[Electronic Antiquity]

ELECTRONIC ANTIQUITY:
COMMUNICATING THE CLASSICS

Current Editor
Terry Papillon, Terry.Papillon@vt.edu
Volume 1, Number 2
July 1993


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THE DATABASE OF CLASSICAL BIBLIOGRAPHY: METHODOLOGY AND DESIGN


D.L. Clayman,
Department of Classics,
Brooklyn College, 
C.U.N.Y.,
Brooklyn, 
NY 11210,
U.S.A.
e-mail: dclayman@bklyn.bitnet


    THE DATABASE OF CLASSICAL BIBLIOGRAPHY (DCB) is 
a project of the American Philological Association in co-operation 
with the Societe international pour bibliographie classique and the 
City University of New York.  It is intended to centralize and 
distribute information on all available scholarly sources for the 
study of Greco-Roman antiquity.  Its principal source is the 
Annee philologique (APh), the international bibliography of 
record in our field since 1927.

    Data entry and tagging were begun in July of 1988 and to date we 
have completed processing eleven volumes of the APh 
containing 176,000 bibliographic records.  Plans call for 
producing the first CD-ROM in the winter of 1993 with 12 
volumes (vols. 47-58) or about 192,000 records.  The CD-ROM 
will be updated every year with both new and retrospective 
volumes as well as additional bibliography from other sources.

    The project is supported by grant monies from the National 
Endowment for the Humanities and private foundations including 
the Getty Grant Program of the J. Paul Getty Trust, The Florence 
J. Gould Foundation, The Samuel Kress Foundation, The 
Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, The Institute for Mediterranean 
Studies, The Seth Sprague Educational and Charitable 
Foundation, the Dorot Foundation and members of the American 
Philological Association. 

    PROJECT METHODOLOGY is guided by several general 
principles derived from qualities of the source material itself and 
the needs of its scholarly users:

1) The large size of the APh and the need to include all of it lead 
to the conclusion that no new information should be added in the 
editing process and that the maximum possible automation should 
be used at every step.

2) The multilingual character of the APh and the philological 
sophistication of its readers demanded that no linguistic 
information be lost between the printed page and magnetic 
medium, including accents and non-Roman characters. 

3) Conversely, the possibility that some users of the database 
would not be able to read all of its languages suggested that the 
language of each entry be identified to facilitate language-specific 
searching.

4) The presence of important scholarly commentary in the 
bibliography required an extension of principle two.  Not only 
would no linguistic information be lost, but no information of any 
kind.

5) Finally, the international readership of the APh and the 
expectation that it would used to assemble bibliographies for 
scholarly publication determined three principles aimed at 
producing the greatest variety of output formats: that the database 
would contain no formatting information of any kind and as little 
punctuation as possible; that the data would be divided into logical 
units (fields) of the smallest size to allow the greatest freedom in 
combining them; and that each record would be labelled according 
to 'type of entry' i.e. monograph, article, edition, etc., to 
streamline the production of output formats. 

    The philosophy guiding the project methodology was described 
in a paper presented to the Association for Literary and Linguistic 
Computing at its meeting in Oxford, England on April 8, 1992.  
Although these principles drive the practical decisions made about 
data entry, coding, database design, tagging, searching tools and 
output formatting, sometimes they conflict with each other or the 
possibility of implementing them is limited by technological 
barriers. It is not possible, e.g., to honor principle one, that no 
new information be added to the database, and also label each 
entry for language and type.  Likewise, the limits of optical 
scanning technology dashed our hopes of using the maximum 
possible automation at every step.  All of the actual decisions 
described below are compromises balancing ideals against 
realities.

    DATA INPUT is done by a commercial vendor using double 
entry manual input.  The result is machine-readable text that 
appears in a wordprocessor like the printed page with some 
differences. Characters are coded in ASCII (ANSI X3.4) with the 
extended Latin character set designed for MARC (ANSEL = 
ANSI Z39.47).  Greek characters are entered in the TLG Beta 
Code, which has become a de facto standard in the field, and 
other characters, represented in neither of these sets, are rendered 
in SGML (ISO 8879) with our own extensions.  Retrieval 
software that will be provided with the CD-ROM will translate 
these codes back into their original form.  The input vendor also 
adds escape codes to label the APh rubrics and page numbers.  
The Machine-readable text is tagged automatically at the DCB 
offices in the CUNY Graduate Center and proofread by a team of 
graduate students. 

