VPIEJ-L Discussion Archives

April 1992

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Date:         Wed, 1 Apr 1992 09:16:19 -0500
Reply-To:     "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
Sender:       "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
From:         Chuck Bacon 
Subject:      Re: Review Guidelines
 
The Usenet model of publication has been enormously popular over the
last few years, and deserves attention.  Attention should be paid to
the various mechanisms which have worked well.  Mailing lists for
Bitnet and the Internet, because e-mail works; and uucp- and NNTP-based
newsgroups for those sites which can afford them.  Editorial policy,
ranging from an absence of editorial supervision (unmoderated
newsgroups) to newsgroups whose entire content is a single moderator's
output.  Total flow of Usenet news runs to several million bytes per
day, from well over a thousand newsgroups.  Thousands of host sites
provide news feeds, mostly for free.  And I have no idea how many
mailing lists exist.
 
Usenet newsgroups cannot charge a subscription fee, but mailing lists
can.  This will be the deciding factor in some cases.  But subscription
may be viewed with some suspicion, since there is very little cost to
electronic publication.  Editors' salaries would normally be borne by
the sponsoring academic institution, and authors would presumably be
happy simply to avoid page charges.  Reviewers would have to be
unpaid, except perhaps by the most prestigious E-journals.  I suppose
an electronic Scientific American would require a paid subscription,
although even that might be avoided through a judicious advertising
policy.
 
VPIEJ-L is itself a model of an electronic journal.  It is open, but
that's an editorial policy and not a technical restriction.  The fact
that it is limited to simple text (is EBCDIC a form of "ASCII?") is
simply an accommodation to today's limits.  Perhaps a variant mailing
list (E-journal) could be started, in a full multi-media format.  I
for one would certainly try to get up the software to experience this
virtuous reality!
 
	Chuck Bacon - crtb@helix.nih.gov
		ABHOR SECRECY	-   PROTECT PRIVACY
=========================================================================
Date:         Wed, 1 Apr 1992 12:09:45 CDT
Reply-To:     "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
Sender:       "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
From:         TZILLNER@WILS.WISC.EDU
Subject:      Preservation conference
 
This is a little peripheral to the purpose of this forum, although I
think that information about preservation of electronic serials is a
topic of interest.--TZ
 
 
CONFERENCE ANNOUNCEMENT:        "Electronic Preservation:
                          Preservation of Electronic Formats and
                           Electronic Formats for Preservation"
 
                           presented by The Wisconsin Preservation
                                        Program
 
                           (A Program of the Council for Wisconsin
                                       Libraries)
 
 
                                   June 3-4, 1992
                                Madison, Wisconsin
 
The following sessions will be offered beginning at 1 pm June 3rd and
continuing to 12 noon June 4th.
 
"The Role of Digital Technology in the Preservation of Research
Library Materials,"  Anne Kenney, Asst. Director for Preservation,
Cornell University.
 
"The Marquette Electronic Archives Project," Michael Pate, Asst.
Director for Public Services, Marquette University.
 
"The National Archives and Electronic Records for Preservation,"
Fynette Eaton, National Archives, Center for Electronic Records.
 
"Research Testing of Electronic Formats at the Library of Congress,"
Basil Manns, Imaging Engineer at the Library of Congress.
 
"CD Life Expectancy; The Disk That Will Not Die," Mark Arps,
Marketing Manager for 3M, CD-ROM Optical Recording Division.
 
"University Microfilms, Inc.," Don Willis, Director of Advanced
Technology.
 
Conference fee is $50 through May 15th and $75 thereafter.  For
registration materials or further information contact Kathy Schneider
at 608/263-4962 or electronically at schneid@macc.wisc.edu (Internet)
or scheid@wiscmacc (Bitnet).
 
(COWL is a not-for-profit corporation.  I have posted this to
several lists--I apologize if you have received multiple copies.)
 
Tom Zillner                    Telephone:  608/262-0047 (Voice)
New Technologies Coordinator               608/263-3684 (FAX)
Wisconsin Interlibrary Services ---------------------------------
464 Memorial Library            Internet:  tzillner@macc.wisc.edu
728 State Street                  Bitnet:  tzillner@wiscmacc
Madison, Wisconsin  53706
=========================================================================
Date:         Wed, 1 Apr 1992 14:49:42 EST
Reply-To:     "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
Sender:       "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
From:         Bill Kownacki 
Subject:      SGML
 
Just to add to John Unsworth's comments on SGML, it appears that the
Association of American Publishers, in conjunction with OCLC, has also
standardized on an application of SGML which I expect they will increasingly
use in their publishing activities.  They have published their own
_Standard for Electronic Manuscript Preparation and Markup_ (approved as
ANSI/NISO Z39.59-1988) plus "four accompanying guides with specialized
instructions for authors, for markup of mathematical formulas, and for
tabular material, as well as a reference manual."  The quote is from
material distributed by
                           EPSIG   (Electronic Publishing Special
                                    Interest Group)
                          c/o OCLC
                          6565 Frantz Road
                          Dublin, OH 43017-0702
                          (614) 764-6096
 
 
Please write or call them for info. on this standard and the guidebooks.
 
 
It seems to me that one of the chief advantages of SGML is that the text
does remain in ASCII format, although it can be easily formatted at the
point of printing or display, or just as easily sent into a database.
Many of the current projects which work from bit-mapped images of the
printed page or transmit the text in some encoded binary format may
only serve to keep the present publishing structure intact and make
electronic publishing only a profitable added-on business.  Who benefits
when text is encoded and impossible to extract?  Who loses?  Who benefits
from inexpensive, abundant flow of information to everyone who wants it
and who loses?  Perhaps with an open discussion of these issues, we
may be able to arrive at a model for a new scholarly publishing system
where libraries will not be increasing priced out of the market.
 
