An ARS Retrospective: Our First Decade, 1944-1954, Part II
Franklin H. West
Many things will catch the reader's eye in the first seven years of the ARS
, 1947-1954. What follows is a selection of some highlights that might be of interest in 1994.
John Henny, our first president, reported in April 1947: While talking to British gardeners, I discovered they were almost unanimous that there is no hybrid that can hold a candle to a species. To the artist there is a sense of unbalance, that something is top-heavy about the hybrids. The species gives more blooms at a younger age. Gardeners also prefer to have the bells gracefully pendant, plants tight, compact and proportionate, not exceeding five or six feet. (1947, p. 6) American gardeners with the same sentiments are the mainstay of the Rhododendron Species Foundation.
Publication of British quality (one to four stars) and hardiness (A, B, or C in decreasing order of hardiness) ratings. A few examples:
'Beauty of Littleworth' *** B, 'Blue Peter' *** A, 'Bow Bells' "too new to rate", 'Faggetter's Favourite' *** B, 'Gomer Waterer' ** A,
'Loderi King George' **** C, 'Mars' **** B, 'Mrs. Furnival' *** B, 'Purple Splendour' *** B, 'Unique' **** B, (1948, p.56)
Halfdan Lem's comments on the severe winter of '48-'49 in the Pacific Northwest: We had a temperature of 8 degrees above zero one night and several nights with 10-12 degrees above. Of the larger sizes 4-8 feet, of which we had several hundred, not a single one was killed. The less hardy kinds, planted in the open where they had a chance to harden off, withstood the freeze much better than the plants which were crowded in among the tall ones. In the winter of '34-'35 the temperature went to 0 degrees F one night. My small seedlings were in flats in frames. I had them covered with common building paper. We do not cover unless it goes down to 20 degrees; when it gets milder we give the plants a good airing, but we cover up again if another freeze is in the air. We saved every one of our one and two year old seedlings in this way, of which we had about 50,000 plants. His nursery was 10 miles north of Seattle. (1949, p. 24)
Among the membership listed in the 1948 Yearbook were: Andrew N. Adams (10 Oaks), Edmund Amateis, Warren Baldsiefen, Donald Barto, Paul Bosley Nursery, Robert M. Bovee, Col. Roy F. Brown, H. G. Dekens, Edmund de Rothschild, S. A. Everitt, Everett Farwell Jr., H. Lincoln Foster, Leonard Frisbie, Joseph B. Gable, Herman Grootendorst, Irving B. Lincoln, Donald D. McClure, B. Y. Morrison, G. G. Nearing, Dr. R. M. Overstreet, Nikolas G. Radovich, Fred M. Robbins, Merle E. Saunders, A. M. Shammarello, Henry T. Skinner, H. J. Slonecker, Cecil C. Smith, L. G. Tingle Nursery, James J. VanVeen, Paul Vossberg, Dr. J. D. Walker, Aloys Wennekamp, W. E. Whitney, Wales Wood, and J. S. Yeates.
Tacoma's first rhododendron show was held downtown at the Bank of California. The Milwaukee Railroad allowed them to use their new streamliner for a mobile show unit that carried fine rhododendron blossoms all the way to Chicago. (1949)
On August 19, 1949, the entire report of the committee on nomenclature and registration, chaired by J. Harold Clarke, was approved by the Board. The report recommended that a system of awards be established to grant recognition to worthy new varieties: "So that there will be no chance of confusion, awards will be (only) to clonal varieties." This brought an end to the deceptive practice of giving the clonal name to all the seedlings of a cross, of which the named clone was just one. The committee was given the task of compiling a master list of plant names, and breeders were asked to submit proposed names for clearance to ascertain they had not been previously used. J. Harold Clarke became our first registrar. (1949, pp. 8-10)
'Naomi' (Exbury var.) 1 was featured in the July 1949 Quarterly Bulletin , p. 150. P. H. Brydon said, "I doubt that among the late Lionel de Rothschild's 1210 crosses, there is one as lovely as that which he named for his youngest daughter." 'Naomi' = 'Aurora' x R. fortunei ; 'Aurora' = 'Kewense' ( R. griffithianum x R. fortunei ) x R. thomsonii .
Revised by-laws were published October 1949 (pp. 5-7). The governing body consisted of the four officers plus 12 directors elected by the membership at large. In addition, "Regional Vice-Presidents shall be appointed by the Board." In practice these were called "Honorary Vice Presidents" at first, and were the several chapter presidents. By January 1955 they were called "Regional Directors."
