Herbaceous Native Companion Plants of Eastern and Midwestern United States
Natives of Pennsylvania
Pink lady slipper, pink moccasin flower ( Cypripedium acaule ) is one of the most attractive native orchids with a single magnificent pink and brown flower in late May or early June. It is native to dry but rich woodlands.
Canada or wild ginger, Indian ginger root ( Asarum canadense ) is a matted ground cover with red-brown blossoms beneath the leaves in April and May.
White trillium, large-flowered wake robin ( Trillium grandiflorum ) blooms for a full month in late May or early June and is the easiest trillium to grow.
Painted trillium ( Trillium undulatum ) is a desirable but difficult-to-grow species with white flowers in July or August and likes a fairly sunny setting.
Partridgeberry, twinberry ( Mitchella repens ) is a creeper with prominently veined leaves and has fragrant blossoms from April to June and minty berries in September. It spreads by runners.
Purple trillium, red trillium, wake robin, birthroot ( Trillium erectum ) is relatively easy to maintain in the wild garden in moderate to full shade.
Closed gentian, bottle gentian, Andrews gentian ( Centiana andrewsii ) has dark blue flowers in late August or early September. It is a long-lived perennial in almost any type of soil and sun or light shade.
Sharp-lobed hepatica ( Hepatica acutiloba ) is a handsome little perennial that is one of the first to bloom with dainty blue, pink, or white flowers.
Maidenhair fern ( Adiantum pedatum ) is a distinctive and graceful native fern.
Birdseye, C. and E. 1951. Growing Woodland Plants , New York: Dover Publications.
Steffek, E. F. 1973. Wild Flowers and How to Grow Them . New York: Crown Publications, Inc.
Taylor, K. S., and Hamblin, S. F. 1963. Handbook of Wild Flower Cultivation . New York: Macmillan.
Natives of the High Appalachian Area
Yellow lady's slipper ( Cypripedium calceolus ) in swamps, wet grasslands in moderately acid soil.
Early wood betony ( Pedicularis canadensis ) in clearings, damp meadows, moderately acid soil.
Toad trillium ( Trillium sessile ) in open, rich woods.
Painted trillium ( Trillium undulatum ) in woods and swamps in acid soil.
Natives of the Great Lakes Area
Showy lady's-slipper ( Cypripedium reginae ) in wet woods, bogs.
Leafy white orchid ( Habenaria dilatata ) in cold swamps, bogs, grasslands.
Hooker's orchid ( Habenaria hookerf ) in bogs.
Blunt-leaf orchid ( Habenaria obusata ) in bogs.
Heart-leaf, twayblade ( Listera cordata ) bogs and mossy woods.
Bog Solomon's-plumes ( Smilacina trífolia ) in bogs with acid, peaty soil.
Natives of the New England Area
Swamp pink, dragon orchid ( Arethusa bulbosa ) in sphagnum bogs, swamps, in strongly acid soil.
Fairy-slipper orchid ( Calypso bulbosa ) in damp, acid woods with soil high in organic matter.
Goldthread ( Coptis trifolia ) in damp woods, bog, acid soil.
Bunchberry ( Cornus canadensis ) in swamps, deep woods, acid, organic soil.
Cut-leaved toothwort ( Dentaria laciniata ) in woods, slopes on acid soil, moist conditions.
Thin-leaved pyrola, shinleaf ( Pyrala elliptica ) in woods, moderately acid, organic soil.
Natives of the Appalachian Oak Forest Area
Wild ginger, snakeroot ( Asarum canadense ) on slopes, rocky or loamy soils.
Turkey corn, wild bleeding-heart ( Dicentra eximia ) in rocky wood, slopes.
Rock geranium (Heuchera americana ) open woods, rocky slopes.
Natives of the Oak-Hickory Forest Area
Woodland jack-in-the pulpit, Indian turnip ( Arisaema triphyllum ), in woods and swamps of the Piedmont.
Round-leaved hepatica, liverleaf ( Hepatica americana ) well-drained wooded slopes in acid soil.
Mayapple, mandrake ( Podophyllum peltatum ) open, damp woods, in neutral, acid soils.
White wake-robin ( Trillium grandiflorum ) swamps and woodlands in Piedmont uplands.
Natives of the Coastal Plain Region
Jack-in-the-pulpit ( Arisaema triphyllum ) moist areas, swamp, bog margins.
Slender blue iris ( Iris prismatica ) bogs, in strong acid, sandy soil.
Natives of Southeastern Mixed Forest Region
White baneberry ( Actaea pachypoda ) in rich woods.
Heart-leaf ( Asarum virginica ) in moist or dry woods.
Indian pink ( Spigelia marilandica ) in rich woods.
Hamel, John, Design with Plants .