 ______________________________________________________________________
| ___      ___________                                                 |
| \  \   / ___   ___ / Bill Kownacki, Room 302 Newman Library          |
|  \  \/  /  /  /    Science Department, Virginia Tech Libraries       |
|   \   /   / /    P.O. Box 90001, Blacksburg Virginia 24062-9001      |
|    \/    /_/   Phone: 703-231-9237  E-Mail: kownacki@vtvm1.cc.vt.edu |
|______________________________________________________________________|
=========================================================================
Date:         Wed, 1 Apr 1992 16:42:50 EST
Reply-To:     "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
Sender:       "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
From:         Editors of PMC 
Subject:      Re: SGML
In-Reply-To:  Message of Wed, 1 Apr 1992 14:49:42 EST from 
 
I second Bill's request for a discussion of the interests served by and
vested in the various formats for archiving/formatting e-text.  Not that
the DoD is by any means an unproblematic party to have on one's side (though
it bears remembering that they're responsible for the existence of the
networks we use to have this discussion--we may already be inextricably
enmeshed in that web...).  I'd like to trot out my hobby horse here, while
we're at it:  universities and university libraries should take the opportunity
that is still available (until the nets are privatized) to establish a
scholarly-publishing cooperative, one which would cut out the middle-man
and make producers and consumers of academic text more self-sustaining.
WAIS is a model for this, in some ways (free access to data across the
nets); I can also imagine fee structures based on contributions to and
use of the cooperative's text pile, or a Marxist from-each-according-to-
his-abilities, to-each-according-to-his-needs model (maybe that's WAIS,
come to think of it).  At any rate, the two questions (who will publish
and how) seem related, to me.
 
John Unsworth
=========================================================================
Date:         Wed, 1 Apr 1992 17:58:59 EST
Reply-To:     "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
Sender:       "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
From:         MICHAEL STRANGELOVE <441495@ACADVM1.UOTTAWA.CA>
Subject:      Publishing Cooperative
In-Reply-To:  Message of Wed, 1 Apr 1992 16:42:50 EST from 
 
Following on John Unsworth's suggestion of the establishment of a
scholarly publishing cooperative between universities and university
libraries, I wonder if it those of us who are publishers of network
distributed academic serials should not start the ball rolling by
forming an international consortium that will serve to facilitate
the visability and legitimation of electronic publication in academia.
 
We have established some exciting and viable models that need full
legitimation - this will undoubtably be a slow process but would be
facilitated by an identifiable lobby group.  Perhaps support of such a
consortium could be found in EDUCOM, CNI, ARL and other bodies.
 
We need to ask, What will it take to get scholars willingly publishing
in etext (as opposed to hardcopy) and then take steps to supply the
correct environment.
 
 
Michael Strangelove
Department of Religious Studies
University of Ottawa
 
         BITNET: 441495@Uottawa
         Internet: 441495@Acadvm1.Uottawa.CA
         S-Mail: 177 Waller, Ottawa, Ontario, K1N 6N5 CANADA
         Voice:  (613) 237-2052
         FAX:    (613) 564-6641
=========================================================================
Date:         Wed, 1 Apr 1992 18:35:11 EST
Reply-To:     "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
Sender:       "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
From:         Guedon Jean-Claude 
Subject:      Re: Publishing Cooperative
In-Reply-To:  <9204012314.AA29749@condor.CC.UMontreal.CA>; from "MICHAEL
              STRANGELOVE" at Apr 1, 92 5:58 pm
 
>
> Following on John Unsworth's suggestion of the establishment of a
> scholarly publishing cooperative between universities and university
> libraries, I wonder if it those of us who are publishers of network
> distributed academic serials should not start the ball rolling by
> forming an international consortium that will serve to facilitate
> the visability and legitimation of electronic publication in academia.
>
> We have established some exciting and viable models that need full
> legitimation - this will undoubtably be a slow process but would be
> facilitated by an identifiable lobby group.  Perhaps support of such a
> consortium could be found in EDUCOM, CNI, ARL and other bodies.
>
> We need to ask, What will it take to get scholars willingly publishing
> in etext (as opposed to hardcopy) and then take steps to supply the
> correct environment.
>
>
> Michael Strangelove
> Department of Religious Studies
> University of Ottawa
>
>          BITNET: 441495@Uottawa
>          Internet: 441495@Acadvm1.Uottawa.CA
>          S-Mail: 177 Waller, Ottawa, Ontario, K1N 6N5 CANADA
>          Voice:  (613) 237-2052
>          FAX:    (613) 564-6641
>
I am in such a complete agreement with Michael's suggestion
that I feel he has taken words out of my own keyboard.
 
This said, one caveat: if it is international, it will
include languages other than English and strict ascii
is no longer sufficient to communicate. We, at Surfaces, attempt
to circumvent this problem by encoding our texts in a way that
makes them compatible with the networks (for example binhex in the
Macintosh world), but this requires a decoder for the readers
and this complicates matters quite a bit. Besides, all this is
nothing more than temporary tinkering (bricolage would say
Levy-Strauss, but that may sound a bit arrogant for our purpose here).
What we need is a generalized discussion on formats able to accomodate
all these accents dear to the French, Spanish and Italian speakers
(for example), as well as the umlauts and special diacriticals
used in a variety of European languages. Also, graphic formats
will have to be agreed upon. We use the Compuserve format called
GIF (now taken up by GEnie as well), but again, this may be
a form of temporary tinkering. More universal formats
such as ODA or SGML are coming up, but with uncertain futures
and PostScript seems to be developing a standard of its own
code-named Carrousel, but again we must wait and see.
Meanwhile, organizing ourselves on this topic and watching
what is coming along is crucial. let us do What Michael suggests
so rightly.
 
