Welcome to Wilma A. Dunaway's  Slavery and Emancipation in the Mountain South: Evidence, Sources, and Methods

The Supplementary Electronic Archive for  Slavery in the American Mountain South  (Cambridge University Press, 2003) and 

The African-American Family in Slavery and Emancipation (Cambridge University Press, 2003)


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Where is the Mountain South?                                              
Antebellum Illustrations  
Slave Narratives
Images of Slave Trading
Methodology & Sources
Book Information or Order

Discussion 1:

Slaves in Livestock Production

Discussion 2:

Civil War in the Mountain South

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Archival Manuscripts Utilized

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Archives Used for This Study:

Alabama Department of Archives and History

Church of Jesus Christ of the Lsatter Day Saints, Family History Center

College of William and Mary Library

Duke University Library

East Tennessee Historical Society

Filson Club (Louisville)

Fisk University Archives

Handley Public Library (Winchester, Virginia)

Harvard University Library

Historical Society of Pennsylvania

Library of Congress

Maryland State Archives

National Archives

North Carolina Department of Archives and History

Southern Historical Collection, University of North Carolina

State Historical Society of Wisconsin, McCormick Collection

Tennessee State Library and Archives

University of Kentucky Special Collections

Troy State University Library

University of Tennessee Special Collections

University of Virginia Library

Virginia Historical Society

Virginia State Library and Archives

Virginia Tech University

Washington and Lee University Library

West Virginia University Library

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Archival Manuscripts Utilized

Annapolis, Maryland

Maryland State Archives

Frederick County, Maryland Livestock Brand Registry, 1851-1853, County Land Records


Blacksburg, Virginia

Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University Library

Virginia and Tennessee Railroad Minutes, Virginia and Tennessee Railroad Collection


Cambridge, Massachusetts

Harvard University Library

Brainerd Journal, American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions Papers


Chapel Hill, North Carolina

Southern Historical Collection, University of North Carolina

Walter Alves Papers

John McPherson Berrien Papers

John Houston Bills Papers

John Luther Bridges Papers

Hamilton Brown Papers

Farish Carter Papers

Calvin J. Cowles Papers

William G. Dickson Papers

H.B. Eiler Letter Book

George Phifer Erwin Papers

Peachy R. Grattan Papers

James Hervey Greenlee Diary, 1848-53

James Gwyn Papers

Peter Wilson Hairston Papers

Stephen B. Heard Papers

Hoke Papers

Nathaniel Hunt and Company Papers

Gen. Edmund Jones Papers

Jones and Patterson Family Papers

Lenoir Family Papers

James Lee Love Papers

Lucilla Gamble McCorkle Diary, William McCorkle Papers

Silas McDowell Papers

Peter Mallett Papers

James Mallory Diary

Theodore Morrison Papers

Pettigrew Family Papers

George Wesley Race Diary

Jacob Siler Papers

Thomas George Walton Papers

Plowden C.J. Weston, "Plantation Instructions"

