Title page for ETD etd-06242000-03380035


Type of Document Master's Thesis
Author Lawrence, Christophe L.
Author's Email Address chlawren@vt.edu
URN etd-06242000-03380035
Title Effects of Feeding Phytase Enzyme and HAP Corn on Solubility of Phosphorus, Copper, and Zinc in Turkey Manure and Manure-Amended Soils
Degree Master of Science
Department Crop and Soil Environmental Sciences
Advisory Committee
Advisor Name Title
Zelazny, Lucian W. Committee Chair
Eick, Matthew J. Committee Member
Mullins, Gregory L. Committee Member
Reneau, Raymond B. Jr. Committee Member
Keywords
  • water solubility
  • poultry litter
Date of Defense 2000-04-28
Availability unrestricted
Abstract
Manure from turkey poults on five diets were extracted both fresh (wet) and after drying. Soils amended with wet manure were also extracted. Phosphorus, Cu, and Zn were extracted with 0.01 M CaCl2 and acidic Mehlich III extractant (Zn in soil extracts was not evaluated). Dietary treatments were (1) normal phytic acid (NPA) corn and 0.135% inorganic P (NPA diet); (2) NPA corn, 600 units phytase enzyme, and 0.135% inorganic P (NPA+Phyt diet); (3) High available phosphorus (HAP) corn and 0.135% inorganic P (HAP diet); (4) HAP corn, 600 units phytase, and 0.135% inorganic P (HAP+Phyt diet); (5) NPA corn and 0.345% inorganic P (NPA+P diet). The NPA+P diet was similar to conventional diets being fed commercially. The NPA+Phyt diet was similar to alternative, phytase-amended diets being fed commercially.

Feeding the alternative NPA+Phyt, HAP, and HAP+Phyt diets instead of the NPA+P diet reduced total P in manures by 40%, but increased the percentage of total manure P extracted with 0.01 M CaCl2 from fresh excreta (P < 0.05). Soils amended with wet NPA+Phyt, HAP, and HAP+Phyt manures released 29 to 49% more water-soluble P than soils amended with NPA+P manure on an equal-P basis (P < 0.05). Feeding the NPA+Phyt diet instead of the NPA+P diet did not affect the percentage of total P manure extracted by Mehlich III from wet excreta, while feeding the HAP and HAP+Phyt diets increased the percentage of total manure P soluble in Mehlich III (P < 0.05). Soils amended with wet NPA+Phyt manure did not release more Mehlich III-extractable P than soils amended with NPA+P manure on an equal-P basis. Soils amended with wet HAP and HAP+Phyt manures released more Mehlich III-extractable P than soils amended with NPA+P manure on an equal-P basis (P < 0.05). Treatment-induced differences in extractability of manure and soil P appeared to be caused by a higher proportion of P in calcium phosphate form in the NPA+P manure. Drying manures prior to extraction generally heightened differences in solubility of P between the NPA+P and other manures.

Feeding the alternative NPA+Phyt, HAP, and HAP+Phyt diets instead of the NPA+P diet did not affect total Cu levels in manure or the percentage of total Cu extracted from manure with 0.01 M CaCl2. After soils were treated with manure on an equal-Cu and equal-N basis, soils amended with NPA+Phyt, HAP, and HAP+Phyt manures released more water-soluble Cu than NPA+P-amended soils (P < 0.05). Under P-based manure management, soils amended with the three alternative manures released 92 to 108% more water-soluble Cu than NPA+P-treated soils (P < 0.05). Extractable Cu increased so dramatically because conversion to the alternative diets boosted total manure loadings by 67%. Mehlich III extraction of soils amended with manure on an equal-N and -Cu basis indicated no effect of manure type on Cu availability.

Feeding the NPA+Phyt, HAP, and HAP+Phyt diets instead of the NPA+P diet did not affect total Zn levels in excreta, but caused at least a five-fold increase in the percentage of total manure Zn extracted by 0.01 M CaCl2 from fresh excreta (P < 0.05). Feeding the NPA+Phyt, HAP, and HAP+Phyt diets did not alter the percentage of total manure Zn extracted by Mehlich III from wet excreta.

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