    A description of the TAGGING PROGRAM program was 
published in Cahier des etudes Anciennes 25 (1991), pp. 111-
117.  Essentially the program reads each entry, determines its type 
by following a trail of syntactic clues, and makes decisions about 
how it should be divided into its constituent fields based on 
punctuation, the presence of escape codes added at the input 
stage, and the outcome of comparisons it makes with specially 
prepared authority lists of authors, journals, places, publishers 
and rubrics.  When the decisions are made the program writes the 
results to a file in a standard, comma delimited format that can be 
easily uploaded into any database management program.

    The program not only formats the entries it identifies but 
proofreads many of its fields.  Authors' names, journal names 
and rubrics, e.g. are compared with an approved list and if the 
match fails, human editors are alerted.  Page numbers are tested to 
make sure they are Arabic numerals, volume numbers must be 
Roman numerals, cross-references must be prefaced by 'cf.' and 
formatted according to APh specifications, and dissertations are 
required to have standard reference forms to Dissertation 
Abstracts.  The only fields on which there are no controls are titles 
and abstracts where anything is possible. 

    TAGGING offers considerable advantages in indexing, speed of 
searching and in ease of reformatting data for downloading or 
printing.  Although it requires time and effort to rework the data in 
this way, the final product is a high quality research tool of great 
flexibility, well worth the extra expense. 

    An adequate RECORD STRUCTURE for the APh must be 
fairly complex.  There are eight basic types of entries: 
monographs, editions of ancient texts, collections of articles 
including Festschriften, articles in journals, articles in 
collections, dissertations, book reviews and resumes.  Each type 
has two forms, full or cross referenced, and each has both 
required and optional elements, some of which, such as 'author' 
and 'editor', may be repeated.  Some elements are used by more 
than one type of entry, but not necessarily in the same place.  The 
order of elements within an entry is for the most part 
standardized, but there are frequent exceptions to every rule.

    The current design is a single flat-file of seventy-one fields.  It 
streamlines indexing, simplifies the formatting of output, and 
allows the data to be easily recast into other forms. It would not 
be difficult, e.g., to reorganize the database into a standard 
USMARC format, which we are now considering. 

    A few examples will briefly illustrate the database design.  An 
uncomplicated journal article would look like this in the printed 
volume:

Vassiliou P., Aristotle and the philosophy of mathematics [avec 
res. en grec] : Philosophia VIII-IX 1978-1979 144-153. | 
L'apport d'Aristote dans le domaine de la philosophie de la 
mathematique se definit principalement par les termes suivants : 
analyse de la structure de la science, induction, infini actuel et 
potentiel, continuite, syllogisme et abstraction.

and like this after formatting:

Vassiliou P.
Aristotle and the philosophy of mathematics Philosophia
8-9
1978-1979
144-153
ENG; res:ELL
TYPE:aj
APHVOL:50
APHPAGE:39
APHID:550
APHRUB:Aristoteles
L'apport d'Aristote dans le domaine de la philosophie de la 
mathematique se definit principalement par les termes suivants : 
analyse de la structure de la science, induction, infini actuel et 
potentiel, continuite, syllogisme et abstraction. 

An edition of an ancient text would be changed from this form: 

Euripides' Kresphontes and Archelaos, introd., text & comm. by 
Harder A. : Mnemosyne Suppl. LXXXVII Leiden Brill 1985 xi & 
302 p. [1591

to this:

Euripides
Euripides' Kresphontes and Archelaos
introd., text & comm. by
Harder A.
Mnemosyne Suppl.
87
Leiden
Brill
1985
xi & 302 p.
ENG
TYPE:e
APHVOL:56
APHPAGE:100
APHID:1591
APHRUB:Euripides

Note: the language field of an ancient edition refers to the 
language of the introduction, translation, commentary etc., not to 
the language of the original.

    The database will be distributed on CD-ROM with a directory and 
file structure following ISO 9960, the so-called 'High Sierra' 
format, supported by all manufactures of CD-ROMs, CD-ROM 
readers and microcomputer manufacturers. 

    The project intends to provide RETRIEVAL SOFTWARE for 
both Macintosh and DOS platforms.  This aspect of the project 
has just begun and it is not yet possible to give a definitive 
description of all the features that will be available.  In general 
terms, the software should offer full Boolean searching on all 
fields, full-text searching of title and abstract fields, automatic 
cross-referencing, the ability to export output directly into a 
wordprocessor, and the capacity to implement a variety of output 
formats.

