Names Of Plants: Sense and Sound - Part Five
This series, "Names of Plants: Sense and Sound", continues with Part Five, a listing of rhododendron and other ericaceous genera beginning with G, H, I, J and K. The first installment was in the
, Vol.42:1, Winter 1988. It will continue in future issues.
Mispronunciation of plant names is not uncommon. Generally mispronounced are words that end in the Greek -ides "likeness or resemblance," common in botany, biochemistry and medicine, e.g. hippophaeoides , in which o creates the combining form of the basic word: -o-eye-des or -o-i-des. This construction is not to be confused with the dipthong in a word like android or adenoid .
Some species are named for persons of various nationalities. The sound of ch , in particular, varies. It is gutteral ch in German, e.g. R. bachii ; sh in French, e.g. R. chevalieri ; k in Italian, e.g. R. scortechinii . Rhododendron stresemannii , German, begins with shtr . The hs in R. chihsianum is pronounced approximately as sh .
Rhododendron Species G
R. galactnum Balf. f. ex Tagg (G. galaktos of milk) Ch. "milky-yellow-leaf r."
R. gardnia Schlechter (Named for Dr. Alexander Garden, 1730-1791, M.D. Glasgow, who moved to Charleston, S.C. He was a strong supporter of John Bartram and Cadwallader Colden and corresponded with Linnaeus in Sweden and Peter Collinson in England.)
R. gaultheriiflium J.J. Sm. (with leaves like Gaultheria )
R. gemmferum Philipson & Philipson (L. gem-producing)
R. genestiernum Forr. (of Pre A. Genestier, b. 1858, Fr. Tibetan Mission, friend of George Forrest) Ch. "gray-white r."
R. gillirdii Sleumer (of E. T. T. Gilliard, who collected in n.e. New Guinea); perhaps a hybrid
R. giuliantti Lauter (of a Mr. Giulianetti, who collected in New Guinea)
R. glabriflrum J.J. Sm. (L. smooth flower)
R. glabrius Nakaibe (L. smoother) Japanese Azalea. The name was assigned to the azalea, R. japonicum , when R. japonicum (Blume) Schneider replaced R. metternichii . See R. japonicum .
R. glandulferum Franch. (L. gland-bearing)
R. glandulostyum Fang et M. Y. He (L. glandular style) Ch. "glandular-style azalea"
R. glandulsum Standley ex Small (L. very glandular)
R. glaucophllum Rehd. (G. glaucous leaf) intr. c. 1850
var. tubifrme Cowan & Davidian (L. tubular)
R. glischrum (glis-chrum) Balf. f. & W. W. Sm. (G. glischros gluey, i.e. young shoots) Ch. "sticky-haired r."
ssp. glischrodes (Tagg & Forr.) Chamb. (resembling R. glischrum )
ssp. rde (Tagg & Forr.) Chamb. (L. rough)
R. goodenoghi Sleumer (of Goodenough, a volcanic island 20 miles s.e. of New Guinea)
R. gracilntum F. v. Mueller (L. slender)
R. grnde Wight (L. large)
R. grtum T. L. Ming (L. pleasing, welcome) Ch. "lovely r."
R. griersoninum Balf.f. & Forr. (of C. Grierson, Chinese Maritime Customs at Tengyueh and friend of George Forrest)
R. griffithinum Wight (of William Griffith, 1810-1845, surg. in Madras; collected in Assam with N. Wallich and in Bhutan, Afghanistan, Malaya; supt. Calcutta Botanic Garden.) Notulae ad Plantas Asiaticas , 1847-54, 4 vols. Criffithia Wright & Arnott
R. guangnannse R. C. Fang (of Guangnan, Yunnan)
R. guanxiannse (gwahn-she'en-) Not yet described, but reported in The Rhododendron Species Foundation Newsletter , July, 1968 (of Guan Xian [County], Sichuan)
Rhododendron Species H
R. hbbemae Koorders (of Lake Habbema, "named for D. Habbema who accompanied the Lorentz Expedition in New Guinea as leader of its military cover," Sleumer)
R. habrotrchum Balf. f. & W.W. Sm. (G. habros delicate + thrix, trichos hair)
R. haematdes Franch. (G. lit. looking like blood) Ch. "bloodlike r."
ssp. chaetomllum (kee-to) (Balf. f. & Forr.) Chamb. (G. chaite leaves + mallos a lock of wool) Ch. "silky r."
