hirtolepidòtum J. J. Sm. (G. & L. hairy-scaled)
R. hodgsónii Hook. f. (of B.H. Hodgson, E. India Co. Resident in Nepal) Ch. "many-lobed r."
R. hòii Fang (of A. H. Ho, who collected in Borneo, Sichuan, Kwantung, 1931-35)
R. hongkongénse Hutch, (of Hong Kong) Ch. "white-horse-silver flower"
R. hooglándii Sleumer (of R. D. Hoogland, a collector in New Guinea)
R. hoókeri Nuttall (of Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker, 1817-1911, M.D. Glasgow; botanist to Geological Survey, 1846; explored & collected in Sikkim & Nepal, 1847-51; Palestine & Syria, 1860; Morocco with J. Ball, 1871; Rocky Mts. with Asa Gray, 1877; pioneer phyto-geographer; friend of Charles Darwin, with whom he collaborated in researches on evolutionary origin of species; introduced important rhododendrons. The publication of his The Rhododendrons of Sikkim-Himalaya, 1849, greatly widened the interest of horticulturists to the possibilities of rhododendrons as garden-subjects. Director of Kew, 1865-85, succeeding his father, Sir William Jackson H., 1841-65.) Ch. "string-of-pearls r."
R. horlickiànum Davidian (of Sir James Horlick, 1896-1972, who created the famous wind-swept garden on the Isle of Gigha, Argyll)
R. huiànum Fang (of Hui, w. Sichuan Prov.)
R. huidongénse J.L. Ming (of Huidong Xian, i.e. County, so. Sichuan)
R. hunnewelliànum Rehd. & Wils. (of a family descended from Ambrose Hunnewell, who emigrated from Devonshire to Mass. c. 1660; especially Horatio H. Hunnewell, 1810-1902, banker and horticulturist, who imported many rhododendrons and azaleas; an important benefactor of the Mass. Hort. Soc., Arnold Arboretum, the botany depts of Harvard U. and Wellesley Coll. and the town of Wellesley.)
    ssp. róckii (Wils.) Chamb. (of Dr. Joseph Rock, Austria 1883-1962, prof, of botany, prof. of Chinese, Univ. of Hawaii; sent by Dept of Agric. to Indo-China, Siam and Burma to collect seeds of the chaulmoogra tree, whose oil was then used in the treatment of leprosy; in 1922 he went to China and remained there, except for short intervals, until 1949. In 1924-25 he was commissioned by Prof. Charles S. Sargent, creator of Arnold Arboretum, and the Harvard Mus. of Comparative Zool. to explore two little-known ranges on the Chinese-Tibetan border. In 1928-29 he collected in Yunnan for garden owners in Britain and the U.S. and explored for the National Geographic Society. In 1926 he sent to the Arnold Arbor, seeds of the magnificent Paeonia suffrutticosa 'Rock's Variety,' which had been cultivated at the lamasery of Choni. In 1938 the lamasery was burned to the ground during a Moslem uprising. The lamas were killed and the peonies destroyed. After the lamasery was rebuilt Rock obtained seeds from the arboretum. The Rock Rhododendrons are listed in The Rhododendron Handbook 1980, 328-354. The last fifteen years of Rock's life were devoted to the study of the literature of the Na-Khis, a non-Chinese aboriginal tribe near Likiang. He translated the key volumes of some 8,000 books of their literature.) Data from Alice M. Coats, The Plant Hunters.
R. hyacinthósmum Sleum. (Hyacinth + G. osme smell)
R. hybridógenum Sleum. (hybrid + L. born)
R. hylaèum Balf. f. & Farrer (G. hulaiois woody or of the forest)
R. hypérythrum Hayata (G. hupo below + eruthros red, i.e. lvs minutely reddish punctuate) Ch. "smile r."
R. hypophaèum Balf. f. & Forr. (G. below + phaios dusky)