In his "Notes on Breeding Rhododendrons in the Eastern U.S.," Joseph P. Gable described his early efforts: We would never part with willingly from the use of such exotic species as R. brachycarpum , R. caucasicum , R. smirnowii , R. discolor , R. fortunei , etc., but these species hardy enough in themselves, do not possess the necessary margin of hardiness when crossed with the tender sorts to produce a satisfactory degree of resistance to cold in their progeny. What then do we have left to us as a potential source of hardiness in our hybrids? Only R. maximum and R. catawbiense ? Primarily - and from personal experience - yes. In the lepidote class we have perhaps our most valuable species as regards margin of hardiness in R. mucronulatum . Some forms of R. racemosum do well enough but should be left alone once established. They resent moving more than any rhododendron I know." (1950, pp. 28-30)
Publication of the full summary of Dr. Joseph Rock's 1948 expedition to Yunnan-Tibet border, and specific identification of the seed lot numbers by botanists at R.B.G. Edinburgh. (1950, 30-34)
Del James' brief paper about James E. Barto: A man who will long be remembered by all rhododendron lovers for having been one of the pioneers in introducing rhododendrons on the Pacific Coast...in all my visits to gardens in Oregon, Washington, and California, I have yet to see a garden that did not have plants from Barto. He has done as much as anyone in providing the foundation for the American Rhododendron Society of today. (1950, pp. 60-63) He deserves a Pioneer Award.
First published rules and regulations for an ARS flower show plus a schedule of classes and classification key. (1950, pp. 64-72)
Among the new members in 1949 were: Harold Epstein, Koster Nursery, Austin Kilham, C. P. Rafill, and Howard Kerrigan. Among the new members in 1950 were David G. Leach, W. R. Coe Jr., J. F. Knippenberg, Benjamin Shapiro, Francis Mosher Jr., Kenneth McDonald, Dr. T. F. Wheeldon, M. G. Coplen, Fred G. Meyer, and James S. Moulton.
It is noted with regret the passing of the New Zealand Rhododendron Association's president and founder, Edgar Stead. His hybridizations at Ham are of such wonderful quality and size that they bear comparison with anything of their kind in the world." (1950, p. 7)
In David Leach's first contribution, "Eastern Rhododendron Observations," he described modest progress in developing superior azaleas and rhododendrons for his very severe climate: I have a plant of 'Catawbiense Album' and R. fortunei which is iron-clad and has slightly fragrant bell-shaped flowers, pure white and of good size.
The lack of precise scientific data on inheritable factors in such an important genus is really rather astonishing. If fellows who are old hands at the game have made reliable observations on such things as linkages, dominants, etc., I wish they would publish them for the benefit of the rest of us. (1950, pp. 85-86)
Rhododendrons present almost unlimited possibilities to anyone who might carefully plan a hybridizing program with definite objectives in mind. It [is] the writer's opinion that the less complex the parentage, the greater possibility for success. Avoid making crosses between complicated hybrids. My program was planned during long winter evenings - "armchair gardening time." Several important factors enter into the planning of each cross: hardiness, growth habits, color and form of truss, possible season of bloom, dominant or recessive traits where known, the form of the species used as a parent, and the health and vigor of the plants to be used. There waits a much greater thrill with a "tonic for living" effect, second to none - when you bring into bloom a new hybrid that approximates your expectations." (1950, pp. 139-141)
First publication of combined RHS and ARS hardiness and quality ratings for rhododendron varieties (1950, pp. 152-158) by J. Harold Clarke. A few examples:
'Blue Peter': A ***; H-2 xxx, 'Mars': B ****; H-2 xxxx, 'Mrs. Furnival': B ***; H-3 xxx, 'Unique': B ****; H-3 xxx
Endre Ostbo's 'King of Shrubs' given a P.A., parentage unknown, from seed of English origin. (1950, p. 151)
Oct. 9, 1950: First actual work at Crystal Springs Island Test Garden took place with clearing the site according to Ruth Hansen's preliminary plan and H. J. Slonecker's survey. President C. I. Sersanous' chain saw crew and garden chairman John Bacher did the initial clearing. Bacher said: "It is rare in a person's life to be able to assist in the first creative work of a garden. I am of the opinion that future generations will bless our enterprise." (1951, pp. 14-16)
First publication of British and American hardiness and quality ratings for species rhododendrons by J. Harold Clarke (1951, pp. 7-13). A few samples:
R. augustinii : C, ****; H-4 xxxx, R. calophytum : B, ***; H-3 xxxx, R. dauricum : B, *; H-2 xx, R. mucronulatum : B, ****; H-2 xxx, R. wardii : C, ***; H-4 xxxx,
R. schlippenbachii : C, ****; H-1 xxxx
'Loderi King George' appeared on the January 1951 cover. From a single cross by Sir Edmund Loder: R fortunei x R. griffithianum . Never duplicated by anyone, even Loder himself!