R. haematophthlmum Sleumer (G. lit. a bloody eye)
R. hainannse Merrill (of Hainan Province) Hainan Azalea
R. hameliiflrum Wernh. ( Hamelia -flower, Cent, and So. Amer. evergreen shrubs and small trees, Rubiaceae )
R. hancenum Hemsl. (of Henry F. Hance, Ph.D., 1827-1886, Brit, consul at Canton, Amoy, Whampoa) Ch. "sparsely-leaved r." intr. 1909. Hancea Hemsl .
R. hangzhounse Fang et M.Y. He (of Hangzhou, Zhejiang Prov.) Azaleastrum
R. haofi Chun & Fang (of Hao Village, Guangxi Prov.) Ch. "glossy-branched r."
R. hrtleyi Sleumer (of Th. G. Hartley, botanist of Canberra, who collected in New Guinea)
R. hatamnse Beccari (of the Hatam tribe on the Vogelkop Penin. of New Guinea where Sleumer and Beccari collected)
R. hedysmum Balf f. (G. & L. hedyosmos , a sweet-smelling mint in Theophrastus & Pliny)
R. helilepis Franch. (G. helios the sun + lepis scale) Ch. "bright-scale r." var. brevistlum (Franch.) Cullen (L. short style)
var. opornum (Balf. f. &Ward) A.L. Chang (G. & L. of autumn)
R. hellwgii Warburg (of F.C. Hellwig, 1861-1889, an early collector in e. New Guinea)
R. hlodes Sleumer (G. helos , low ground along a river)
R. hemitrichtum Balf. f. & Forr. (G. hemi half + tricbotum hairy, i.e. fol. softly hairy above)
R. hemsleynum Wils. (of William B. Hemsley, 1843-1924, LLD Aberdeen, Keeper, Kew Herbarium) Diagnoses Plantarum Novarum , 1878-80; Enumeration of all Plants known from China (with F.G. Forbes), 1886-1905. Hemsleya Cogniaux Ch. "wavy-leaved r."
R. hnryi Hance (of Augustine Henry, 1857-1930, med. officer in China, 1880-1900; collected in Ichang, Hupeh, Sichuan, Yunnan, Hainan, Taiwan; authority on Chinese materia medica; prof. of forestry, Coll. of Science, Dublin, 1913-26.) Trees of Great Britain and Ireland (with H.J. Elwes), 1906-13, 7 vols.; Forests, Woods and Trees in Relation to Hygiene , 1919 Ch. "curved capsule r."
var. pubscens K.M. Feng & A.L. Chang (L. becoming downy) Ch. "pubescent curved-capsule r."
R. herzgii Warb. (of a Mr. Herzog of New Guinea)
R. himantdes Sleumer (G. himantion a small leather strap, i.e. with leathery bands)
R. hippophaeodes Balf. f. & W. W. Sm. (resembling Hippophae Sea-Buckthorn) Ch. "gray-backed r."
Fimbritum Group (L. minutely fringed)
var. occidentle Philipson & Philipson (L. western)
R. hirstum L. (L. hairy, i.e. shoots and margins of lvs. bristly) intr. 1685
R. hrtipes Tagg (L. with hairy feet, i.e. pedicels)
R. hirtolepidtum J. J. Sm. (G. & L. hairy-scaled)
R. hodgsnii Hook. f. (of B.H. Hodgson, E. India Co. Resident in Nepal) Ch. "many-lobed r."
R. hii Fang (of A. H. Ho, who collected in Borneo, Sichuan, Kwantung, 1931-35)
R. hongkongnse Hutch, (of Hong Kong) Ch. "white-horse-silver flower"
R. hooglndii Sleumer (of R. D. Hoogland, a collector in New Guinea)
R. hokeri Nuttall (of Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker, 1817-1911, M.D. Glasgow; botanist to Geological Survey, 1846; explored & collected in Sikkim & Nepal, 1847-51; Palestine & Syria, 1860; Morocco with J. Ball, 1871; Rocky Mts. with Asa Gray, 1877; pioneer phyto-geographer; friend of Charles Darwin, with whom he collaborated in researches on evolutionary origin of species; introduced important rhododendrons. The publication of his The Rhododendrons of Sikkim-Himalaya , 1849, greatly widened the interest of horticulturists to the possibilities of rhododendrons as garden-subjects. Director of Kew, 1865-85, succeeding his father, Sir William Jackson H., 1841-65.) Ch. "string-of-pearls r."