Rhododendron Species — I
R. imbérbe Hutch. (L. beardless)
R. impedìtum Balf. f. & W.W. Sm. (L. tangled)
R. imposìtum J. J. Sm. (L. put in or laid on)
R. impressopunctàtum J. J. Sm. (L. with impressed dots, i.e. on the lvs)
R. incómmodum Sleum. (L. unsuitable or troublesome)
R. inconspícuum J.J. Sm. (L. inconspicuous; named for a herbarium specimen that had been prepared with formaldehyde and appeared brown all over)
R. índicum (L.) Sweet (Indian, one of many geographically erroneous names given to plants. When Dutch merchants introduced this so. japan azalea into Holland in 1680 as Azalea indica they gave its origin as Jakarta, Java.)
R. inscúlptum Hutch. &Ward (L. engraved)
R. insígne Hemsl. & Wils. (L. remarkable) Ch. "extraordinary r."
R. intranervàtum Sleum. (L. nervation within. This species has peculiar nervation for a rhododendron, with nerves impressed and also on the margins.)
R. intricàtum Franch. (L. entangled) Ch. "hidden-stamen r."
R. inundàtum Sleum. (L. flooded, suggesting a habitat)
R. invasòrium Sleum. (L. invader. The plants invaded sterile grounds in the Morobe area of New Guinea.)
R. invictum Balf. f. & Forr. (L. unconquered)
R. irroràtum Franch. (L. covered with dew, i.e. upper surface at first glandular and floccose) Ch. "dewdrop r."
    ssp. kontuménse (Sleum.) Chamb. (of Kontum, Vietnam)
    ssp. pogonostylum (Balf. f. & W.W. Sm.) Chamb. (G. pogon beard + style)

Rhododendron Species — J
R. japónicum (A. Gray) Suringar (Japanese) Renge Tsutsuji. See R. glabrius Nakaibe.
R. jasminiflòrum Hook, (with a Jasmine-like flower, but not the scent)
R. jinpingénse (jeen-) Fang et M.Y. He (of Jinping X1an [Co.], Yunnan) Jinping Azalea
R. jinxiuénse (jeen-shyo-) Fang et M.Y. He (of Jinxiu Xian [Co.], Guángxi Prov.) Jinxiu Azalea
R. johnstoneànum Watt ex Hutch, (of Mrs. Johnstone, wife of the Brit. Political Agent in Manipur)
    Párryae Group (of Mrs. A.D. Parry, wife of an officer in the Assam Civil Service)

Rhododendron Species — K
R. kaèmpferi Planchon (of Engelbert Kaempfer, 1651-1716, physician to the gov. of the Dutch East India Co., which had facilities on Deshima, a small artificial island in Nagasaki harbor. On two highly restricted journeys to the court in Yedo (Tokyo) in March-May, 1690 & 1691, Kaempfer collected plants, branches and flowers. The fifth section of his Amoenitates Exoticae, 1712, contains the first descriptions of Aucuba, Skimmia, Hydrangea, Chimonanthus, Ginkgo, Lilium speciosum, L. tigrinum, tree-peonies, azaleas, various Prunus and nearly 30 varieties of Camellia.) Kaempfer or Torch Azalea, Yama Tsutsuji, intro. 1892; many cvs.
R. kailiénse Fang et M.Y. He (of Kaili Xian [Co.], Guizhou Prov.) an Azaleastrum
R. kanehirae (sometimes misspelled kanehirai) (no stress) Wils. (of Ryozo Kanehira, 1882-1947, Japanese botanist) Taebei Azalea, Taiwan
R. kansuénse Millais (of w. Gansu, near the Xizang [Tibetan] border)
R. kasoénse Hutch & Ward (of Kaso Peak, Delei Valley, Assam)
R. kawakami (no stress) Hayata (of Takiya Kawakami, 1871-1915, collector in Taiwan)
R. kedítii Sleum. (of Kedit, "a native of the Dusun tribe, who accompanied Mrs. Sheila Collenette on her exploration of Mt. Kinabalu in the 1960s and actually found the specimen which has served as the type of this species; possibly a hybrid," Sleumer)
R. keiskei (no stress) Miq. (of Keisuke lto, 1803-1901, Japanese botanist who discovered it) intro. 1905
R. kemulénse J. J. Sm. (of Mt. Kemul, on the border between Sarawak & Indonesian Borneo)
R. kendríckii Nutt. (of Dr. G. Kendrick, 1771-1847, M.D. Edinburgh, friend of Nutt.
R. kèysii Nutt. (of the discoverer, a Mr. Keys)
R. kiangsiénse Fang (of Kiangsu, Jiangxi Prov.)
R. kiusiànum Mak. (of Kyushu, Japan) Kyushu Azalea; intr. from seed by E. H.Wilson in 1918
R. kóchii (ch as in loch) Stein (of O. Koch, German zoologist who collected plants in the Philippines
R. komiyamae (no stress) Makino (of Tomitaro Komiyama, who found it in central Honshu.) Azalea. Ashi Taka Tsutsuii.
R. kongboénse Hutch, (of Kongbo, s.e. Tibet)
R. konórii Beccari (of a god of the native Hattam people in n.w. New Guinea)
R. korthálsii Miq. (of Pieter W. Korthals, 1807-1892)
R. kwangfuénse Chun & Fang (of Kuang-fu, i.e. village, no. Guangxi Prov.)
R. kwangsiénse Hu (of Guangxi Prov.) Guangxi Azalea
R. kwangtungénse Merr. et Chun (of Guangdong Prov.) Guangdong Azalea
R. kyàwii Lace & W.W. Sm. (of Maung Kyaw, a Burmese plant-collector)

