Title page for ETD etd-12232009-020452


Type of Document Master's Thesis
Author Grabeel, Margaret N.
URN etd-12232009-020452
Title Chlorine dioxide by-products in drinking water and their control by powdered activated carbon
Degree Master of Science
Department Environmental Engineering
Advisory Committee
Advisor Name Title
Hoehn, Robert C. Committee Chair
Dietrich, Andrea M. Committee Member
Gallagher, Daniel L. Committee Member
Keywords
  • Carbon - Activated
Date of Defense 1992-05-05
Availability restricted
Abstract

The concentrations of chlorine dioxide (CI02), chlorine, chlorite (CIO2), and chlorate (CI03) were evaluated following pretreatment of raw water by CI02 at water treatment plants in New Castle, Pennsylvania; Charleston, West Virginia; Skagit, Washington; and Columbus, Georgia. Chlorite and chlorate concentrations were unaffected by any of the water treatment processes and did not vary as a function of time of travel in the distribution system. Chlorine dioxide, which was analyzed on-site at two water treatment plants, reformed in the clear well and in the distribution system following post chlorination.

The chlorite-removal capability of powdered activated carbon (PAC) was evaluated in both laboratory- and pilot-scale studies. Chlorite removal by PAC in laboratory studies decreased with increasing pH over a range from pH 5.5 to 7.5 and varied with the type of PAC. Chlorite was reduced to chloride at pHs ranging from 5.5 to 7.5, but CI03- formed at the pH 5.5 through 6.0. The pilot plant study; which was conducted at Newport News, Virginia; evaluated CI02 removal by PAC enmeshed in a floc blanket in a pulsed-bed, solids-contact clarifier. An average of 27 percent of the CI02 was removed when the PAC dose was 10 mg/L PAC and 57 percent when it was 20 mg/L PAC. Chlorate was not removed by PAC, but the concentrations could be reduced if the CIOz generator was properly operated.

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