    SUBJECT SEARCHING, where the database has the most 
dramatic advantage over the printed volumes, will be based on a 
master index of words that appear in the titles and abstracts.  This 
will be, in effect, a constantly growing, multilingual thesaurus of 
subjects and technical terms relevant to the study of classical 
antiquity.  It is through this index that one will find bibliography 
on 'abuse', 'aesthetics', 'amour', 'amphibians', 'anacreontics' 
and anything else one can imagine.  If one wished to know what 
scholars have written about Aristotle's treatment of amphibians, 
for example, a search for 'Aristotle' in the author field AND 
'amphibians' in the subject index should provide all of the 
required citations.

    There are also plans to use a specially edited, machine-readable 
version of The Canon of Greek Authors and Works, created by 
the Thesaurus Linguae Graecae, to facilitate searches for Greek 
literature by genre and ancient date.  This will illustrate how the 
use of multiple, related databases can enhance the value of the 
APh abstracts and eliminate the need to add keywords to the 
bibliography.  In the future, if funding is available, it may be 
possible to incorporate additional thesauri such as a canon of Latin 
works and authors, indices of Greek and Latin words in ancient 
texts, and hierarchical thesauri for special subjects such as 
mythology and ancient history.

    Other aids for research will be incorporated into the searching 
software including databases linking the full names and 
publication information of journals and series with their standard 
abbreviations.  Thus, a user failing to recognize the journal AA 
will press a designated key combination and be told that it is the 
Archologischer Anzeiger published by de Gruyter in Berlin.  
Users will also be able to consult these ancillary databases 
directly, if they wish, in order to determine the correct 
abbreviations for their searches. 

    The division of each entry into logical fields provides maximum 
flexibility in formatting OUTPUT.  The searching software will 
allow entries to be output to a disk or a printer in a variety of 
standard formats.  Possibilities include the original APh format, 
TAPhA, MLA, Chicago B, ISBD and TEI2.

    The design of the database and the presence of the 'Type' field 
designating records as articles in journals, monographs, editions, 
etc. make the creation of output formats very straightforward.  
Definitions of each format, in the form of a list of fields in a 
certain order, printed in a particular font and separated by 
specified punctuation, are linked with each type.  Users need only 
select the desired format and records of each type will be correctly 
printed.  Formats can be added or removed without disturbing the 
database in any way. 

    It will also be possible to download the data in tagged or comma 
delimited form so that it can be imported into any standard 
database management system.  This will be particularly useful to 
those pursuing large-scale research projects who will want to 
create their own more focused bibliographical databases.  If none 
of the options provided suffice, users can produce output 
according to their own design.

    Comments and abstracts, useful for research, but not for 
preparing bibliographies for publication, will be printed separately 
after each entry on request.

    A SAMPLE SEARCH for a paper on Greek and Roman concepts 
of freedom was conducted on volumes 50 and 56 which are kept 
online at the DCB office for demonstration purposes.  A topic of 
this sort is difficult to research in the printed volumes because 
there is no subject index.  A search was made for 'freedom', 
German 'freiheit' and 'libert-' to include 'liberty', Italian 'liberta', 
French 'liberte', Spanish 'libertad' and Latin 'libertas' and 
'libertus'.  The search yielded 90 entries, of which 22 were 
irrelevant (e.g. an article on Homer's freedom of choice in 
selecting formulae) or of marginal relevance (e.g. a note on an 
inscription mentioning the name of a single Roman freedman or 
'libertus'), and two overlapped another.  The useful entries were 
located under 30 separate rubrics.  A selection is printed below.

SOME RESULTS FROM A SEARCH ON 'FREEDOM', 
'FREIHEIT' AND 'LIBERT-' IN APH VOLUMES 50 AND 56.

N.B. Only bibliographical information is printed plus the 
following: abstracts, language, APh rubric.  Due to the limits of 
internet, all accented characters have been replaced by their 
unaccented equivalents. 