Cheers,
 
Jean-Claude Guedon (with an acute on the "e")
Litterature comparee (2 more acutes missing)
Universite de Montreal (2 more acutes missing)
Guedon@ere.umontreal.ca
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Date:         Wed, 1 Apr 1992 20:52:58 EST
Reply-To:     "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
Sender:       "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
From:         mgeller@ATHENA.MIT.EDU
Subject:      Publishing cooperatives and more
 
I'm intrigued and delighted by John Unsworth's and Michael
Strangelove's ideas about a scholarly publishing cooperative.  Michael
asks what we have to do to get scholars to publish "in etext".  I
think we have to get them to use it, and then they'll willingly
publish in the electronic medium.  University libraries need to access
and promote the availability of electronic formats and incorporate
these materials into our standard library research procedures.  At
MIT, and I'm sure at other libraries, we are grappling with how to
archive ejournals/ in a way that will make them most accessible and
most useful to our patrons.  This seems very much like we are all
reinventing the wheel, but we are all a bit nervous about lack of
access or delayed access to files scattered around the net.
 
The solution, in my mind, seems to be a collective archive.  Such an
archive would be located in one place.  Etexts could be contributed in
or manipulated to be in one standardized format.  And there would be a
built in confidence of continuity.  Individual libraries wouldn't have
to recreate the work of other libraries and could spend more energy on
promoting the use of this collective archive instead of creating
individual ones.
 
Publishing cooperatives sound like a wonderful prospective.
Collective archives sound like a great place to start.
 
Marilyn Geller
Serials Cataloguer     Editor,
MIT Libraries          Citations for Serial Literature
=========================================================================
Date:         Wed, 1 Apr 1992 20:52:02 EST
Reply-To:     "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
Sender:       "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
From:         James Powell 
Subject:      publishing cooperative
 
======================================================================== 54
 
Bill Kownacki said:
>electronic publishing only a profitable added-on business.  Who benefits
>when text is encoded and impossible to extract?  Who loses?  Who benefits
>from inexpensive, abundant flow of information to everyone who wants it
>and who loses?  Perhaps with an open discussion of these issues, we
>may be able to arrive at a model for a new scholarly publishing system
>where libraries will not be increasing priced out of the market.
 
Sort of off the subject but related I say:
It would be disappointing to see electronic journals costs much money.  At
this time we can simply intercept the data on the way to the press and
massage it into our e-journal format(s).  But then the provider has to have
a staff person to do whatever it takes to create the e-journal, and has to
archive the data and the costs start adding up.  So who absorbs these costs?
I like how things work in the unix world with the Free Software Foundation.
Why can't there be a Free Information Foundation?  Would libraries participate
in such an organization?
 
___    ____________  |---------------------------------------|
\..\  /..___...___/  |   James Powell                        |
 \..\/../  /../      |   Systems Support and Development     |
  \..../  /../       |      University Libraries, VPI & SU   |
   \../  /../        |      Blacksburg, VA   (703) 231-3336  |
    \/  /__/         |      FAX (703) 231-3694               |
Internet JPOWELL@VTVM1.CC.VT.EDU or JPOWELL@VTTCF.CC.VT.EDU  |
=========================================================================
Date:         Wed, 1 Apr 1992 20:55:29 EST
Reply-To:     "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
Sender:       "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
From:         James Powell 
Subject:      OCLC and publishing cooperative
 
I understood there was some interest on the part of OCLC in signing up
individual publishers to distribute their journals.  How does this fit
into the publishing cooperative that Michael Strangelove and others have
mentioned?  Are we on the verge of being too late to form such an
organization?
 
___    ____________  |---------------------------------------|
\..\  /..___...___/  |   James Powell                        |
 \..\/../  /../      |   Systems Support and Development     |
  \..../  /../       |      University Libraries, VPI & SU   |
   \../  /../        |      Blacksburg, VA   (703) 231-3336  |
    \/  /__/         |      FAX (703) 231-3694               |
Internet JPOWELL@VTVM1.CC.VT.EDU or JPOWELL@VTTCF.CC.VT.EDU  |
=========================================================================
Date:         Wed, 1 Apr 1992 21:48:07 EST
Reply-To:     "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
Sender:       "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
From:         MICHAEL STRANGELOVE <441495@ACADVM1.UOTTAWA.CA>
Subject:      Multilanguage Networking
In-Reply-To:  Message of Wed,
              1 Apr 1992 18:35:11 EST from 
 
Jean-Claude Guedon (or at least the low ascii version of him) as pointed
out the language barrier that will keep the Net from being truely
international for sometime to come.
 
Is anyone able to comment (using small words and short sentences) on
the UNICODE plans and its impact on the Net?  Will it lead to true
multilanguage communication on the Net by the end of this decade or is
this another generation's reality?
 
 
Michael Strangelove
Department of Religious Studies
University of Ottawa
 
         BITNET: 441495@Uottawa
         Internet: 441495@Acadvm1.Uottawa.CA
         S-Mail: 177 Waller, Ottawa, Ontario, K1N 6N5 CANADA
         Voice:  (613) 237-2052
         FAX:    (613) 564-6641
=========================================================================
Date:         Wed, 1 Apr 1992 22:15:40 EST
Reply-To:     "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
Sender:       "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
From:         Editors of PMC 
Subject:      Re: publishing cooperative
In-Reply-To:  Message of Wed, 1 Apr 1992 20:52:02 EST from 
 
The answer to James Powell's pertinent question about who absorbs the
costs of producing e-journals at the moment is:
 
the people who produce them
the institutions which host them
whatever grant funding one can scrape together
 
Editors have a professional interest in what they do, and in this regard
they are in a position no different than editors of print journals (most
of whom, in the humanities at least, do their work gratis, as "service
to the profession").  Institutions also often underwrite print journals
(again, at least in the humanities).  What we're asking for when we talk
about an information cooperative or consortium, is an increased institutional
commitment to fostering new e-journals, converting print journals to e-text,
and administering participation in the consortium.  The logical argument in
favor of universities doing this is that, at the bottom line, the cost of
this course of action will be lower than the cost of buying back the research
which they collectively produce from for-profit publishers.  It may not be
free, but if it is a non-profit enterprise, it must be cheaper.  Moreover,
when for-profit publishers get seriously involved in electronic publishing,
the cost (due to "value added" theories of pricing) is likely to be more
rather than less than the cost of buying journals from those same publishers
in print form.  If one produces the goods one consumes, it doesn't make
sense to send them off to someone else to be packaged and then buy them
back at a markup that exceeds the cost of the packaging.
 