Other Ericaceous Genera — G
Gaulthéria L. (of Dr. Jean-Francois Gaulthier, physician-naturalist of the gov. of Canada, the Marquis de la Galisonnière, himself a naturalist, in Quebec, c.1750) 150 spp. Malaysia, E. Asia, Aus., N.Z., No., Cent., So. Amer. Many contain methyl salicylate, the basis of wintergreen.
    G. adenóthrix (Miq.) Maxim. (G. aden gland + thrix hair) intr. 1915
    G. antípoda G. Forster (of the Antipodes, i.e. N.Z., Tasmania)
    G. colénsoi Hook.f. (of William Colenso, 1811-1899) N.Z.
    G. crássa Franklin (L. thick) Ruahine Mts. southward, N.Z.
    G. cuneàta (Rehd. &Wils.) Bean (L. wedge-shaped, i.e. lvs.) intr. 1908
    G. depréssa Hook.f. (L. pressed down)        var. novae-zelándiae Franklin (of New Zealand)
    G. forréstii Diels (of George Forrest, 1873-1932), cult. 1933
    G. fragrantíssima Wallich (L. most fragrant)
    G. híspida R. Brown (L. bristly) Waxberry, cult. 1927
    G. hispídula (L.) Muhlenb. ex Bigelow (L. slightly bristly) Creeping Snowberry, Moxie Plum, Maidenhair Berry, in Quebec: Petit the de perdrix I de bois
    G. hoókeri C. B. Clarke (of William J. Hooker, 1785-1865, dir. of Kew) cult. 1933
    G. humifùsa (R. C. Graham) Rydberg (L. sprawling on the ground) Alpine Wintergreen cult. 1830
    G. itoàna Hayata (of Ito, Taiwan)
    G. miqueliàna Takeda (of Friedrich A. W. Miquel, 1811-1871, prof, of bot., Utrecht, Neth.) intr. 1892
    G. nummularioìdes D. Don (resembling L. nummularius money-changer, i.e. fol. with shape of a coin) intr. 1850
    G. oppostifòlia Hook. f. (L. leaves opposite)
    G. ovatifòlia A. Gray (L. leaves ovate)
    G. procúmbens L. (L. lying on the ground) Wintergreen, Checkerberry, Teaberry, Mountain Tea, Ivry-Leaves (sic); Nfld.-Man.-Minn., so. to Ga.-Ala.
    G. pyroloìdes Hook.f. & T. Thomson (resembling Pyrola in fol.) cult. 1933
    G. rupéstries (L. f.) G. Don (L. growing among rocks) cult. 1933
    G. semi-ínfera (C. B. Clarke) Airy-Shaw (L. half-below)
    G. shállon Pursh Shallon, Salal. These words are of Chinook Indian origin in s.w. Washington state, from KI'Kwu-shalla and the syncopated form KIKwsala.
    The word "salal," meaning the fruit of the plant, came into use around the mouth of the Columbia R. c.1815-25. Ref. Univ. of Wash. Arboretum. The foliage, called Lemonleaf, is used by florists.
    G. sinensis J. Anthony (L. Chinese)
    G. subcorymbòsa Col. (somewhat corymbose, i.e. short, broad, flat inflorescence) Ruahine Mts. to Cook Strait, N.Z.
    G. fefrámera W.W. Sm. (G. four-part, i.e. flowers often 4-merous) cult. 1933
    G. trichophýlla Royle (G. thrix, trichos hair + leaf)
    G. veitchiàna Craib (of the Veitch Nursery) intr. 1908
    G. wardii Marquand & Airy-Shaw (of Francis Kingdon Ward, 1885-1958; see R. wardii) cult. 1933
    G. yunnanénsis (Franch.) Rehd. (of Yunnan Prov.)
Gaylussácia (-sak-) HBK (of Joseph L. Gay-Lussac, 1778-1850, noted Fr. chemist whose work laid the foundation of the food-canning industry; invented the hydrometer, alcoholmeter, portable barometer, steam-injection pump; pioneer balloonist, ascended to 22,000 ft. in 1804) 48 spp. No. & So. (most) Amer. Distinguished from Vaccinium in an ovary with 10 divisions because of outgrowths in the 5 carpels. Huckleberry
    G. baccàta (Wangenheim)) C. Koch (L. berried) Black Huckleberry, Gueules noires, Nfld.-Ga., w. to Iowa; earlier Eng. names: Hurtleberry,Whortleberry
    G. brachýcera (Michx.) A. Gray (G. brachus short + keras horn of an animal, i.e. lvs. finely crenate-toothed) Box H. intr. 1796
    G. dumòsa (Andre) Torrey & A. Gray (L. bushy) intr. 1774
       var. bigeloviàna Fern, (discovered by Jacob Bigelow, 1787-1879, prof, of bot. Boston)
    G. frondòsa (L.) Torrey & A. Gray (L. leafy, from bracteate racemes) Dangleberry, Blue-Tangle; closely allied to blueberry; N.H.-Fla. intr. 1761