Barroso de Albuquerque M. M.
Luclio e o alforge
Euphrosyne
9
1978-1979
173-177
Les vers 243-246 Marx evoqueraient la vie sans entraves 
del'homme qui a renonce aux biens materiels et qui voit dans la 
besace du mendiant le symbole de la liberte absolue, selon l'ideal 
cynique.
LANG:POR
APHRUB:Lucilius Satiricus

Bartosiewiczova J.
Moira. Die Funktion des Schicksals in den homerischen 
Gedichten GLO
9-10
1977-1978
3-15
Chez Homere, la liberte de choix de l'homme s'arrete la ou 
intervient la Moira, autorite sans appel, loi naturelle, que l'homme 
homerique ne met jamais en question. LANG:DEU
APHRUB:Homerus

Behrends O.
La mancipatio nelle xii Tavole. I fondamenti della liberta di 
disporre nella mancipatio delle xii Tavole. Riflessioni sugli scopi e 
la funzione di un negozio giuridico (xii Tab. vi.1) Iura
33
1982
46-103
LANG:ITA
APHRUB:Duodecim Tabulae

Beringer W.
Freedom, family, and citizenship in early Greece The craft of the 
ancient historian. Essays in honor of C. G. Starr
ed. by
Eadie J. W.
Ober J.
Lanham, MD
Univ. Pr. of America
1985
41-56
On the concepts of free and unfree in Greek society from ca. 1600 
to 600 B.C. The significance of words with the root 
<G>E)LEUQ-<G> is 'belonging to a community' and possessing 
the rights and protection of it. Evaluation of the status of the free 
and the unfree, with evidence drawn from the Linear B tablets, 
epic, and early lyric poetry.
LANG:ENG
APHRUB:Civilisation grecque et hellenistique 

Blank D. L.
Socratics versus sophists on payment for teaching ClAnt
4
1985
1-49
The most significant reason for Socrates' refusal of money is that 
he preferred the freedom to select his own associates rather than 
accept any student who was able to pay. Included is a list of 
sources relevant to sophists, Socrates and money. LANG:ENG
APHRUB:Socrates Philosophus, Socratica, Socratis sectatores 

Bockisch G.
Herodot. Geschichten- und Geschichtsschreiber Klio
66
1984
An ausgewahlten Passagen werden Aspekte des historischen 
Bewusstseins bei Herodot sowie die Art seiner Erzahlweise 
behandelt : Proomium ; Die Konzeption der Freiheit ; Die 
Beurteilung der Perser.
LANG:DEU
APHRUB:Herodotus Historicus

Bremmer J. N.
La donna anziana. Liberta e indipendenza Le donne in Grecia
a cura di
Arrigoni G.
Collana Storia e societa
Bari
Laterza
1985
275-298
Trad. de l'article note APh LV 11222.
LANG:ITA
APHRUB: Histoire sociale, economique, administrative 

Bruni G. B.
Mothakes, neodamodeis, Brasideioi
Schiavitu, manomissione e classi dipendenti nel mondo antico Atti 
del Colloquio internazionale, Bressanone 25-27 nov. 1976 a cura 
di
Capozza M.
Pubbl. Ist. di Storia ant. Univ. di Padova 13
Roma
L'Erma
1979
21-31
Les <G>MO/QAKES<G> n'etaient pas des freres de lait, mais 
des compagnons de jeu ou de petits domestiques du jeune 
Spartiate; ils jouissaient d'une demi-liberte. Les 
<G>NEODAMW/DEIS<G> avaient les droits civils ; ces 
nouveaux citoyens devaient faire un service militaire continu et il 
est vraisemblable que, si leur nombre augmente constamment a un 
certain moment, c'est que la guerre du Peloponnese entrainait la 
necessite d'affronter l'ennemi sur une aire plus vaste que celle des 
conflits traditionnels. Les <G>*BRASIDEI=OI<G> ont un statut 
tres comparable a celui des <G>NEODAMW/DEIS<G> et a celui 
des <G>PERI/OIKOI<G>.
LANG:ITA
APHRUB:Civilisation grecque et hellenistique 

Campagnano di Segni L.
Commento a Plutarco, Agide, 6,1-2
SCI
4
1978
28-37
Dans ce passage, <G>E)LEUQERI/A<G> doit s'entendre du 
mode de vie prescrit par Lycurgue et fonde sur le respect des lois, 
qui seules peuvent garantir la liberte de chacun. LANG:ESP
APHRUB:Plutarchus Chaeronensis