P. H. Brydon gave the first full complete description of propagating rhododendron hybrids from cuttings: While the methods described are based upon commercial production, I am sure they could be modified by the interested amateur who wishes to try his luck. After 30 years in horticulture, there still remains with me the temptation to try to tug just a little at the cutting "to see if it is rooted yet." Lack of attention to detail may very well be the difference between a 20% and a 90% strike. (1951, pp. 29-32, 78-80, 131-134) No detail is omitted.
At the dedication of the ARS test garden May 5, 1951, John Bacher said, "May history tell of the glory of rhododendrons, say 25 or 50 years later, when the splendor of our plantings will truly transcend our wildest dreams of today."
'Beauty of Littleworth' was judged best truss in the Portland ARS show, May 5, 1951. The late C. P. Rafill, assistant curator at Kew Gardens, said its parentage was R. campanulatum x R. griffithianum .
In his "Observations on Breeding Rhododendrons," David Leach challenged "the strong aversion to inbreeding rhododendrons in the fear that it will lead to degeneration:" This is not necessarily true. There is entirely too much cross-breeding among rhododendrons, in my opinion, and the variability which comes from this crossbreeding is seldom used to advantage by the hybridist because he fails to inbreed for his next generation of seedlings. I see no reason why established genetic principles should not be tested before they are discarded as [inapplicable] to rhododendrons. (1951, pp. 124-126) This launched a great debate.
By-laws providing for establishment of chapters is adopted Sept. 20, 1951. News of three new chapters is announced: Seattle, California, Middle Atlantic. (1951, p. 142)
Thirty-five members of the ARS met Dec. 13, 1951, in the Seattle arboretum clubhouse to discuss the formation of a Seattle chapter. Donald Graham was the temporary presiding officer. All who attended signed the bylaws as charter members of the Seattle Chapter. Mr. Graham was elected president, B. O. Mulligan vice-president, Betsy A. Janzen secretary-treasurer.
Among the new members in 1951 were: W. R. Coe, Edward B. Dunn, Mrs. W. A. Kelius, O. P. Dobbs, and J. E. Coleman.
In his "Additional Observations on Breeding Rhododendrons," David Leach wrote: Suppose we have a variety which lacks one or two qualities. By crossing it with another variety [which has] these [desired qualities] we will secure some advancement, but the seedlings will be intermediate in character. The next step is to backcross the intermediate seedling which best exhibits the desired qualities, to the parent to which we wish to add them. Among the resulting seedlings there is a good chance there will appear an individual similar to the grandparent, but with the addition of the [two] characteristics we wished to contribute to it. If the virtues we are seeking are controlled in inheritance by five factor pairs, for example, it is necessary to grow only 32 seedlings to secure our improved individual in "pure" form; whereas it would be necessary to grow 1024 seedlings (theoretically) to obtain the improved individual by inbreeding one of the intermediate F 1 progeny of the two original parents. (1952, pp. 8-10)
He also suggested a second method of breeding: the isolation of pure lines and their subsequent merging to produce superior plants of great vigor and uniformity.
John C. Wister described the work of the Dexter Committee in selecting superior clones of the Dexter hybrids: The value of the new plants comes from the fact that (1) they bloom about two weeks earlier than the "ironclads," that (2) some of them are much more rapid growers, that (3) their flowers are much larger, that (4) they include apricot colorings not known in the "ironclads," and that (5) some of them are fragrant. (1952, pp. 45-48)
Among the new members for 1952 were: Orlando S. Pride, the New York Botanical Garden, Charles Herbert, Mrs. Cason Calloway, Mrs. Kenneth Janeck, Dr. W. N. Fortescue, Bruce Brechtbill, James Caperci, Mary Fleming, Arthur Dome, Raymond Jefferis, C. R. Haag, and Gene Eisenbeiss.
