Title page for ETD etd-2424152839711171


Type of Document Master's Thesis
Author Baker, Kori S.
Author's Email Address kobaker@vt.edu
URN etd-2424152839711171
Title Utilization of Yolk as a Feed Source In newly Hatched Chicks With and Without vitellin
Degree Master of Science
Department Animal and Poultry Sciences
Advisory Committee
Advisor Name Title
Dunnington, E. Ann Committee Member
Minish, G. L. Committee Member
Siegel, Paul B. Committee Member
Keywords
  • chicks, chicken, yolks
  • Vitellin
Date of Defense 2000-05-25
Availability unrestricted
Abstract

Increasing feed efficiency and early body weight gain has

always been a top priority in the poultry industry. This

experiment was designed to study the effects of feed

sources differing in energy and protein levels as well as

yolk removal on behavior, feed efficiency, energy intake,

body weight and GIT growth in newly hatched chicks.

Chicks in Experiment 1, Trial 1, were White Plymouth

Rock chicks from the 40th generation of a line selected for

high body weight, fed either freeze dried unincubated yolk

(Diet Y) or mash (Diet M-A) from day 0 to day 5, after

which all chicks were fed Diet M-A. Chicks in Experiment

1, Trial 2 were males from a commercial layer stock fed

either a choice of residual yolk (yolk harvested from newly

hatched chicks) and unincubated yolk (Diet Y), or mash

(Diet M-A) alone from day 0 to day 6, after which all

chicks were fed Diet M-A. In these experiments where

chicks were offered yolk as a feed source for a period of

time, body weight gain was significantly reduced and

mortality increased. There was evidence that Diet Y

chicks, consuming a high-lipid feed, experienced decreased

appetite. There were no differences in body weight

between the two diet groups in Trial 1 or Trial 2 on day 0,

but during the days in which yolk was fed, Diet M-A

chicks maintained a weight advantage over Diet Y chicks.

Chicks used in Experiment 2 were males from a

commercial layer stock. Yolk sacs were surgically

removed (Trt YR) from half of the chicks while the other

half remained yolk-intact (Trt YI). From day 0 to day 6, all

chicks were offered a choice of residual yolk (Diet Y) or

mash (Diet M-A) and beginning on day 6, all chicks were

fed Diet M-A. Throughout the experiment, the Trt YI

chicks maintained their body weight advantage over the Trt

YR chicks, but by day 13, the Trt YR chicks gained

proportionately more body weight. Because of wastage,

feed efficiency and energy intake values were not reported.

The only difference in GIT data was the amount of chyme;

its value was higher in the Trt YI chicks than in Trt YR

chicks. Behavior results showed that Trt YI chicks stood

more while Trt YR chicks rested more throughout the

experiment. Chicks used in Experiment 3 were males from

a commercial layer stock. This experiment consisted of 4

groups: Trt YI chicks fed Diet M-E (mash feed high in

energy and protein), Trt YI chicks fed Diet M-A (mash

feed lower in energy and protein), Trt YR chicks fed Diet

M-E and Trt YR chicks fed Diet M-A. Serial dissections

on days 6, 13 and 20 allowed for better understanding of

effects of diet and/or treatment on the growth of selected

parts of the GIT. On days 13 and 20, there were no

differences due to diet or treatment for GIT data except for

the consistent difference due to diet for relative weight of

the gizzard, whose value was higher in the Diet M-A

chicks. Similar to results from Experiment 2, on day 13, Trt

YR chicks fed Diet M-A gained more body weight than

the Trt YI chicks fed the same diet. Also consistent with

Experiment 2, of chicks fed Diet M-A, the Trt YI chicks

stood more than the Trt YR chicks. Due to unusually large

feed consumption values, feed efficiency and energy intake

data were not reported.

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