Other Ericaceous Genera — K
Kálmia L. (of Pehr [Peter] Kalm, 1715-1779, prof, of natural science, Abo, Finland; pupil of Linnaeus, who traveled in eastern No. Amer., 1747-49, and published in 1765 the first part of Flora Fennica.) Before starting out from Philadelphia, he was "seized with terror at the thought of ranging so many new and unknown parts of natural history," even though John Bartram had given him much advice and encouragement. From the Delaware Water Gap he traveled to Quebec and Montreal. The governor of Canada had received orders from France to assist Kalm in every way possible; Dr. Gaulthier made botanical excursions with him. Later he explored the country of the Iroquois. During his stay in America he sent seeds to England and saw the resulting plants when he stopped off there on his return. He brought back to Sweden a herbarium of c. 325 spp., many of which Linnaeus later described in the Species Plantarum, and a wife, a pastor's widow. In commemorating Kalmia to him, Linnaeus wrote that it was "conformable to the peculiar friendship and goodness he has always honored me with." 7 spp. No. Amer., Cuba. Laurel, American or Mountain Laurel
    K. angustifòlia L. (L. narrow lvs.) Sheep, Dwarf or Pig Laurel, Lambkill, Wicky; e. Canada, U.S.; intr. 1736; many cvs.
    K. cuneàta Michx. (L. wedge-shaped, i.e. lvs. obovate-cuneate) White Wicky; Carolinas; intro. 1820
    K. hirsùta Thomas Walter (L. hairy, i.e. lvs., sepals, pedicels) s.e. U.S.; intr. 1790
    K. latifòlia L. (L. broad lvs.) Mountain L., Calico Bush, Ivy, lvybush, Spoonwood; e. Can., U.S.; intr. 1734; many cvs.
    K. microphýlla (Hook.) A. Heller (G. small lvs.) Western or Alpine L.; lowlands, Alaska-B.C., Ore.
       var. occidentàlis (Small) Ebinger (L. western, but same range)
    K. polifòlia Wangenheim (usually, L. with lvs. like Teucrium polium) Bog K., Bog or Pale L.; No. Amer. e. of Rocky Mts.; intr. 1767
       var. rosmarinifòlia (Pursh) Rehd. (Rosemary-like lvs.)
Kalmiópsis (L.F. Henderson) Rehd. (Kalmia + G. opsis appearance) 1 sp. Ore.
    K. leachiàna (L.F. Henders.) Rehd. The original plant was found in 1930 in Curry Co., extreme s.w. Ore., during a botanizing trip by Lilla Leach (b. 1886), a botanist, and her pharmacist husband John (b. 1882), who called himself "the muleskinner." Prof, of the Univ. of Oregon cited it as Rhododendron leachianum, but Rehder reclassified it as Kalmiopsis leachiana. It was introduced in 1933. In 1960 Marcel le Piniec found a second form about 100 miles away. The Leach form is named for the Rogue River and the other for the Umpqua River. 'M. le Piniec' is a clone of the latter.


Volume 43, Number 2
Spring 1989

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