R. horlickinum Davidian (of Sir James Horlick, 1896-1972, who created the famous wind-swept garden on the Isle of Gigha, Argyll)
R. huinum Fang (of Hui, w. Sichuan Prov.)
R. huidongnse J.L. Ming (of Huidong Xian, i.e. County, so. Sichuan)
R. hunnewellinum Rehd. & Wils. (of a family descended from Ambrose Hunnewell, who emigrated from Devonshire to Mass. c. 1660; especially Horatio H. Hunnewell, 1810-1902, banker and horticulturist, who imported many rhododendrons and azaleas; an important benefactor of the Mass. Hort. Soc., Arnold Arboretum, the botany depts of Harvard U. and Wellesley Coll. and the town of Wellesley.)
ssp. rckii (Wils.) Chamb. (of Dr. Joseph Rock, Austria 1883-1962, prof, of botany, prof. of Chinese, Univ. of Hawaii; sent by Dept of Agric. to Indo-China, Siam and Burma to collect seeds of the chaulmoogra tree, whose oil was then used in the treatment of leprosy; in 1922 he went to China and remained there, except for short intervals, until 1949. In 1924-25 he was commissioned by Prof. Charles S. Sargent, creator of Arnold Arboretum, and the Harvard Mus. of Comparative Zool. to explore two little-known ranges on the Chinese-Tibetan border. In 1928-29 he collected in Yunnan for garden owners in Britain and the U.S. and explored for the National Geographic Society. In 1926 he sent to the Arnold Arbor, seeds of the magnificent Paeonia suffrutticosa 'Rock's Variety,' which had been cultivated at the lamasery of Choni. In 1938 the lamasery was burned to the ground during a Moslem uprising. The lamas were killed and the peonies destroyed. After the lamasery was rebuilt Rock obtained seeds from the arboretum. The Rock Rhododendrons are listed in The Rhododendron Handbook 1980, 328-354. The last fifteen years of Rock's life were devoted to the study of the literature of the Na-Khis, a non-Chinese aboriginal tribe near Likiang. He translated the key volumes of some 8,000 books of their literature.) Data from Alice M. Coats, The Plant Hunters .
R. hyacinthsmum Sleum. (Hyacinth + G. osme smell)
R. hybridgenum Sleum. (hybrid + L. born)
R. hylaum Balf. f. & Farrer (G. hulaiois woody or of the forest)
R. hyprythrum Hayata (G. hupo below + eruthros red, i.e. lvs minutely reddish punctuate) Ch. "smile r."
R. hypophaum Balf. f. & Forr. (G. below + phaios dusky)
Rhododendron Species I
R. imbrbe Hutch. (L. beardless)
R. impedtum Balf. f. & W.W. Sm. (L. tangled)
R. impostum J. J. Sm. (L. put in or laid on)
R. impressopuncttum J. J. Sm. (L. with impressed dots, i.e. on the lvs)
R. incmmodum Sleum. (L. unsuitable or troublesome)
R. inconspcuum J.J. Sm. (L. inconspicuous; named for a herbarium specimen that had been prepared with formaldehyde and appeared brown all over)
R. ndicum (L.) Sweet (Indian, one of many geographically erroneous names given to plants. When Dutch merchants introduced this so. japan azalea into Holland in 1680 as Azalea indica they gave its origin as Jakarta, Java.)
R. insclptum Hutch. &Ward (L. engraved)
R. insgne Hemsl. & Wils. (L. remarkable) Ch. "extraordinary r."
R. intranervtum Sleum. (L. nervation within. This species has peculiar nervation for a rhododendron, with nerves impressed and also on the margins.)
