Title page for ETD etd-121498-094044


Type of Document Master's Thesis
Author McMahon, Heather
Author's Email Address hmcmahon@vt.edu
URN etd-121498-094044
Title The effects of different processing parameters (cold soak and percent alcohol (v/v) at dejuicing) on the concentrations of grape glycosides and glycoside fractions and glycosidase activities in selected yeast and lactic acid bacteria.
Degree Master of Science
Department Food Science and Technology
Advisory Committee
Advisor Name Title
Zoecklein, Bruce W. Committee Chair
Claus, G. William Committee Member
Eigel, William N. III Committee Member
Fugelsang, Kenneth Committee Member
Keywords
  • Cabernet Sauvignon
  • cold soak
  • glycosidases
  • glycosides
  • yeast
Date of Defense 1998-12-03
Availability restricted
Abstract
Grape-derived aroma and flavor precursors exist partially as non-volatile, sugar-bound glycosides. Hydrolysis of these compounds may modify sensory attributes and potentially enhance wine quality. Cold soak (prefermentation skin contact) at two temperatures and alcohol content (%, v/v) at dejuicing were monitored to determine effects on Cabernet Sauvignon glycoside concentration. Total, phenolic-free, and red-free glycoside concentrations were estimated by the quantification of glycosyl-glucose. Cold soak (5 days at 10° C) increased total glycosides by 77%, red-free glycosides by 80%, and phenolic-free glycosides by 96%. Ambient soak (3 days at 20° C) enhanced color extraction, and increased total glycosides by 177%, red-free glycosides by 144%, and phenolic-free glycosides by 106%. Wines produced by early pressing (10% sugar) had 25% more total and red-free glycosides than late press (0.25% sugar). After post-fermentation malolactic fermentation, total glycosides were 14% lower and phenolic-free glycosides were 35% lower.

In a second study, the activities of a-L-arabinofuranosidase, b-glucosidase, and a-L-rhamnoyranosidase were determined in model systems for thirty-two strains of yeasts belonging to the following genera: Aureobasidium, Candida, Cryptococcus, Hanseniaspora, Hansenula, Kloeckera, Metschnikowia, Pichia, Saccharomyces, Torulaspora, and Brettanomyces (10 strains); and seven bacteria (Leuconostoc oenos strains). Only one Saccharomyces strain exhibited -glucosidase activity, but several non-Saccharomyces yeast species had substantial production. Aureobasidium pullulans hydrolyzed a-L-arabinofuranoside, b-glucoside, and a-L-rhamnoyranoside. Eight Brettanomyces strains had -glucosidase activity. Location of enzyme activity was determined for those species with enzymatic activity. The majority of -glucosidase was located in the whole cell fraction (66%), followed by the permeabilized fraction (35%), and extracellular production (2%). Aureobasidium pullulans was also capable of hydrolyzing grape glycosides.

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