Martha Ann Hancock Wheat Diary, 1850-1866

Willis R. Williams Papers

Benjamin Cudworth Yancey Papers


Charlottesville, Virginia

University of Virginia Library

Charles J. Affleck Papers

Edmund Bacon Memoranda Book

Barbour Family Papers

Barringer Family Papers

Baumgardner Family Papers

Bell Family Papers

Berkeley Family Papers

Blackwell Family Papers

James Breckenridge Papers

Breckinridge Family Papers

Broad Run Baptist Church Minutes, 1762-1859

Austin Brockenbrough Papers

Bruce Family Papers

Buck Family Papers

John Buford Papers

Byers Family Papers

William D. Cabell Papers

Carr Family Papers

E.G. Chapman Farm Journal

Chestnut Grove Baptist Minute Books, 1773-1860

Christ Episcopal Church, Parish Register, 1830-1865

William W. Davis Iron Manufacturing Company Papers

Nancy Emerson Diary, Emerson Family Papers

Etna Furnace Papers

Folly Farms Papers

Richard Foster Papers

Goose Creek Baptist Church Records, 1775-1853

William T. Gordon Diary, Gordon Family Papers

Graham Family Papers

Grinnan Family Papers

Holland Family Papers

John Hook and Bowker Preston Papers

Hubard Family Papers

Phoebe Jackson Account Book

James River and Kanawha Canal Company Papers

Thomas Jefferson Papers

Keith Family Papers

Kelly-Norris Papers

Kohler Papers

Gen. Joel Leftwich Papers

Lewis, Anderson and Marks Family Papers

McCue Family Papers

McDowell Family Papers

Massie Family Papers

Mathews-Dundore Papers

Socrates Maupin Papers

Callohill Mennis Papers

Louisa H.A. Minor Diary, 1855-1866

Mount Ed Baptist Church Minute Book

Nelson County Business Ledgers

New Hope Baptist Church Minute Book, Thomas S. Bobcock Papers

Wilson Cary Nicholas Papers

Page-Walker Family Papers

Perry, Martin, and McCue Family Papers

Preston-Davis Family Papers

Randolph Family Papers

Register of Free Blacks, Washington County

Rives Family Papers

Rust Family Papers

Southside Virginia Family Papers

Alexander H.H. Stuart Letters

George Thrift Papers, 1844-1858

Trist, Burke and Randolph Family Papers

Nathaniel Beverly Tucker Papers

Virginia Letters Collection

Walker Family Papers

Wallace Family Papers

Watson Family Papers

Weaver-Brady Iron Works and Grist Mill Papers

Weaver-Brady Records

White Family Papers

Floyd L. Whitehead Papers

Wilson, Whitehead, and Houston Family Papers

Wise Family Papers

Wright Family Papers


Durham, North Carolina

William L. Perkins Library, Duke University Manuscripts

Thomas Adams Account Books, 1768-1808

Joseph Allred Papers

Francis Thomas Anderson Papers

John L. Bailey Collection

Daniel Baker Papers

Bedinger-Dandridge Letters

Alfred W. Bell Papers

N.L. Blakemore Papers

James Blanton Papers

William Bolling Papers

Bryaryly, Samuel, Richard and Rowland Papers

Campbell Family Papers

Clement Claiborne Clay Papers

Samuel Smith Downey Papers

Charles Ellis and George Wythe Munford Papers

Mary D. Fraser Papers and Account Books

Tyre Glen Papers

William H. Hatchett Papers

John Warfield Johnston Collection

Michael Kidwiler Papers

Henry Clay Krebs Papers

William LaPrade Account Books, 1839-1860

William Law Papers

Thomas Lenoir Papers

Joseph Long Papers

Henry Kent McCay Papers

James McDowell Papers

Mary Singleton McDuffie Papers

Hugh Minor Notebooks

Battaile Muse Papers

John Quincy Adams Nadenbousch Papers

John M. Orr Papers

Green W. Penn Papers

Benjamin Pennybacker Daybook

Poor Relief Records, Augusta County, Virginia, 1791-1822

H.I. Rhodes Memorandum Book

John Rutherford Papers and Letter Books

Richard W. Sanders and John W. Greene Papers and Notebooks

Samuel P. Sherrill Account Book

Staunton, Virginia Poor Records, 1770-1872

Vincent Tapp Papers

Augustin Louis Taveau Papers

Cabell Tavenner and Alexander Scott Withers Papers

William Holland Thomas Papers

John W. Timberlake Papers

Michael H. Turrentine Papers

William Weaver Papers

F.L. Whitehead and N. Lofftus Accounts of Slave Trading

Alice Williamson Diary, Digitized Collections http://Scriptorium.lib.duke.edu

Philip J. Winn Collection


Knoxville, Tennessee

East Tennessee Historical Society

Knoxville Industrial Association, "Facts and Figures, 1869," trade pamphlet


Knoxville, Tennessee

University of Tennessee Special Collections

Caldwell Papers

"Diary of William R. Caswell, 1856," Typescript.

John Sevier Papers

O.P. Temple Papers


Lexington, Kentucky

University of Kentucky Special Collections

Buckner Family Papers

William Calk Papers

Diary of Judge Cabell Chenault, Chenault-Bowmar Family Papers

J. Winston Coleman Papers on Slavery, Typescripts

Forsythe Family Papers

Francis M. Goddard Diary, 1834-1850

Graham Account Book

Halley Family Papers

John Halley, "Journal of Trips to New Orleans"

Hilton Family Diaries

Hunt-Morgan Family Papers

Kentucky House Journal (1838-1839)

Joseph and Archibald Logan Papers

Means-Seaton Papers

National Society of the Colonial Dames, "Old Furnaces of Kentucky," Typescript

Scott Family Papers

Cyrenius Wait Papers

Wickliffe-Preston Papers


Lexington, Virginia

Washington and Lee University Library

Etna Furnace Company Account Book, 1854-57


Louisville, Kentucky

Filson Club

Willis and Lafayette Green Papers, 1818-60

Edward Harris Letter, 1797

Mason County, Kentucky Account Book, 1797-1799

Frank B. Russell Papers, 1849-60

Peyton Skipwith Papers

John Wallace Journal

Warrick-Miller Papers


Madison, Wisconsin

McCormick Collection, State Historical Society of Wisconsin

Jordan and Davis Papers


Montgomery, Alabama

Alabama Department of Archives and History

George Brewer, "History of Coosa, Alabama," Typescript.

