Title page for ETD etd-11042007-234141


Type of Document Master's Thesis
Author Beck, Jason Lee
URN etd-11042007-234141
Title Optimization of Biological Nitrogen Removal From Fermented Dairy Manure Using Low Levels of Dissolved Oxygen
Degree Master of Science
Department Environmental Engineering
Advisory Committee
Advisor Name Title
Love, Nancy G. Committee Chair
Knowlton, Katharine F. Committee Member
Marr, Linsey C. Committee Member
Ogejo, Jactone Arogo Committee Member
Keywords
  • nitrification inhibition
  • fermented dairy manure
  • NGR
  • dairy manure
  • inhibition mechanisms
  • nitritation
  • nitrification
  • N removal
  • denitrification
  • dairy manure treatment
  • simultaneous nitrification denitrification
Date of Defense 2007-10-22
Availability unrestricted
Abstract
A pilot scale nitrogen (N) removal system was constructed and operated for approximately 365 days and was designed to remove inorganic total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) from solids-separated dairy manure. An anaerobic fermenter, upstream of the N removal reactor, produced volatile fatty acids (VFAs), to be used as an electron donor to fuel denitrification, and TAN at a COD:N ratio of 18:1. However, sufficient amounts of non-VFA COD was produced by the fermenter to fuel the denitrification reaction at an average NO3- removal rate of 5.3 ± 2 mg/L NO3--N. Total ammonia N was removed from the fermenter effluent in an N removal reactor where a series of aerobic and anoxic zones facilitated aerobic TAN oxidation and anoxic NO3- and NO2- reduction. The minimum dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration allowing for complete TAN removal was found to be 0.8 mg/L. However, TAN removal rates were less than predicted using default nitrifying kinetic parameters in BioWin®, a biological modeling simulator, which indicated the presence of a nitrification inhibitor in fermented dairy manure. Furthermore, an N balance during the aerobic zone indicated that simultaneous nitrification-denitrification (SND) was occurring in the aerobic zone of the N removal reactor and was most apparent at DO concentrations below 1.3 mg/L.

A series of nitrite generation rate (NGR) experiments confirmed the presence of an inhibitor in fermented dairy manure. A model sensitivity analysis determined that the most sensitive ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) kinetic parameters were the maximum specific growth rate, , and the substrate half saturation coefficient, . Nitrifying inhibition terms of competitive, non-competitive, mixed competitive, and un-competitive were applied to the growth rate equation in BioWin® but an accurate representation of the observed TAN removal rates in the pilot scale system could not be found by adjusting the kinetic parameters alone. Reducing the default BioWin® hydrolysis rate by approximately 50% produced a more accurate calibration for all inhibition terms tested indicating that the hydrolyization of organic N in dairy manure is less than typical municipal waste water.

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