R. intrictum Franch. (L. entangled) Ch. "hidden-stamen r."
R. inundtum Sleum. (L. flooded, suggesting a habitat)
R. invasrium Sleum. (L. invader. The plants invaded sterile grounds in the Morobe area of New Guinea.)
R. invictum Balf. f. & Forr. (L. unconquered)
R. irrortum Franch. (L. covered with dew, i.e. upper surface at first glandular and floccose) Ch. "dewdrop r."
ssp. kontumnse (Sleum.) Chamb. (of Kontum, Vietnam)
ssp. pogonostylum (Balf. f. & W.W. Sm.) Chamb. (G. pogon beard + style)
Rhododendron Species J
R. japnicum (A. Gray) Suringar (Japanese) Renge Tsutsuji . See R. glabrius Nakaibe.
R. jasminiflrum Hook, (with a Jasmine-like flower, but not the scent)
R. jinpingnse (jeen-) Fang et M.Y. He (of Jinping X1an [Co.], Yunnan) Jinping Azalea
R. jinxiunse (jeen-shyo-) Fang et M.Y. He (of Jinxiu Xian [Co.], Gungxi Prov.) Jinxiu Azalea
R. johnstonenum Watt ex Hutch, (of Mrs. Johnstone, wife of the Brit. Political Agent in Manipur)
Prryae Group (of Mrs. A.D. Parry, wife of an officer in the Assam Civil Service)
Rhododendron Species K
R. kampferi Planchon (of Engelbert Kaempfer, 1651-1716, physician to the gov. of the Dutch East India Co., which had facilities on Deshima, a small artificial island in Nagasaki harbor. On two highly restricted journeys to the court in Yedo (Tokyo) in March-May, 1690 & 1691, Kaempfer collected plants, branches and flowers. The fifth section of his Amoenitates Exoticae , 1712, contains the first descriptions of Aucuba, Skimmia, Hydrangea, Chimonanthus, Ginkgo, Lilium speciosum, L. tigrinum , tree-peonies, azaleas, various Prunus and nearly 30 varieties of Camellia .) Kaempfer or Torch Azalea, Yama Tsutsuji, intro. 1892; many cvs.
R. kailinse Fang et M.Y. He (of Kaili Xian [Co.], Guizhou Prov.) an Azaleastrum
R. kanehirae (sometimes misspelled kanehirai ) (no stress) Wils. (of Ryozo Kanehira, 1882-1947, Japanese botanist) Taebei Azalea, Taiwan
R. kansunse Millais (of w. Gansu, near the Xizang [Tibetan] border)
R. kasonse Hutch & Ward (of Kaso Peak, Delei Valley, Assam)
R. kawakami (no stress) Hayata (of Takiya Kawakami, 1871-1915, collector in Taiwan)
R. kedtii Sleum. (of Kedit, "a native of the Dusun tribe, who accompanied Mrs. Sheila Collenette on her exploration of Mt. Kinabalu in the 1960s and actually found the specimen which has served as the type of this species; possibly a hybrid," Sleumer)