Montevallo Coal Mining Company Records

Pardons, Paroles and Clemency Files, 1821-1853

B. Smith Letter, 15 August 1844


Morgantown, West Virginia

West Virginia University Manuscripts

Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Records

Barbour County, Miscellany Papers # 1115

Barbour County Manuscripts and Articles

Barbour County Typescript

John Bassel Papers

Alfred Beckley Papers

Louis Bennett Papers

Arthur I. Boreman Papers

Daniel Boardman Papers

Brooke County Archives

James M. Burnside Papers

Andrew Nelson Campbell Papers

Charles L. Campbell Typescripts

Chapin Family Papers

John P. Clarke Papers

Coal River and Kanawha Mining and Manufacturing Company Account Books

Justus Collins Papers

Courtney Family Papers

James M. Crump Typescript

Ruth Woods Dayton Papers

Deakins Family Papers

Marmaduke Dent Papers

J. Q. Dickinson and Company Papers

Donnally and Steele Kanawha Salt Works Records, 1813-1815

William Henry Edwards Papers

Stephen B. Elkins Papers

William Ewin Papers

Ralph Fairfax Records

Fairmont General Store Records

Fleming Family Papers

L.J. Forman Papers

Free Negro Register, Monroe County Archives

Freeman Family Papers

M.J. Garrison and Company Records

A.C.L. Gatewood Papers

David Goff Papers

Great Kanawha Coal, Oil and Metallurgic Company Papers

Jacob Guseman Records

Harrison Hagans Papers

William Hall Papers

Felix G. Hansford Papers

Harper's Ferry Typescript

Harrison County Tax Book, 1831-1832

R.H. Hendershot Shipping Bills

Henderson-Tomlinson Families Papers

Adolphus P. Howard Papers

Alfred Hughes Stock Certificates

Ice's Ferry Typescripts

Iron Furnaces Typescript

George W. Johnson Papers

Kanawha County Archives

Kanawha County Court Records

John Pendleton Kennedy Papers

Ku Klux Klan, Monongalia County Manuscripts

Peter T. Laisley Papers

Frederick B. Lambert Papers

Legislative Petitions of Kanawha County

Eugene Levassor Papers

Lewis Family Papers

Lightburn Family Papers

John R. Lynch Papers

John Williamson Marshall Papers

Marshall County Archives

John D. Martin Papers

Mason County Court records

Lewis Maxwell Papers

Maysville, Kentucky Papers

John McClaugherty Papers

McCoy Family Papers

Isaac McNeel Papers

McNeill Family Papers

Edward E. Meredith Papers

H.E. Metheny Papers

Henry O. Middleton Correspondence

Charles C. Miller Farm Records

William D. Mintz Papers

R. Emmett Mockler Papers

Monogalia County Land and Legal Papers, 1783-1859

Monroe County Archives

Monroe County Road Records, 1812-1862

James Rogers Moreland Papers

Henri Jean Mugler Diary

William P.L. Neale Manuscript

Fred T. Newbaugh Papers

Bradford Noyes Recollections

Lawrence William Nuttall Papers

Ohio County, West Virginia Brand Registration, 1772-1935

Parkersburg Town Council Journals, 1855-1862

Carleton Custer Pierce Papers

George McCandless Porter Papers

Preston County Papers, 1775-1918

William Price Papers

Raleigh County Archives

Rathbone Family Papers

Thomas P. Ray Diary, 1829-1852

C.R. Rector Typescript

John Rogers Papers

Ruffner-Donally and Company Records

Salt Sulphur Springs Records

James B. Shahan Letter

Samuel W. Shingleton Records

Sloan Brothers Papers

George W. Smith Papers

William Sommerville Papers

Stover College Records

George Cookman Sturgiss Papers

Summers County Archives

George W. and Lewis Summers Papers

Sweet Springs Records

Talbott-Tolbert Family Papers

Taverns Typescript

Roy Thistle Papers

Samuel D. Thorn Ledger

William Tompkins Papers, Roy Bird Collection

White Sulphur Springs C. Records

Luke Willcox Diary, 1853-54

Nathaniel V. Wilson Correspondence

Wilson-Lewis Family Papers

Wilson-Stribling Families Papers

Winifrede Mining and Manufacturing Company Documents

Woodbridge-Blennerhassett Papers

William Gordon Worley Papers


Nashville, Tennessee

Fisk University Archives

Ophelia Egypt, H. Masuoka, and C. S. Johnson, Comp. "Unwritten History of Slavery: Autobiographical Account of Negro Ex-slaves." Social Science Document No. 1 (1945), Mimeographed Typescript.


