Title page for ETD etd-23281533974920


Type of Document Dissertation
Author Ackley, John A.
Author's Email Address ackleyj@cyanamid.com
URN etd-23281533974920
Title Weed Management Programs in Potato, Transplanted Tomato and Transplanted Pepper with Rimsulfuron and Other Herbicides
Degree PhD
Department Plant Pathology, Physiology, and Weed Science
Advisory Committee
Advisor Name Title
Hagood, Edward Scott Jr.
Hatzios, Kriton K.
Hess, John L.
Morse, Ronald D.
Wilson, Henry P. Committee Chair
Keywords
  • rimsulfuron
  • potato
  • pepper
  • trifluralin
  • metribuzin
  • clomazone
  • nightshade
  • tomato
Date of Defense 1997-03-31
Availability unrestricted
Abstract
Weed management programs in "Superior" potato with PRE

and POST rimsulfuron treatments were investigated during 1992,

1993, and 1994. Common ragweed control by PRE

combinations of metolachlor with linuron or metribuzin was higher

when treatments included PRE or POST rimsulfuron. Common

lambsquarters control was 93 to 96% by treatments that included

POST rimsulfuron. Applications of 35 g ai/ha rimsulfuron plus

280 g ai/ha metribuzin POST controlled weeds comparable to

sequential applications. Potato recovered from occasional injury

caused by rimsulfuron, rimsulfuron plus metribuzin, and

organophosphate insecticides combined POST with rimsulfuron

plus metribuzin. Several acetolactate synthase (ALS)-inhibiting

herbicides were evaluated for yellow nutsedge control in the

greenhouse. Herbicides were applied POST to yellow nutsedge

at actual or anticipated commercial rates. Yellow nutsedge

control was 92 and 71% from halosulfuron and chlorimuron,

respectively. Control ranged from 48 to 69% from primisulfuron,

pyrithiobac, and rimsulfuron. Control from nicosulfuron and

imazethapyr was 45 and 68%, respectively, while thifensulfuron

and CGA-152005 had almost no activity on yellow nutsedge.

Chlorimuron, imazethapyr, and halosulfuron were the only

herbicides which reduced yellow nutsedge regrowth.,

Rrimsulfuron was evaluated in tomato at 26 and 35 g ai/ha,

sequentially at 26 g/ha, at 26 g/ha plus metribuzin at 280 g ai/ha,

and metribuzin at 280 g/ha were evaluated POST for weed

control in transplanted "Agriset" tomato. Common

lambsquarters was controlled by rimsulfuron at 35 g/ha.

Rimsulfuron plus metribuzin gave consistent control of common

ragweed but jimsonweed and goosegrass control was generally

low. Rimsulfuron treatments caused < 12% injury to tomato.

Tomato yield was consistently high in the metribuzin, metribuzin

plus rimsulfuron, and rimsulfuron sequential treatments. In

greenhouse studies, giant foxtail and large crabgrass control by

rimsulfuron was above 95 and 85% respectively, but goosegrass

was not controlled. Height of four tomato cultivars was not

reduced, but dry weight of "Floradade" and "Sunbeam" was

reduced by rimsulfuron. In 1993, 1994 and 1995, PPI

clomazone at 390 g ai/ha, POST rimsulfuron at 35 g ai/ha, and

PPI trifluralin at 560 g ai/ha were evaluated for weed control in

transplanted "Keystone RG3" bell pepper. Common

lambsquarters and jimsonweed control was highest by clomazone

treatments, while common ragweed control was low from all

treatments. Keystone RG3 in the field and greenhouse and

"Camelot," "Jupiter" and "Memphis" in the greenhouse were

injured by POST rimsulfuron and had lower height and dry

weight than untreated controls. In the greenhouse, black

nightshade control was below 23% and jimsonweed control was

below 49% by rimsulfuron POST. The absorption, translocation,

and metabolism of rimsulfuron was investigated in three

Solanaceous weed species. Rimsulfuron uptake did not differ

between black nightshade and eastern black nightshade while less

labeled herbicide was absorbed by hairy nightshade. Black and

eastern black nightshade translocated up to 50% of the labeled

herbicide out of the treated leaf with 40 to 50% of the herbicide

being moved to the actively growing regions of the plant. In hairy

nightshade, an average 40% of the labeled herbicide was moved

out of the treated leaf and less than 30% of the translocated

herbicide was moved basipetally. Most major metabolites were

apparent at 24 and 48 hours however, there were no differences

in metabolite composition. Rimsulfuron will be an effective

herbicide for use in weed management programs in potato and

tomato, however rimsulfuron causes too much injury in pepper to

be used.

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