|Title:||Effect of 1B/1R Chromosomal Translocation on Dough Rheology of Soft Red Winter Wheat Flour|
|Degree:||Doctor of Philosophy|
|Department:||Human Nutrition Foods and Exercise Science|
|Committee Chair:||Dr. William E. Barbeau|
|Committee Members:||Dr. Janet M. Johnson|
|Dr. Frank D. Conforti|
|Dr. C. Gene Haugh|
|Dr. Carl A. Griffey|
|Keywords:||soft wheat flour, dough rheology, AWRC, NMR, cookie diameter, stickiness|
|Date of defense:||January 26, 1998|
|Availability:||Release the entire work for Virginia Tech access only.
After one year release worldwide only with written permission of the student and the advisory committee chair.
ABSTRACT Nine 1B/1R translocated soft red winter wheat (SRWW) varieties and six non-1B/1R varities from two crop years (1995-1996 and 1996-1997), grown in two Virginia locations (Warsaw and Blacksburg), were studied to evaluate the effects of the 1R rye chromosome on soft wheat flour quality and baking performance. The presence of the 1B/1R chromosomal translocation in wheat has been reported to provide disease resistance, but produce sticky doughs.
The 1995-1996 and 1996-1997 SRWW flours were subjected to farinograph analysis and dough stickiness testing. Dough stickiness was determined by the Schwarzlaff-Shepherd Dough Stripping Method. Wheat samples from 1995-1996 were also analyzed for protein, ash, and moisture content, alkaline water retention capacity (AWRC), cookie diameter, tensile stress and strain, and by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (13C-NMR) spectroscopy techniques.
Significant (p = 0.0001) negative correlations were found between AWRC and cookie diameter of SRWWs grown in Warsaw and Blacksburg. Location was found to exert a significant effect on AWRC, cookie diameter and stickiness (p < 0.05). Farinograph data revealed that mixing characteristics of SRWW were affected significantly by variety, crop year and location (p < 0.05). In some cases the 1B/1R varieties had lower breakdown rates, longer departure times (DT) and lower mixing tolerance index (MTI), than their non-1B/1R counterparts. There was a significant difference (p = 0.0133) in the stickiness of 1B/1R and non-1B/1R samples from Blacksburg. However no such difference was found in the corresponding Warsaw samples (p = 0.9826), indicating that location exerted a significant effect on stickiness.
Two flour samples exhibiting stickiness (one with and one without 1B/1R) and two non-sticky samples (one with and one without the 1B/1R) were fractionated into gluten, starch and water-solubles (WS) in order to determine if the sticky dough factor resided in the 1B/1R and / or non-1B/1R WS. The peel time of the interchanged samples, as in the case of 'Massey' flour combined with the WS from VA52-22, increased to 79 seconds from the 30 seconds originally observed in the Massey flour. However when gluten and starch fractions from a non-sticky, non-1B/1R sample,VA54-21, were mixed with WS from VA54-211 (sticky, 1B/1R), the peel time went from 18 in the original flour to 8 seconds.
Tensile measurements showed dough stress was not significantly affected by the presence or absence of 1B/1R (p = 0.7057). However, dough strain was lower in 1B/1R translocated SRWWs (p = 0.0048). A 13C-NMR spectra failed to show differences amongst selected 1B/1R and non-1B/1R dough samples. Proton relaxation time (T1-rho-[H]) - a 13C-NMR technique, indicated that water did not exert a significant influence on the molecular dynamics within the dough samples of Massey (non-1B/1R), VA54-211 (1B/1R) and VA52-22 (1B/1R). However, the non-sticky, non-1B/1R sample (VA54-21) had a higher proton relaxation time at 62 ppm which may indicate the size of starch-protein particles in VA54-21 doughs were larger and less flexible than in the other three doughs.
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