Title page for ETD etd-72798-85612


Type of Document Master's Thesis
Author Gingerich, Todd Matthew
Author's Email Address tgingeri@vt.edu
URN etd-72798-85612
Title Biogenic Amine Analysis of Fresh and Stored Bluefish (Pomatomus Saltatrix) and Microbiological Survey of Histamine-Forming Bacte
Degree Master of Science
Department Food Science and Technology
Advisory Committee
Advisor Name Title
Flick, George J. Jr. Committee Chair
McNair, Harold M. Committee Member
Pierson, Merle D. Committee Member
Keywords
  • biogenic amines
  • histamine
  • putrescine
  • cadaverine
  • bluefish
  • Morganella morganii
Date of Defense 1998-08-20
Availability restricted
Abstract
Changes in histamine, putrescine, and cadaverine concentrations in fresh and

stored bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix) were determined using a new HPLC method. The

HPLC method utilized a 5.0% (w/v) trichloroacetic acid (TCA) extraction, pre-column

fluorescamine derivitization, and fluorescence detection. The derivatives were stable

over 24 h. The 5% TCA extraction produced percent recoveries of 98.6%, 98.7, and

100.0% for histamine, cadaverine, and putrescine respectively. The HPLC process

including extraction, derivatization, and HPLC analyses was conducted in less than 45

minutes.

Fresh bluefish was found to contain between <1 ppm and 99 ppm histamine, and

no cadaverine or putrescine. Fresh bluefish fillets were stored at 5, 10, and 15 degrees C until

sensory rejection. Fresh bluefish fillets inoculated with Morganella morganii were also

stored at the same conditions. Histamine levels as high as 2200 ppm were observed in

the inoculated fish stored at 15 degrees C. Overall, histamine achieved higher levels in the

bluefish pieces inoculated with Morganella morganii. Histamine was present in greater

amounts than putrescine and cadaverine in the bluefish samples. Histamine levels at each

temperature exceeded the 50 ppm advisory level established by the FDA before 100%

sensory rejection. Putrescine levels increased at each temperature during storage.

Cadaverine was present only in uninoculated bluefish stored at 15 degrees C. Consumer risk

from histamine poisoning seems to be the greatest in those fish stored at 5 degrees C where

acceptance levels were higher and histamine levels above 100 ppm were observed.

The presence of histamine-forming bacteria in fish-processing facilities was

studied. Environmental sampling techniques were conducted in the Hampton Roads area

of Virginia in fish-processing facilities that regularly handle scombroid fish or other fish

which are known to accumulate histamine levels greater than 50 ppm. Surfaces that

come into contact with the fish were swabbed and the histamine-forming bacteria from

these areas were identified. One isolate each of Klebsiella ozaenae and Vibrio

alginolyticus, and two isolates of Aeromonas sp. were found in the processing facilities.

The study concluded that histamine-forming bacteria do not make up a large part of the

microflora associated with fish-processing facilities. Fishing vessels were also sampled

and no histamine-forming bacteria were identified.

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