Michael's suggestion that the CNI, ARL, etc. should take an active role
in fostering a lobby for this is logical, and in fact the ARL has so far
taken a very active role (hi Ann) in supporting e-journals.  I'm not sure
how much money these organizations can put towards such an effort, but so
far I do think the support of the ARL has paid off well.  Marilyn Geller's
idea that we need centralized archives makes sense, too.  I've just recently
argued the contrary with my co-editor, Eyal Amiran, because things like
WAIS (or Archie) make it possible to locate information in distributed
archives (granted, the user-interface for these tools could be improved);
but perhaps on-going distribution and library archiving are two separate
things:  if a network server disappears, or if an e-journals stops publishing,
we do still want researchers to be able to find the material published in
that journal ten, twenty, fifty years from now.  And perhaps a centralized
archive could also serve as the collection/circulation center for our
hypothetical information consortium.  But the real problem here is that
there's not a great deal of time to get all this in place; perhaps what
we need first of all is for established lobby groups like the ARL and
some of the others Michael mentions to approach university administrators
on a systematic basis and plead the case for a commitment of funds to
this endeavor.  I think there are something like 160 institutions which
belong to the ARL; $10,000 from each institution would add up to
a little more than $1.5 million.  I would think that would be enough
to get a fairly sizable ball rolling.  What percentage of library
serials budgets, annually, would $10,000 be, for the average ARL
library?  The price of a few science journals, I wager.
 
John Unsworth
Co-editor, _Postmodern Culture_
=========================================================================
Date:         Wed, 1 Apr 1992 21:52:25 CST
Reply-To:     "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
Sender:       "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
From:         Robin Cover 
Subject:      UNICODE and "multi-lingual communication"
 
Trying to use "small words and short sentences" --
 
I personally doubt whether UNICODE or any other multi-byte character
encoding standard should influence the current plans for archiving
and distribution of electronic journals.  Several reasons:
 
(1) It's not assured yet whether the battle for a single standard for
multi-byte character representation will be won soon. The ISO 10646 group
and UNICODE are attempting to cooperate, but the final results are not
clear.
 
*Definition: for those who don't know much about UNICODE and ISO 10646
work. ASCII is a fixed-width "single" byte character encoding in that
each "byte" is 8-bits.  The multi-byte character encoding standards
are trying to allow more characters, since one byte allows only 128
unique codes when 7 bits are used (as on current mail networks), and
only 256 characters when all 8 bits of the one byte are used.  A
two-byte wide "character" encoding would allow for about 65,000 unique
codes (2 raised to the 16th power rather than 2 to the 8th power).
UNICODE is a commercial consortium of principally US companies, and
it is publishing a standard for fixed-width characters; the two bytes
or 16 bits are enough for the world's primary alphabetic writing
systems, and for some other more complex writing systems.   ISO 10646
is a partially competitive effort (primarily by the Europeans) that uses a
variable-width multi-byte approach, which will allow for more than
65,000 unique codes -- necessary or not necessary, depending upon your
viewpoint.  The goal is to make UNICODE a subset of ISO 10646 so that
there will be compatibility in the common ranges. ISO 10646 has failed
one vote, and it's unclear what will happen between now and the next
vote.
 
(2) Even if UNICODE and ISO 10646 were merged today, it will be a long
time before we have compliant software on all our machines. Just
consider, for example, that even with the 8-bit "ASCII" standard
(actually, only 7 bits are really "standard"), we still have terrible
incompatibilities across national boundaries.  Even UUENCODE will not
work between here and the UK for some common network connections, since
character translations are not perfect.  Getting everyone to standardize
on the use of the multi-byte character encoding promises to be hard
enough (since there is room for user-defined codes), and development
of applications software will take a long time before the encoding
is democratized so that it's considered the "lowest common
denominator," which is the problem with even 7-bit ASCII today.
 
(3) More problematic yet is that UNICODE, while claiming to enable
multi-lingual communication, is insufficient of itself to encode
"language."  What it does is to internationalize a character inventory
so that we can see accented characters, and "foreign" characters on a
screen, but it does not encode linguistic knowledge.  ASCII has the
same problem: we don't know what "die" means until we know what
language the word is "in."  I would argue, therefore, that any
standard format used in a major project (such as Michael and others
propose here) must enable an encoding that allows representation
of fundamental kinds of knowledge about text, like
"what language it is in."  UNICODE, ISO10646 or any other character
code standards may be used -- it does not matter which one.  What will
matter, in terms of having a true knowledge base rather than just a
few gigabytes of digital "stuff," is whether the texts are given basic
structural and linguistic description.  A hugh job lies ahead of
UNICODE or those who will implement UNICODE to determine how the
thousands of new characters will be used in (real) "text" files to
represent multi-lingual TEXT.  For now, UNICODE just gives a greater
inventory of displayable characters, and rudimentary algorithms for
controlling the direction of writing.  In declining to address the
issue of textual features (they are only partially consistent and
successfulin this claim), they leave a huge gap to be filled, in various
non-standard ways, by applications developers.  Maybe not such a coup
after all.
 
In a word: the discussion about electronic libraries and archive
centers can continue (imho) without reference too the standards for
character encoding.
 
(I managed to say all that without referring to SGML - amazing!)
 