Castello C.
Humanitas e favor libertatis. Schiavi e liberti nel i secolo 
Sodalitas. Scritti in onore di Antonio Guarino 5
Bibl. di Labeo
8
Napoli
Jovene
1984-1985
2175-2189
LANG:ITA
APHRUB:Civilisation romaine

Cels-Saint-Hilaire J.
Les libertini, des mots et des choses
DHA
11
1985
331-379
La double interpretation generalement admise pour libertinus, qui 
qualifie a la fois le fils du libertus et le libertus lui-meme, resulte 
d'une sur-interpretation d'un texte polemique de Suetone (Claude, 
xxiv-xxv), contredit cependant par tous les usages du mot, et 
d'une interpretation reductrice qui en limite l'usage aux seuls 
esclaves affranchis, obscurcissant de ce fait la signification de 
nombre de documents. Libertinus peut qualifier tout citoyen de 
fraiche date, et tient une place de premier plan tant dans le 
vocabulaire de la controverse politique et de l'invective, que dans 
celui qui a trait au statut des personnes. LANG:FRA
APHRUB:Civilisation romaine

Cheyns A.
Le <G>QUMO/S<G> et la conception de l'homme dans l'epopee 
homerique
RBPh
61
1983
20-86
De simple force vitale inherente a l'individu, ce terme finit par 
designer la volonte de puissance du heros. Si celui-ci se distingue 
chez Homere par son aptitude a agir en toute liberte, le 
<G>QUMO/S<G> ne suffit pas a lui assurer la reussite. 
LANG:FRA
APHRUB:Homerus

Coreth E.
Vom Sinn der Freiheit
Innsbruck
Tyrolia-Verl.
1985
125 p.
LANG:DEU
APHRUB:Philosophie et histoire des idees 

Cova P. V.
Otium e libertas in Virgilio
RCCM
18
1976
275-283
L'otium n'est pas une evasion, mais une action morale rendue 
possible grace au prince, garant politique de la libertas. 
LANG:ITA
APHRUB:Vergilius Poeta

DeCelles D.
Divine prescience and human freedom in Augustine AugStud
8
1977
151-160
To Augustine knowledge and efficient agency are different and 
can coexist. Man has freedom because voluntary acts are not 
destroyed by God's knowledge that they shall occur. 
LANG:ENG
APHRUB:Augustinus (Aurelius)

Fabre G.
Libertus. Recherches sur les rapports patron-affranchi a la fin de 
la republique romaine
Coll. Ec. franc. de Rome
50
Paris
de Boccard
1981
xvi & 428 p. 50 ill. 3 cartes
Iura XXXIII 1982 144-152 Cosentini | Latomus XLIV 1985 650-
654 Straus | REA LXXXV 1983 340-343 Boulvert LANG:FRA
APHRUB:Civilisation romaine

Faust U.
Christo servire libertas est ; zum Freiheitsbegriff des Ambrosius 
von Mailand
Slazburger patrist. Stud.
3
Salzburg
Pustet
1983
175 p.
ThLZ CX 1985 750-752 Haendler
LANG:DEU
APHRUB:Ambrosius Mediolanensis

Gainzarain P.
Libertad de expresion y su antonimo, la limitacion, en la 
Constitucion de Atenas
Symbolae Ludovico Mitxelena septuagenario oblatae ed.
Melena J. L.
1
Veleia Suppl
1
Vitoria Inst. de Ciencias de la Antiguedad de la Univ. del Pais 
Vasco
1985
143-151
LANG:ESP
APHRUB:Xenophon Atheniensis

Gaiser K.
Autoritat und Liberalitat in den Erziehungstheorien der Antike 
Humanist. Bildung
2
Stuttgart
Hist. Inst. der Univ.
1979
1-96
Ein Durchgang durch die antike Literatur, ergibt, dass die 
Griechen drei bis heute instruktive Modelle zur Erklarung des 
Verhaltnisses von Autoritat und Freiheit entworfen haben. Das 
erste findet sich in der Staatstheorie des Thukydides, das zweite in 
der Philosophie Platons, das dritte in der griechischen 
Humanitatsidee. Alle zielen in gewisser Weise auf die 
ausgewogene Verbindung von Autoritat und Freiheit, die 
erfahrungsgemass schwer zu erreichen ist.
LANG:DEU
APHRUB:Civilisation grecque et hellenistique 