Feb. 21, 1952: The Seattle, Tacoma and Eugene chapters are fully approved. The California Chapter met Feb. 28, chaired by its first president, Everett Farwell.
The great debate was engaged in the April 1952 issue of the Bulletin with Guy Nearing's "Counter Observations on Breeding Rhododendrons." He challenged Leach: Philosophy and Theories (is there any difference here?) need support from results rather than from other theories. Some theories need support very badly. Inbreeding in the second generation does not give us as much variation as one would hope for or expect. Rhododendrons tend to breed toward what I like to call the norm of the genus, which is something halfway between R. ponticum and nothing at all. Mr. Leach has an ingenious suggestion for remedying any degeneration due to inbreeding. He would have us breed the plants out again. For anyone having several lifetimes to spare, I would recommend this method. (1952, 94-99)
In "Eastern Rhododendron Prospects," Joseph Gable gave details of his trials of species in Pennsylvania: Practically all the species that have proven hardy for the West China, Himalayan area, come from Szechuan and Hupeh. These hardier types seem to be those that occur at medium elevations, say 3000 to 8000 feet. In Eastern China there is such a variety of climate that there is sure to be much variation in plant hardiness. R. fortunei and R. ovatum from Chekiang province are of unquestionable hardiness in our plantings. Since the [Ponticum] series furnish the basic hardiness in all satisfactory elepidote hybrids here, the hybridist should probably explore all species and variants possible.
I sent a lot of things to the West Coast when I found they were not hardy here, to Barto, VanVeen, Ostbo, Lem - then at Ketchikan, Alaska - and others obtained their first plants from me from these [my English friends, Holland and Germany] sources. I would like to see the ones that failed here [when I] visit the Northwestern section sometime before I get too old.
I saw a number of English and European gardens in 1917, '18 and '19 while on duty in an army band. In fact that was the beginning of my interest in these plants and my failure to grow them here as over there was the challenge that started my hybridization experiments here. (1952, pp. 105-107)
March 24, 1952, the Middle Atlantic Chapter organizes at Richmond, Va., Thomas Wheeldon, M.D., acting chair. We are now seven chapters, including Portland which organized as a chapter on May 15, 1952; total ARS membership: 645.
'C.I.S.' ('Loder's White' x 'Fabia') receives a P.A. May 1952.
David Leach tackled Guy Nearing head-on in "Counter-counter Observations on Breeding": "Breeders throughout the world who agree with him can be comfortably accommodated in a phone booth!" Challenging both Nearing and Donald Hardgrove who both opined that crossing complex hybrids with each other was worthless [because they fell into a racial "norm"], Leach's rebuttal cited both the Exbury Azaleas as outstanding examples of complex hybrid progeny, and Shammarello's finding 175 superior seedlings (5%) out of 3500 ironclad hybrid seedlings, 85% of which were equal to the parents in quality. Leach continued: I do not advocate crossing complicated hybrids, but my position is far different than Mr. Nearing's. I know better results can be obtained more easily through the use of modern genetic principles; [for example, when] Dr. Creech at Glenn Dale outlined to me his breeding program, he proposed to use back-crosses to reduce the number of seedlings which must be grown to obtain the recombination of characteristics he is seeking. (1952, pp. 167-71)
From research conducted at the University of Maryland, Bernard and Bridgers' "Studies of Factors Inhibiting the Rooting of Rhododendron Cuttings" found that the greatest rooting response was obtained when summer cuttings of one-year wood without flower buds were subjected to the sliced wounding method and treated with Hormodin 3 and Fermate mixed 3:1 and then waxed, and rooted in sand and peat medium. There was a toxic effect to cuttings soaked in a solution of indolebutyric acid 100mg/liter for 24 hours. (1952, pp. 186-205; 1953, pp.11-28)
Nearing's "Further Discussion of Breeding Methods" challenges the geneticist: Mr. David Leach's tirade in the July Bulletin reminds me somehow of the hero of Stephen Leacock's Nonsense Novels, who, if memory serves, leaped to the saddle and galloped rapidly away in all directions. In one direction Mr. Leach attacked the idea that when complicated hardy hybrids are bred together they do not produce improved forms. I should have said subgenus [and excluded azaleas]. In an opposite direction, he proceeded to assail my idea of a [F2] cross involving four species as a waste of time and shotgun method. The shotgun, Mr. Leach, is a handy device. The shotgun method is exactly what we want. We want to be able to look over a field of new hybrids, every one different, for how else can we hope to find the subtle harmony of all parts which spells beauty, for which there is no single gene? (1952, pp.209-212)