R. keiskei (no stress) Miq. (of Keisuke lto, 1803-1901, Japanese botanist who discovered it) intro. 1905
R. kemulnse J. J. Sm. (of Mt. Kemul, on the border between Sarawak & Indonesian Borneo)
R. kendrckii Nutt. (of Dr. G. Kendrick, 1771-1847, M.D. Edinburgh, friend of Nutt.
R. kysii Nutt. (of the discoverer, a Mr. Keys)
R. kiangsinse Fang (of Kiangsu, Jiangxi Prov.)
R. kiusinum Mak. (of Kyushu, Japan) Kyushu Azalea; intr. from seed by E. H.Wilson in 1918
R. kchii (ch as in loch) Stein (of O. Koch, German zoologist who collected plants in the Philippines
R. komiyamae (no stress) Makino (of Tomitaro Komiyama, who found it in central Honshu.) Azalea. Ashi Taka Tsutsuii .
R. kongbonse Hutch, (of Kongbo, s.e. Tibet)
R. konrii Beccari (of a god of the native Hattam people in n.w. New Guinea)
R. korthlsii Miq. (of Pieter W. Korthals, 1807-1892)
R. kwangfunse Chun & Fang (of Kuang-fu, i.e. village, no. Guangxi Prov.)
R. kwangsinse Hu (of Guangxi Prov.) Guangxi Azalea
R. kwangtungnse Merr. et Chun (of Guangdong Prov.) Guangdong Azalea
R. kywii Lace & W.W. Sm. (of Maung Kyaw, a Burmese plant-collector)
Other Ericaceous Genera G
Gaulthria L. (of Dr. Jean-Francois Gaulthier, physician-naturalist of the gov. of Canada, the Marquis de la Galisonnire, himself a naturalist, in Quebec, c.1750) 150 spp. Malaysia, E. Asia, Aus., N.Z., No., Cent., So. Amer. Many contain methyl salicylate, the basis of wintergreen.
G. adenthrix (Miq.) Maxim. (G. aden gland + thrix hair) intr. 1915
G. antpoda G. Forster (of the Antipodes, i.e. N.Z., Tasmania)
G. colnsoi Hook.f. (of William Colenso, 1811-1899) N.Z.
G. crssa Franklin (L. thick) Ruahine Mts. southward, N.Z.
G. cuneta (Rehd. &Wils.) Bean (L. wedge-shaped, i.e. lvs.) intr. 1908
G. deprssa Hook.f. (L. pressed down) var. novae-zelndiae Franklin (of New Zealand)
G. forrstii Diels (of George Forrest, 1873-1932), cult. 1933
G. fragrantssima Wallich (L. most fragrant)
G. hspida R. Brown (L. bristly) Waxberry, cult. 1927
G. hispdula (L.) Muhlenb. ex Bigelow (L. slightly bristly) Creeping Snowberry, Moxie Plum, Maidenhair Berry, in Quebec: Petit the de perdrix I de bois
G. hokeri C. B. Clarke (of William J. Hooker, 1785-1865, dir. of Kew) cult. 1933
G. humifsa (R. C. Graham) Rydberg (L. sprawling on the ground) Alpine Wintergreen cult. 1830
G. itona Hayata (of Ito, Taiwan)
G. miquelina Takeda (of Friedrich A. W. Miquel, 1811-1871, prof, of bot., Utrecht, Neth.) intr. 1892
G. nummulariodes D. Don (resembling L. nummularius money-changer, i.e. fol. with shape of a coin) intr. 1850
G. oppostiflia Hook. f. (L. leaves opposite)
G. ovatiflia A. Gray (L. leaves ovate)
G. procmbens L. (L. lying on the ground) Wintergreen, Checkerberry, Teaberry, Mountain Tea, Ivry-Leaves (sic); Nfld.-Man.-Minn., so. to Ga.-Ala.
G. pyrolodes Hook.f. & T. Thomson (resembling Pyrola in fol.) cult. 1933
G. rupstries (L. f.) G. Don (L. growing among rocks) cult. 1933
G. semi-nfera (C. B. Clarke) Airy-Shaw (L. half-below)
G. shllon Pursh Shallon, Salal. These words are of Chinook Indian origin in s.w. Washington state, from KI'Kwu-shalla and the syncopated form KIKwsala .
The word "salal," meaning the fruit of the plant, came into use around the mouth of the Columbia R. c.1815-25. Ref. Univ. of Wash. Arboretum. The foliage, called Lemonleaf, is used by florists.