Gegenschatz E.
Zufall, Freiheit und Notwendigkeit ; ein 
philosophiegeschichtlicher Exkurs im Kommentar des Boethius 
zur Aristotelischen Schrift De interpretatione Erbe, das nicht 
veraltet
hrsg. von
Neukam P.
Dialog Schule-Wissensch. Klass. Spr. & Lit. 11
Munchen
Bayer. Schulbuch-Verl.
1979
5-61
LANG:DEU
APHRUB:Boethius

Jacques F.
Le privilege de liberte. Politique imperiale et autonomie 
municipale dans les cites de l'Occident romain (161-244) Coll. 
Ecole franc. de Rome
76
Paris
de Boccard
1984
xxxvi & 868 p. 9 cartes
LANG:FRA
APHRUB:Monde romain et byzantin

Knox B.
Die Freiheit des odipus
Faszination des Mythos Studien zu antiken und modernen 
Interpretationen
hrsg. von
Schlesier R.
Frankfurt
Stroemfeld
1985
433 p. ill.
125-143
LANG:DEU
APHRUB:Sophocles Maior

Maier Friedrich
Griechische Freiheit, nicht nur ein philologisches Problem. Zu 
einer Zentralstelle in Herodots Demaratos-Gesprach Festschrift 
fur Franz Egermann zu seinem 80. Geburtstag am 13. Februar 
1985
hrsg. von
Suerbaum W.
Maier Friedrich
unter mitarb. von
Thome G.
Munchen Inst. fur Klass. Philol.
1985
188 p.
9-18
Zu vii,103,4. Wahrend Herodot uber die Freiheit Griechenlands 
zur Zeit der Perserkriege schreibt, geht in seine Darstellung des 
Freiheitsbegriffes unwillkurlich etwas von der Diskussion ein, die 
zu seinen Lebzeiten daruber gefuhrt wird ; in der Theorie schlagt 
der Einfluss der eigenen Zeit durch. (Auch Anregung XXXI 1985 
223-228.)
LANG:DEU
APHRUB:Herodotus Historicus

Marrone M.
Sulle formule dei giudizi di liberta
Sodalitas. Scritti in onore di Antonio Guarino 6
Bibl. di Labeo
8
Napoli
Jovene
1984-1985
2947-2956
LANG:ITA
APHRUB:Droit romain et romano-byzantin

Martinez I. M.
Acatamiento al poder constituido y libertad religiosa en el 
pensamiento de Tertuliano
Studi in onore di Pietro Agostino d'Avack 3
Pubbl. Fac. di Giurisprud. Univ. di Roma 46-49
Milano
Giuffre
1976
35-51
LANG:ESP
APHRUB:Tertullianus

Meijer F. J.
Vrijheid in onderworpenheid. De Grieken in het imperium 
Romanum Lampas
18
1985
53-65
La domination romaine transforme chez les Grecs le concept 
d'<G>E)LEUQERI/A<G>, qui devient la liberte personnelle de 
tous les citoyens, independante de la situation politique. 
LANG:NED; res: ENG
APHRUB:Civilisation grecque et hellenistique 

Moutsopoulos E. A.
Le droit a la liberte
EEAth
27
1979
49-53
Concerne aussi la pensee grecque ancienne. LANG:FRA
APHRUB:Philosophie et histoire des idees 

O'Donaghue N. D.
Freedom in the City of God
Prudentia
11
1979
27-32
On voluntas and potestas in De civ. Dei V,9-11. LANG:ENG
APHRUB:Augustinus (Aurelius)

Pavan M.
Nerone e la liberta ai Greci
PP
39
1984
342-361
La declaration faite a Corinthe en 67 par laquelle Neron donnait la 
liberte a la Grece n'etait pas, comme on l'a souvent affirme, un 
simple coup de theatre ou un effet rhetorique, mais 
l'aboutissement d'une attitude romaine qui, malgre une certaine 
ambivalence des sentiments eprouves a l'egard des Grecs, avait 
valu a la Grece un traitement privilegie au sein des provinces. 
Conferant aux Grecs la liberte si longtemps desiree sans mettre en 
cause la superiorite politique de Rome, le geste de Neron fit sur 
les Grecs une impression forte et durable. LANG:ITA
APHRUB:Histoire romaine