Nashville, Tennessee

Tennessee State Library and Archives

Knox County Road Commissioners Minutebook, 1808-1819

Chris D. Livesay Papers


Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Historical Society of Pennsylvania

Elihu Embree Papers


Raleigh, North Carolina

North Carolina Department of Archives and History

Walter Clark Papers

David L. Swain Papers


Richmond, Virginia

Virginia Historical Society

Campbell-Preston Papers

Caperton Family Papers

John Dawson Letters

Ellzey Family Papers

John E. Fletcher Papers

Holburn Letterbook, Tayloe Papers

James Lawrence Hooff Diary

James River and Kanawha Company Papers

David Ross Letterbook, 1812-1813

William Macon Waller Papers


Richmond, Virginia

Virginia State Library and Archives

Bethel Baptist Church Character Certificates, Garnett Ryland Collection

Legislative Papers, a Collection of 25,000 Petitions Sent to the Legislature of Virginia, 1775-1860

Lewis Medical Account Book

Loudoun County Court Records

Cyrus H. McCormick Letter, 2 December 1854

Mountain Plain Baptist Church Minute Book, 1833-1869

Registers of Death, 1853-1860

Roanoke District Baptist Association Records

William Henry Ruffner Papers

Slaves Condemned, Executed and Transported, 1783-1865, Records Group 48, Auditor of Public Accounts

Tredegar Letterbook, Tredegar Company Records

Virginia Board of Public Works Reports, Legislative Documents

Virginia Executive Papers, Letters Received, 1750-1835

Zion Hill Baptist Church Records


Salt Lake City, Utah

Church of Jesus Christ of the Latter Day Saints, Family History Center

Bradley County, Tennessee Poor Commission Records

County Tax Lists for North Carolina, Virginia and West Virginia

Claiborne County, Tennessee, Livestock Brands, 1853-1879

Claiborne County, Tennessee, Stage Coach Book


Troy, Alabama

Troy State University Library

John Horry Dent Farm Journals and Account Books, 1840-1892


Washington, D.C.

Library of Congress

American Colonization Society Papers


Washington, D.C.

National Archives

Assistant Superintendents Records, Records of the Assistant Commissioner for the State of Virginia, Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865-1868, Record Group 105, M784, M1246

Census Roll, 1835, of the Cherokee Indians East of the Mississippi

Federal Writers Project. "Slave Narratives, A Folk History of Slavery in the United States from Interviews with Former Slaves." Typewritten Records, 1941.

Freedmen Labor Contracts, Records of the Assistant Commissioner for the State of Tennessee, Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865-1868, Record Group 105, M999, Roll 20

Records of the Cherokee Indian Agency in Tennessee, 1801-1835

Records of the Education Division, Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865-1868, Record Group 105, Pub. No. 803, Roll 16

Records Relating to Court Cases involving Freedmen, Records of the Assistant Commissioner for the State of Virginia, Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865-1868, Record Group 105, M1048, Reel 59

Records Relating to Murders and Outrages, Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865-1868, Record Group 105, M798, Roll 32; M843, Rolls 31-33, 39; M869, Roll 34; M999, Roll 34; M1048, Reel 59

U.S. Census Office, Census Enumerator Manuscripts for Appalachian Counties were utilized for these censuses:

Census of Agriculture, 1860

Census of Agriculture, 1870

Census of Population, 1860

Census of Population, 1870

Census of Manufacturing, 1860

Slave Schedules, 1840-1860

U.S. Congress, Report No. 39, 22nd Congress, First Session


Williamsburg, Virginia

College of William and Mary Library

Brown, Coalter, and Tucker Family Papers


Winchester, Virginia

Handley Public Library

Ellen Afto Manuscript

L. Allan Letter

Allen Family Papers

Rebecca Ebert, "A Window on the Valley," typescript

Market Street United Methodist Church Records, 1842-1860