G. sinensis J. Anthony (L. Chinese)
G. subcorymbsa Col. (somewhat corymbose, i.e. short, broad, flat inflorescence) Ruahine Mts. to Cook Strait, N.Z.
G. fefrmera W.W. Sm. (G. four-part, i.e. flowers often 4-merous) cult. 1933
G. trichophlla Royle (G. thrix, trichos hair + leaf)
G. veitchina Craib (of the Veitch Nursery) intr. 1908
G. wardii Marquand & Airy-Shaw (of Francis Kingdon Ward, 1885-1958; see R. wardii ) cult. 1933
G. yunnannsis (Franch.) Rehd. (of Yunnan Prov.)
Gaylusscia (-sak-) HBK (of Joseph L. Gay-Lussac, 1778-1850, noted Fr. chemist whose work laid the foundation of the food-canning industry; invented the hydrometer, alcoholmeter, portable barometer, steam-injection pump; pioneer balloonist, ascended to 22,000 ft. in 1804) 48 spp. No. & So. (most) Amer. Distinguished from Vaccinium in an ovary with 10 divisions because of outgrowths in the 5 carpels. Huckleberry
G. baccta (Wangenheim)) C. Koch (L. berried) Black Huckleberry, Gueules noires , Nfld.-Ga., w. to Iowa; earlier Eng. names: Hurtleberry,Whortleberry
G. brachcera (Michx.) A. Gray (G. brachus short + keras horn of an animal, i.e. lvs. finely crenate-toothed) Box H. intr. 1796
G. dumsa (Andre) Torrey & A. Gray (L. bushy) intr. 1774
var. bigelovina Fern, (discovered by Jacob Bigelow, 1787-1879, prof, of bot. Boston)
G. frondsa (L.) Torrey & A. Gray (L. leafy, from bracteate racemes) Dangleberry, Blue-Tangle; closely allied to blueberry; N.H.-Fla. intr. 1761
Other Ericaceous Genera K
Klmia L. (of Pehr [Peter] Kalm, 1715-1779, prof, of natural science, Abo, Finland; pupil of Linnaeus, who traveled in eastern No. Amer., 1747-49, and published in 1765 the first part of Flora Fennica .) Before starting out from Philadelphia, he was "seized with terror at the thought of ranging so many new and unknown parts of natural history," even though John Bartram had given him much advice and encouragement. From the Delaware Water Gap he traveled to Quebec and Montreal. The governor of Canada had received orders from France to assist Kalm in every way possible; Dr. Gaulthier made botanical excursions with him. Later he explored the country of the Iroquois. During his stay in America he sent seeds to England and saw the resulting plants when he stopped off there on his return. He brought back to Sweden a herbarium of c. 325 spp., many of which Linnaeus later described in the Species Plantarum , and a wife, a pastor's widow. In commemorating Kalmia to him, Linnaeus wrote that it was "conformable to the peculiar friendship and goodness he has always honored me with." 7 spp. No. Amer., Cuba. Laurel, American or Mountain Laurel
K. angustiflia L. (L. narrow lvs.) Sheep, Dwarf or Pig Laurel, Lambkill, Wicky; e. Canada, U.S.; intr. 1736; many cvs.
K. cuneta Michx. (L. wedge-shaped, i.e. lvs. obovate-cuneate) White Wicky; Carolinas; intro. 1820
K. hirsta Thomas Walter (L. hairy, i.e. lvs., sepals, pedicels) s.e. U.S.; intr. 1790
K. latiflia L. (L. broad lvs.) Mountain L., Calico Bush, Ivy, lvybush, Spoonwood; e. Can., U.S.; intr. 1734; many cvs.
K. microphlla (Hook.) A. Heller (G. small lvs.) Western or Alpine L.; lowlands, Alaska-B.C., Ore.
var. occidentlis (Small) Ebinger (L. western, but same range)
K. poliflia Wangenheim (usually, L. with lvs. like Teucrium polium ) Bog K., Bog or Pale L.; No. Amer. e. of Rocky Mts.; intr. 1767
var. rosmariniflia (Pursh) Rehd. (Rosemary-like lvs.)
Kalmipsis (L.F. Henderson) Rehd. ( Kalmia + G. opsis appearance) 1 sp. Ore.
K. leachina (L.F. Henders.) Rehd. The original plant was found in 1930 in Curry Co., extreme s.w. Ore., during a botanizing trip by Lilla Leach (b. 1886), a botanist, and her pharmacist husband John (b. 1882), who called himself "the muleskinner." Prof, of the Univ. of Oregon cited it as Rhododendron leachianum , but Rehder reclassified it as Kalmiopsis leachiana . It was introduced in 1933. In 1960 Marcel le Piniec found a second form about 100 miles away. The Leach form is named for the Rogue River and the other for the Umpqua River. 'M. le Piniec' is a clone of the latter.