Robin Cover
 
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Robin Cover                BITNET:   zrcc1001@smuvm1     ("one-zero-zero-one")
6634 Sarah Drive           Internet: robin@utafll.uta.edu     ("uta-ef-el-el")
Dallas, TX  75236  USA     Internet: zrcc1001@vm.cis.smu.edu
Tel: (1 214) 296-1783      Internet: robin@ling.uta.edu
FAX: (1 214) 841-3642      Internet: robin@txsil.sil.org
=============================================================================
=========================================================================
Date:         Wed, 1 Apr 1992 20:24:52 -0800
Reply-To:     "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
Sender:       "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
From:         bobk@DECIDE.COM
Subject:      Re: Publishing cooperatives and more
 
>I'm intrigued and delighted by John Unsworth's and Michael
>Strangelove's ideas about a scholarly publishing cooperative.  Michael
>asks what we have to do to get scholars to publish "in etext".  I
>think we have to get them to use it, and then they'll willingly
>publish in the electronic medium.  University libraries need to access
>and promote the availability of electronic formats and incorporate
>these materials into our standard library research procedures.  At
>MIT, and I'm sure at other libraries, we are grappling with how to
>archive ejournals/ in a way that will make them most accessible and
>most useful to our patrons.  This seems very much like we are all
>reinventing the wheel, but we are all a bit nervous about lack of
>access or delayed access to files scattered around the net.
>
>The solution, in my mind, seems to be a collective archive.  Such an
>archive would be located in one place.  Etexts could be contributed in
>or manipulated to be in one standardized format.  And there would be a
>built in confidence of continuity.  Individual libraries wouldn't have
>to recreate the work of other libraries and could spend more energy on
>promoting the use of this collective archive instead of creating
>individual ones.
>
>Publishing cooperatives sound like a wonderful prospective.
>Collective archives sound like a great place to start.
>
>Marilyn Geller
>Serials Cataloguer     Editor,
>MIT Libraries          Citations for Serial Literature
 
 
Just an additional thought. There is software being developed by THINKING
Machines called WAIS. This stands for Wide Area Information Server. It is a
mechanism to allowed easy access to materials distributed over the
internet. A collective archive will ALWAYS run out of space in an
environment where scholarship is active. Even the library of Congress does
not have a copy of everything. A distributed solution is much better if you
want a complete collection.
 
WAIS Software is available from think.com on the internet via anonymous
ftp.
 
Thanks/Peace/Bob
 
Electronic Supplement Editor
The Mathematica Journal
=========================================================================
Date:         Thu, 2 Apr 1992 08:51:02 EST
Reply-To:     "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
Sender:       "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
From:         Stu Weibel 
Subject:      inexpensive, abundant flow of information
 
The change in the nature of publishing, from object-based, paper
ownership to content-based, electronic access will force us to
understand  that information flow, is not inexpensive now, nor will it
be in the future.
 
One is easily lulled into believing that it is inexpensive because
the marginal cost of using it is low or zero - we visit the library, or
have our graduate students do so for us, or, for the lucky few, call
them and have the information delivered, never once reaching for our
wallets.
 
Ask a library administrator how inexpensive information is, however,
and a new perspective emerges.  Estimates of the cost of per item usage
usually start at $10 and go up.  The validity of such figures is
bolstered by the willingness of many administrators to shift from
buying the item to paying that much or more for access to an article via
 interlibrary loan or a document delivery service.
 
Don't expect free electronic journals - those that are free now are only
so because their real costs are buried in someone's budget, and that
someone generally does not think of themselves as a publisher.
 
The great unanswered question is not whether electronic publishing will
prevail but how the transition will occur and how moneys which now support
a flow of paper will be redirected to support a flow of electrons. In
both streams, however, someone will pay for editing, for selection, for
cataloging, and for the systems necessary to support access, whether
they are shelves or computer networks.  In the long run, digital systems
will probably reduce these costs below what they are for production of paper
journals, and this factor alone will force us into the electronic domain.
The transition is likely to be rocky.
 
The good news is that information is cheap compared to the consequences
of not having it.  Communities such as this list represents must work
to assure the funding necessary to support this flow.
 
Stuart Weibel
Senior Research Scientist
OCLC Office of Research
stu@rsch.oclc.org
=========================================================================
Date:         Thu, 2 Apr 1992 08:49:59 EST
Reply-To:     "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
Sender:       "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
From:         James Powell 
Subject:      archives
 
Here are the contents of the VPIEJ-L archives so far.  I hope to add more
items soon.  Please feel free to send suggestions to me at
JPOWELL@VTVM1.CC.VT.EDU
 
*******************
* FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS files realtes to E-Journal Publishing
*******************
  POSTSCRI FAQ        ALL OWN V      76   306 92/03/27 09:04:41
*******************
* Bibliographies - various subjects
*******************
  EJ-BIB   TXT        ALL OWN V      79    83 92/03/27 16:07:12
  SGML     BIBLIO     ALL OWN V      70  3004 92/04/02 08:29:04
 
*  NOTEBOOK archives for the list
 
___    ____________  |---------------------------------------|
\..\  /..___...___/  |   James Powell                        |
 \..\/../  /../      |   Systems Support and Development     |
  \..../  /../       |      University Libraries, VPI & SU   |
   \../  /../        |      Blacksburg, VA   (703) 231-3336  |
    \/  /__/         |      FAX (703) 231-3694               |
Internet JPOWELL@VTVM1.CC.VT.EDU or JPOWELL@VTTCF.CC.VT.EDU  |
=========================================================================
Date:         Thu, 2 Apr 1992 08:44:52 EST
Reply-To:     "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
Sender:       "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
From:         "Thomas B. Hickey" 
Subject:      Re:  DVI for e-journals
 
The AAAS/OCLC Online Journal of Current Clinical Trials is stored (and
transmitted) in TeX DVI format, although the SGML is also available to
users.  We used DVI for its archival nature, compactness and the fact
that we use TeX for formatting.  Selecting and copying from the
displayed image is supported (the result is straight ASCII).
 
 
Thom Hickey,
OCLC
=========================================================================
Date:         Thu, 2 Apr 1992 12:26:09 EST
Reply-To:     "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
Sender:       "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
From:         Stu Weibel 
Subject:      Re:  OCLC and publishing cooperative
 
OCLC has made a strategic corporate committment to participating in the
emergence of electronic publishing, as evidenced by our collaboration
with AAAS on the introduction of the Online Journal of Current Clinical
Trials.  We certainly hope and expect this component of our mission to
grow and to play a significant role in the development of this important
trend in scholarly publishing.
 