Raaflaub K.
Die Entdeckung der Freiheit. Zur historischen Semantik und 
Gesellschaftsgeschichte eines politischen Grundbegriffs der 
Griechen
Vestigia
37
Munchen
Beck
1985
xxvi & 347 p.
LANG:DEU
APHRUB:Civilisation grecque et hellenistique 

Scarpa Bonazza Buora A.
Liberta e tirannide in un discorso siracusano di Diodoro Siculo 
Univ. degli studi di Padova
Pubbl. dell' Ist. di storia antica
14
Roma
L'Erma
1984
110 p. index
Aevum LIX 1985 128-129 Bearzot
LANG:ITA
APHRUB:Diodorus Siculus

Seif K. P.
Das Problem der Willensfreiheit in der Nikomachischen Ethik des 
Aristoteles
Th&Ph
54
1979
542-581
Zu den Begriffen willentliche Handlung, Charakter, 
Entscheidung. Aristoteles hat das Problem der Freiheit des 
Menschen hinsichtlich der innermenschlichen Ursachen durchaus 
gesehen, doch hat er es theoretisch nicht bewaltigt. LANG:DEU
APHRUB:Aristoteles

Sordi M.
Pax deorum e liberta religiosa nella storia di Roma CISA
11
1985
146-154
Origine et composantes du concept de pax deorum. Cette notion, 
au nom de laquelle les chretiens furent persecutes en diverses 
occasions, constitua paradoxalement a d'autres moments un 
principe de tolerance et de liberte religieuse (cf. par ex. l'edit de 
Milan).
LANG:ITA
APHRUB:Religion et mythologie romaine et italique 

Viansino G.
Studia Annaeana, II
Vichiana
8
1979
168-196
Pour la 1<C>rsup esup<C> partie de ces etudes, cf. Riv. Studi 
Salernitani V 1970 315 sq. Notes de critique textuelle et analyse 
des concepts de libertas et de servitus chez Seneque. LANG:ITA
APHRUB:Seneca Philosophus

Voelke A. J.
Interet de la raison et actualite des textes philosophiques anciens
EL
2
1979
49-66
Les textes philosophiques anciens doivent etre compris dans une 
double perspective : d'une part il faut mettre en evidence la 
permanence des systemes qu'ils proposent et d'autre part, prendre 
conscience de leur alterite et de l'actualite nouvelle que peuvent 
prendre des significations anciennes. Lecture de quelques 
fragments d'Epicure sur la liberte et le determinisme selon cette 
double exigence.
LANG:FRA
APHRUB:Philosophie

Weiss J. P.
Les notions de dominus et de seruus chez Valerien de Cimiez 
AFLNice
35
1979
297-301
Valerien propose a ses fideles, comme ligne de conduite, d'etre 
librement esclave de Dieu pour devenir un homme reellement libre 
et acceder a la dignite de fils de Dieu. Il reussit ainsi a concilier 
esclavage, liberte et honneurs en maintenant au depart un acte 
volontaire de l'homme, ce par quoi il rejoint le semi-pelagianisme.
LANG:FRA
APHRUB:Valerianus Cemelenensis

Wiedemann T. E. J.
The regularity of manumission at Rome
CQ
35
1985
162-175
Self-interest provided a strong incentive for promising a skilled 
slave his freedom ; it would make him work more willingly and 
efficiently. In addition, the owner realized a financial return on his 
investment through the slave's purchase of his freedom and did 
not risk losing his investment by the slave's death. LANG:ENG
APHRUB:Civilisation romaine

Wistrand E.
The Stoic opposition to the principate
StudClas
18
1979
93-101
Bien que favorables au principe monarchique, les Stoiciens furent 
des opposants redoutables, notamment pour Neron et pour 
Domitien. En effet, leurs vertus, libertas et constantia, 
apparaissaient aux yeux des empereurs comme insolentia et 
contumacia, ils adversaires, ne craignaient pas represailles les et 
refusaient de critiquaient severement la conduite immorale de leurs 
cooperer avec le tyrannus.
LANG:ENG
APHRUB:Histoire romaine

ETC.


D.L. Clayman
e-mail: dclayman@bklyn.bitnet

COPYRIGHT NOTE: Copyright remains with authors, but due reference should be made to this journal if any part of the above is later published elsewhere.

Electronic Antiquity Vol. 1 Issue 2 - July 1993
edited by Peter Toohey and Ian Worthington
antiquity-editor@classics.utas.edu.au
ISSN 1320-3606

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