C. I. Sersanous had this to say about the ARS in 1953: Your President would like to write a few words concerning the future of the ARS. We have given the chapters the necessary tools to work with by setting up a foundation and future in bringing about the formation of chapters, but only a start has been made in that direction. Test or trial gardens have been set up...national committees have been appointed on nomenclature use and awards...our quarterly Bulletin compares favorably [with any other horticultural association]...we have created a new class of sustaining membership...but I believe the greatest opportunity exists in the creation of local groups, for the fellowship coming from local meetings in which exchanges of ideas may be had. (1953, pp. 8-9)
In his "Final Discussion on a Further Discussion of Breeding Methods," Leach said: My adversary and I are disagreed on the value of inbreeding. I advocate crossing two rhododendrons which exhibit the virtues to be combined and then self fertilizing the best of the progeny (or crossing two of them together if they will not accept their own pollen). It is incomprehensible to me how anyone can oppose this method, which is a basic primary tool of plant breeders of the world over. (It is true!) The average quality of self fertilized progeny from a primary hybrid rhododendron is generally below that of the parent. This undisputed fact has deceived many amateur plant breeders. If the hybridist will only grow a reasonably large number of seedlings, he will find [a few plants] exhibiting the extremes of their heritage. These combine the desirable attributes of their grandparents in the manner sought by the breeder.
He concluded: I hope that readers of the Bulletin have been stimulated to a new awareness of the problems and procedures of hybridists. I am confident our debate has served a useful purpose. (1953, pp. 53-58)
Tony Shammarello wrote (in the same Bulletin, p. 60): I am much surprised to learn that it is a contradiction of [Mr. Nearing's] previous experiences, that I should have had such extraordinary seedlings from crosses of our complicated catawbiense hybrids. In my correspondence with Mr. Leach I gave only fair praise of the quality of the seedlings as "beyond my expectations." I do not think a miracle or accident has occurred.
Among the new members in 1953 were Weldon Delp, Dorothy Schlaikjer, Missouri Botanical Garden, Roland deWilde, Joseph Casadevall, Sidney Burns, H. A. Whitney, John Eichelser, and M. S. Dunn.
In "More Thoughts About Hybridizing," Guy Nearing announces: Our mock (!!) feud is now discontinued, at Mr. Leach's suggestion. Actually, of course, we are the best of friends. Both of us enjoyed the comparatively uninhibited sparring...I am not scoffing at scientific formulae...I have studied science in many of its forms, but I think the imagination of an artist will prove more potent in this field than the findings of a microscope.
'Crest' is given an F.C.C. by the RHS on April 28,1953. 'Crest': R. wardii x 'Lady Bessborough' ( R. discolor x R. campylocarpum var. elatum ) by Lionel de Rothschild.
Rudolph Henny's comments on 'Purple Splendour' on the January 1954 cover of the Bulletin: Of unknown parentage, mentioned in Millais Rhododendrons 1921 as a newer variety. Elevated to four stars in the 1952 Handbook of the Rhododendron Group of RHS. Donald Waterer wrote in the January 1950 ARS Bulletin (p. 13) "'Purple Splendour' has sired a large flowered blush and white with brilliant [red] young foliage of 'Moser's Maroon' from which no doubt 'Purple Splendour' was derived." (1954, p. 24)
Donald Hardgrove reactivated the great debate with his article in the January 1954 Bulletin on p. 25 titled "Theory and Practice." He challenged Leach: "For the sake of the record, I would like to make a few corrections and comments." He disputed Leach's statement that ( R. catawbiense x R. decorum ) is hardy under eastern conditions: "This point alone refutes Mr. Leach's entire theory." He called Leach's hypothetical three-species crosses (1953, p. 57) "the most concentrated bit of wishful thinking I have ever encountered." He went on to say: In almost any cross involving three species, a segregation of characters occurs which will give us variable progeny; the seedlings will not be uniform.