The following computations illustrate the scope of the problem of
mounting a large electronic document store.  Opinions will differ on
the practicality of such a store, but rapidly decreasing storage costs
clearly mitigates in favor of the feasibility of such a store in the
near future.
 
The following figures are based on estimates derived from the CORE
project, and estimates of serial sizes based on other OCLC studies.
CORE (Chemistry Online Retrieval Experiment) is a collaborative
electronic library experiment (about which I will post more if there is
interest).  These are *rough* estimates, but should provide a good
flavor of the problem:
 
   Page Storage Requirements Estimates, CORE database:
 
   Data Format                                             Storage
 
   SGML marked-up text                                   8.5 Kbytes
   SGML marked-up text and extracted graphics             10 Kbytes
   Text, graphics, and indexing                           25 Kbytes
   Page images (G4, 300 dpi Compressed bitmaps)          100 Kbytes
 
  A "Starter" Electronic Journal Database:
 
  7 issues per year * 14 articles per issue     = 98 articles/journal-year (1)
  10,000 journals * 98 articles/journal-year    = 980,000 articles/year
  5.5 pages per article * 980,000 articles/year = 5,390,000 pages/year (2)
 
  Notes:
  (1) estimates based on 10,000 most commonly held journals in the OCLC Online
      Union Catalog
  (2) average based on CORE data (ACS journals)
 
Text, graphics, and indexing for 1 year of 10,000 journals works out
to about 135 Gigabytes.  If you want bitmaps of the page images, multiply
by 5 (about 675 Gigabytes).  The page images will not be necessary for
de novo electronic publishing, but probably will be necessary for archival
republishing.
 
 In summary:
 
   1 Terabyte is roughly equivalent to 75,000 journal-years of new
   electronic publishing and about 15,000 journal-years of archival
   republishing.
 
Stuart Weibel
OCLC
=========================================================================
Date:         Thu, 2 Apr 1992 13:54:46 EST
Reply-To:     "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
Sender:       "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
From:         Paul Weiss 
Subject:      SGML and UMLS
 
The following is a response to Hannah King's request for information about
SGML and UMLS  It is from Betsy Humphreys, Deputy Assistant Director for
Library Operations, National Library of Medicine.  She is the UMLS Project
Officer.
 
 
          The SGML and the UMLS are addressing different issues and
          are not duplicative or competitive.
          SGML (Standard Generalized Mark-up Language) is a system for
          flexible and unambiguous tagging of the elements of
          machine-readable documents, including bibliographic elements
          (e.g., title, author's names), textual elements (e.g.,
          chapter headings, sentences, paragraphs), and graphic
          elements (e.g., special symbols, charts).  The goal of
          SGML is to enable computer programs to identify correctly
          and therefore process appropriately, for whatever purpose,
          the elements of documents, irrespective of the system on
          which they were created.  SGML deals with the format of a
          document and is independent of the meaning of its content.
 
          UMLS (Unified Medical Language System) is focused on
          reducing the information access problems caused by the
          variety of terms used in different machine-readable
          databases and by different users to express the same
          biomedical concepts.  The UMLS project is producing
          knowledge sources that can be used by computer programs
          to determine the meaning of a user's query, to identify
          databases likely to contain information relevant to the
          query, and to convert the user's terms into terms
          appropriate for searching those databases.  The UMLS deals
          primarily with content, i.e., the variety of ways the same
          concept can be expressed and the distribution of relevant
          information among many different information sources.
 
 
Paul J. Weiss
Systems Librarian, Office of the Chief, Technical Services Division
National Library of Medicine
=========================================================================
Date:         Thu, 2 Apr 1992 17:03:46 EST
Reply-To:     "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
Sender:       "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
From:         "Betsy N. Kiser" 
Subject:      Re:  SGML
 
The address given for EPSIG (to find out more about SGML) was correctly posted
in Bill Kownacki's message but the phone is incorrect.  The number given:
614-764-6096 is our fax number.  The phone number is 614-764-6195.
Betsy Kiser
Manager, Electronic Publishing Special Interest Group
=========================================================================
Date:         Thu, 2 Apr 1992 18:00:00 EST
Reply-To:     "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
Sender:       "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
From:         "Gay N. Dannelly" 
Subject:      Re: OCLC and publishing cooperative
 
     The Committee for Institutional Cooperation's networking arm,
CICNET, will be establishing a cooperative electronic journal archive
based on those titles received by its members.  CIC includes the Big
Ten, University of Chicago, Penn State and the University of Illinois
Chicago.  CICNET, the regions network access to the internet, will
provide the automation expertise.  The standard collection development
decisions made by each library system in those institutions listed will
provide the content.  Each title will be cleared by the subscribing
institution with the publisher for inclusion in the database.  All
free journals will be available for anonymous ftp, based on current
plans, but journals that are actually purchased will probably differ
depending on their specific requirements.  The project has just
been approved by the CICNET Board and is in the planning stages.  If
anyone has questions, I would be happy to try to answer them and I
will keep the listserv posted on progress.
                        Gay N. Dannelly, Collection Development Officer
                        The Ohio State University Libraries
                        Chair, CIC Collection Development Officers
=========================================================================
Date:         Thu, 2 Apr 1992 22:40:00 EST
Reply-To:     "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
Sender:       "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
From:         BURNET@ZODIAC.BITNET
Subject:      Re: Publishing Cooperative
 
Michael Strangelove writes:  "We need to ask, What will it take to get
scholars willingly publishing in etext (as opposed to hardcopy) and
then take steps to supply the correct environment." I would think that
the answer is fairly simple--recognition by their institutions of
etexts as an equivalent form of publication to print texts for
in the tenure and promotion process.
 
Kathleen Burnett
Dept. of Library & Information Studies
School of Communication, Information & Library Studies
Rutgers University
burnet@zodiac.rutgers.edu  "Yes, that's burnet with just one t.
Some battles aren't worth fighting!"
=========================================================================
Date:         Fri, 3 Apr 1992 09:07:56 EST
Reply-To:     "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
Sender:       "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
From:         Stu Weibel 
Subject:      models for electronic [re]publishing
 
A question from a reader about my previous note on large document stores
prompts me to clarify my conception of the categories of electronic
publishing and the differences among them.
 
