Title page for ETD etd-10292009-111417


Type of Document Dissertation
Author Hopkinson, Leslie
Author's Email Address lclark3@vt.edu
URN etd-10292009-111417
Title Boundary Shear Stress Along Vegetated Streambanks
Degree PhD
Department Biological Systems Engineering
Advisory Committee
Advisor Name Title
Wynn, Theresa M. Committee Chair
Dancey, Clinton L. Committee Member
Diplas, Panayiotis Committee Member
Dolloff, C. Andrew Committee Member
Hession, W. Cully Committee Member
Keywords
  • vegetated flow
  • turbulent kinetic energy
  • streambank vegetation
  • Reynolds stress
  • Streambank erosion
Date of Defense 2009-10-20
Availability restricted
Abstract
This research is intended to determine the role of riparian vegetation in stream morphology. This experiment examined the effects of riparian vegetation on boundary shear stress (BSS) by completing the following objectives: (1) evaluating the effects of streambank vegetation on near-bank velocity and turbulence; (2) determining a method for measuring BSS; and, (3) examining the effects of streambank vegetation on BSS using an existing model.

A second order prototype stream, with individual reaches dominated by the three vegetation types (trees, shrubs, and grass) was modeled using a fixed-bed Froude-scale modeling technique. One model streambank of the prototype stream was constructed for each vegetation type in addition to one bank with only grain roughness. Velocity profiles were measured using an acoustic Doppler velocimeter (ADV) and a miniature propeller (MP). A flush-mounted Dantec MiniCTA system was used to measure shear stress at the streambank wall.

The addition of vegetation on a sloping streambank increased the streamwise free stream velocity and decreased the near-bank streamwise velocity. The turbulence caused by the upright shrub treatment increased turbulent kinetic energy and Reynolds stresses near the streambank toe, an area susceptible to fluvial erosion. The presence of dense, semi-rigid vegetation may encourage the formation of a wider channel with a vertical streambank.

The small range of CTA shear stress measurements (0.02–2.14 Pa) suggested that one estimate can describe a streambank. The law of the wall technique is not appropriate because the velocity profiles did not follow the necessary logarithmic shape. Vegetative roughness present in channels created secondary flow; turbulence characteristics more appropriately estimated BSS.

The BSS model predicted velocity fields in similar distribution to that measured by the ADV and MP. BSS calculated using the ray-isovel method for both velocity measurement devices were different than the measured BSS values, likely due to distortions in the measured velocity field. In general, the predicted BSS distribution increased with water depth and decreased with increasing vegetation density. The predicted BSS at the shrub toe indicated a spike in shear stress consistent with TKE estimates.

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