Another allegation by Mr. Leach that a cross between two different primary hybrids would result in progeny halfway between the two, more or less the same as crossing two species together. I have no idea where Mr. Leach could have obtained such information. In this type of cross the greatest split-up and recombination of characters results. I stated in the 1946 Yearbook crossing together of two complex hybrids would result in a "racial norm" without much chance of anything good. Some of the theories proposed by Mr. Leach will be helpful to all of us, but my primary purpose is to make sure that theories are not presented as, or confused with actual results. (1954, p. 25)
On the April 1954 cover: 'Beauty of Littleworth', 'Mrs. G. W. Leak' and 'Langley Park'. 'Beauty of Littleworth' received a F.C.C. in 1904 and is hardy in the Northwest. 'Mrs. G. W. Leak' originated with M. Koster and Sons, and is of R. caucasicum origin. 'Langley Park' was raised by Messrs. van Nes, and is one of the hybrids of R. griffithianum seedlings raised in Berlin in 1896; the color is like 'Earl of Athlone'. (Cover notes by Rudolph Henny) (1954, p. 24)
Leach's reply to Hardgrove, entitled "Facts and Fictions," does not mention his "opponent" by name but calls him variously "my newfound critic," "adversary," "my critic whirling like a dervish," "a clarion call from the wilderness," "contentious contestant" and "capricious critic": I trust my readers will understand while I am beating him vigorously about the head, that I esteem him highly, too. I disagree with about every word he writes, his position appears to be capricious and contradictory, having misconstrued the principles of genetics which he seeks to use to support his statements...[and in one particular] by the omission of a most critical portion of the passage, my meaning was distorted in a quotation of my comments. (1954, pp. 65-69)
In the April 1954 Bulletin, Henry T. Skinner wrote in his article "Azaleas and Rhododendrons at the U.S. National Arboretum": In spite of the warm and rather dry summers of the Washington area, there are good indications that correspondingly mild winters combined with the easily adapted soils and varied topography of the arboretum may provide the conditions under which a great many rhododendrons, as well as azaleas, will succeed. (1954, pp. 78-80)
In the 1954 Bulletin an unnamed New Zealand author wrote: Here in this little New Zealand of ours, garden conscious though we are, we have not created [a garden] at once national and distinctively our own. One man at least has dreamed a dream which bids fair soon to become a lovely reality - the dream of a vast national garden of rhododendrons planted against the background of our beautiful native bush. That man is Mr. Douglas Cook, and the scheme which he has inaugurated is the Pukeiti Rhododendron Park being established within 16 miles of New Plymouth Post Office. The block of bush he [selected] was on Pukeiti (Little Hill) 1600 feet above sea level northwest of Mt. Egmont.
One hundred and fifty-three acres were bought in late 1950, which Cook offered to any group of 20 who would each subscribe 50 a year for five years to form a nucleus of a trust. An anonymous donor presented an even more valuable adjacent block of 153 acres to the trust in 1952. The annual trust conference was attended by 70 members from all over the country. (1954, pp.99-102)
Our national officers at our 10th Anniversary were C. I. Sersanous, President; Dr. Royal Gick, Vice-President; Ruth M. Hansen, Secretary-Treasurer; Rudolph Henny, editor ARS Bulletin; J. Harold Clarke, Yearbook editor and registrar. The Board of Directors: John Henny, Brian O. Mulligan, Dr. R. M. Overstreet, Robert Bovee, George Grace, Sumner Williams, J. Harold Clarke, John Bacher, Ben Lancaster, Dr. Royal Gick, C. T. Hansen, and Cecil Smith. The regional directors were the seven chapter presidents: Mrs. Powell Glass, Mid-Atlantic; Donald Hardgrove, New York; Edward B. Dunn, Seattle, Carl P. Fawcett, Tacoma; C. I. Sersanous, Portland; Dr. John P. MacKinnon, Eugene; and James F. Moulton, California.
As she recorded in her 1974 History of the American Rhododendron Society, Ruth M. Hansen reported that our first public meeting was held July 7, 1944, in Portland, six months before the Articles of Incorporation were signed on Jan. 9, 1945. Therefore, our Golden Anniversary year begins July 7, 1994!
Dr. Franklin H. West, Eastern Vice-President of the ARS and a member of the Pine Barrens Chapter, co-edited the book Hybrids and Hybridizers, Rhododendrons and Azaleas for Eastern North America.
Editor's Note : 1 The registered name is 'Exbury Naomi.