"De Novo" Electronic Publishing:
 
  Materials published primarily in electronic format from the start; may
  exist in print, but only secondarily, and probably printed on-demand
  by the user if at all.  AAAS/OCLC _Online Journal of Current Clinical
  Trials_ is an example.  The notion of "page images" is obsolete
  in this medium, thus only text/markup/indexing/graphics must be stored.
 
Republished material based on  digital typography files.
 
  Original typography files are used to generate database files to
  support appropriate access and retrieval systems; essentially, a
  database of previously published text, extracted graphics, and page
  images.  Page images are important to have as the definitive version
  of the data because of the possibility of errors in translating and
  representing data from the original typography files. The CORE
  project, involving the republication of all 20 American Chemical
  Society journals and the associated Chemical Abstracts indexing since
  1980, is an example.  Requires storage of text/markup/indexing/graphics
  (~25 Kbytes/page) and page images (~100 Kbytes/page).
 
Image archives of previously published materials.
 
  The paper past we must drag along with us.  Microform archives are
  the model, and simple digitization results in a "digital microform"
  model, the sole advantage of which is relative ease of distribution.
  A more advanced model is to perform optical character recognition on
  these images and use the imperfect files that result to improve
  access to these images.  Requires storage of text/markup/indexing/graphics
  (~25 Kbytes/page) and page images (~100 Kbytes/page).  OCLC's ADAPT
  Project is a representative example of this approach.
 
 
Stuart Weibel
OCLC
=========================================================================
Date:         Fri, 3 Apr 1992 09:06:59 EST
Reply-To:     "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
Sender:       "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
From:         Joseph Raben 
Subject:      Re: OCLC and publishing cooperative
In-Reply-To:  Message of Thu, 2 Apr 1992 18:00:00 EST from 
 
Of course your project to collect and disseminate e-journals is
exciting news for those of us who are on the producing end. Can you tell
me what we are expected to do next to support and participate in your
endeavor?
 
Joseph Raben   City University of New York
=========================================================================
Date:         Thu, 2 Apr 1992 09:08:30 -0800
Reply-To:     "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
Sender:       "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
From:         bobk@DECIDE.COM
Subject:      Re: inexpensive, abundant flow of information
 
>The change in the nature of publishing, from object-based, paper
>ownership to content-based, electronic access will force us to
>understand  that information flow, is not inexpensive now, nor will it
>be in the future.
>
....
>
>Don't expect free electronic journals - those that are free now are only
>so because their real costs are buried in someone's budget, and that
>someone generally does not think of themselves as a publisher.
>
>The great unanswered question is not whether electronic publishing will
>prevail but how the transition will occur and how moneys which now support
>a flow of paper will be redirected to support a flow of electrons. In
>both streams, however, someone will pay for editing, for selection, for
>cataloging, and for the systems necessary to support access, whether
>they are shelves or computer networks.  In the long run, digital systems
>will probably reduce these costs below what they are for production of paper
>journals, and this factor alone will force us into the electronic domain.
>The transition is likely to be rocky.
>
...
>
>Stuart Weibel
>Senior Research Scientist
>OCLC Office of Research
>stu@rsch.oclc.org
 
Fundamentally, all that Stuart writes is accurate, but subject to creative
accounting. In particular, I would like to point to USENET and the Free
Software Foundation. Although, TANSTAFL (there ain't no such thing as a
free lunch) is true in absolute terms, I object to the phrase "their real
costs are buried". People who run businesses, universities, etc. pay for
tools to perform their daily tasks. Computers are among them. So is the
cost of developing new software.
 
But... There are computer simulation experiments which show that if you
allow organisms to cooperate they are better off, on average, than if they
are totally selfish. USENET works through the cooperation of the people on
the net. My machine is used to its full power for only a small percentage
of the time it is running. Because I find exchanging information to be
personally rewarding, (and becasue the machine will be running anyway), I
am happy to provide others with connections, just as someone has provided
me with one. Some accountant might make up a rule which says that I should
allocate some of the cost of purchase, etc. to "supporting USENET". But
essentially, this view says that my personal value system is irrelevant to
the accounting for cost. I disagree. If I have more food than I can eat and
give it to a homeless person, I don't think I have spent money on that
person. I have avoided wasting a precious asset and helps create a valuable
future. The same is true of computer power.
 
As to the software needed, the FSF provides a similar accounting model.
Lastly, many people are so enamoured of their work in life that it is their
hobby as well. Once again, the accounting for this time is not at all
clear.
 
In short, personal values and the mental model of the exhange is important
to the accounting. If we narrowly look at electronic publishing as a
commercial operation, I believe we will drag ourselves into a swamp. We
have a tool which helps us all become more than the sum of our individual
efforts. Lets recognize that in the way we think and talk about our joint
enterprise.
 
Thanks (Sorry to get on my soap box, this was surely much more pompous than
it needed to be, but I'm too lazy to edit it.)
 
Peace/Bob
 
The Mathematica Journal
Electronic Supplement Editor
=========================================================================
Date:         Fri, 3 Apr 1992 13:45:49 PST
Reply-To:     "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
Sender:       "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
From:         David Robison 
Subject:      Re: Publishing cooperatives and more
 
For safety's sake, archives should be duplicated in more than one
location.  If a natural (or unnatural for that matter) strikes
one site, the data can be restrieved and restored from other
sites.
 
David F.W. Robison                   Internet: drobison@library.berkeley.edu
Editor, Current Cites                  Bitnet: drobison@ucblibra
Library Technology Watch Program        Voice: (510)642-7600
UC Berkeley Library                       Fax: (510)643-7891
Berkeley, CA 94720
=========================================================================
Date:         Sat, 4 Apr 1992 13:56:33 EST
Reply-To:     "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
Sender:       "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
Comments:     Resent-From: James Powell 
Comments:     Originally-From: EJOURNAL@ALBNYVMS.BITNET
From:         James Powell 
Subject:      CICNET/OCLC e-journal collection
 
From: EJOURNAL@ALBNYVMS.BITNET
Subject: e-journal collection/archive
To: gnd@OHSTMVSA.BITNET, bec@ALBNYVM1.BITNET
Cc: vpiej-l@VTVM1.BITNET, jqrqc@CUNYVM.BITNET
Message-id: <916185A72040FC61@albnyvms.BITNET>
X-Envelope-to: bec@ALBNYVM1.BITNET, jqrqc@CUNYVM.BITNET, gnd@OHSTMVSA.BITNET,
 vpiej-l@VTVM1.BITNET
X-VMS-To: IN%"gnd@ohstmvsa"
X-VMS-Cc: IN%"vpiej-l@vtvm1",IN%"jqrqc@cunyvm",TLL41,BEC
 
Dear Gay Dannelly - The CICNET initiative is exciting; please keep _EJournal_
up to date!
        Unless I hear soon that you would rather I didn't, I shall share your
announcement with the Association of Electronic Scholarly Journals.
        Can you summarize your planning in regard to the challenge of
monitoring / controlling rights to copy materials available via anonymous ftp?
        If you have a document that lays out the rationale for your initiative
(and perhaps addresses policy questions and technical questions, including
"user-friendliness"), _EJournal_ would very much like to consider publishing
it.
        Best,   Ted Jennings   (editor, _EJournal_)
 
___    ____________  |---------------------------------------|
\..\  /..___...___/  |   James Powell                        |
 \..\/../  /../      |   Systems Support and Development     |
  \..../  /../       |      University Libraries, VPI & SU   |
   \../  /../        |      Blacksburg, VA   (703) 231-3336  |
    \/  /__/         |      FAX (703) 231-3694               |
Internet JPOWELL@VTVM1.CC.VT.EDU or JPOWELL@VTTCF.CC.VT.EDU  |
=========================================================================
Date:         Sat, 4 Apr 1992 15:45:44 EST
Reply-To:     "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
Sender:       "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
From:         James Powell 
Subject:      SGML and WP!
 
If you are interested in seeing WordPerfect support SGML, write to the
address listed at the end of this note.  This letter from WordPerfect was
recently posted to the Usenet group COMP.TEXT.SGML.
---------------------------------------------------
[beginning of letter]
Because there are so many ways computers manage data, standard methods
of storing, accessing, and interchanging information is of major
importance to many organizations.  Consequently, government, business,
and multinational institutions have helped sponsor, research and
develop standards for compound documents.  The issues are complex and
evolving and WordPerfect Corporation is keeping a close watch on these
developments.
 
WordPerfect welcomes these new standards.  Currently under development
are tools which will allow users to manually tag WordPerfect documents
so they can be converted and validated to SGML format.  As we get
closer to releasing this product, we will inform you of the
approximate time it will become available.  (We are maintaining a
database of companies who are interested in our efforts with regard to
these standards.)
 
As the Product Manager for this product and Unix-based products at
WordPerfect Corporation, I would like to take this opportunity to
solicit your input and suggestions regarding the SGML product
currently under development.  Within most organizations, various
computer platforms are represented, many of which are used for
selective functions.  It is my interest to learn on which platforms
you and your organization are most interested in having and using an
SGML product.  I also welcome your suggestions and statement of
requirements regarding this product.  Please take a moment to send me
a note about your specific platforms of interest.
 
Thank you for your time and input.  This type of feedback will greatly
enhance our ability to bring you a quality product for your target
platform in a timely manner.
 
Sincerely,
 
Brent D. McKinley
Product Manager/Unix Products Division
 
Please send all correspondence to:
 
WordPerfect Corporation
1555 N. Technology Way
Mail Stop C-213
Orem, UT  84057
 
[end of letter]
 
___    ____________  |---------------------------------------|
\..\  /..___...___/  |   James Powell                        |
 \..\/../  /../      |   Systems Support and Development     |
  \..../  /../       |      University Libraries, VPI & SU   |
   \../  /../        |      Blacksburg, VA   (703) 231-3336  |
    \/  /__/         |      FAX (703) 231-3694               |
Internet JPOWELL@VTVM1.CC.VT.EDU or JPOWELL@VTTCF.CC.VT.EDU  |
=========================================================================
Date:         Sat, 4 Apr 1992 16:09:32 EST
Reply-To:     "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
Sender:       "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
From:         James Powell 
Subject:      TEX FAQ
 
The Frequently Asked Questions file for the TeX format are now stored in
the VPIEJ-L archive.  To see the archive contents, send a message to
LISTSERV@VTVM1.CC.VT.EDU (Internet) or LISTSERV@VTVM1 (BITNET):
     INDEX VPIEJ-L
To retrieve a file, send a GET command:
     GET  
 
___    ____________  |---------------------------------------|
\..\  /..___...___/  |   James Powell                        |
 \..\/../  /../      |   Systems Support and Development     |
  \..../  /../       |      University Libraries, VPI & SU   |
   \../  /../        |      Blacksburg, VA   (703) 231-3336  |
    \/  /__/         |      FAX (703) 231-3694               |
Internet JPOWELL@VTVM1.CC.VT.EDU or JPOWELL@VTTCF.CC.VT.EDU  |
=========================================================================
Date:         Mon, 6 Apr 1992 19:17:57 EDT
Reply-To:     "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
Sender:       "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
From:         Guedon Jean-Claude 
Subject:      Re: Publishing Cooperative
In-Reply-To:  <9204030341.AA08869@condor.CC.UMontreal.CA>; from
              "BURNET%ZODIAC.bitnet@VTVM1.CC.VT.EDU" at Apr 2, 92 10:40 pm
 
>
> Michael Strangelove writes:  "We need to ask, What will it take to get
> scholars willingly publishing in etext (as opposed to hardcopy) and
> then take steps to supply the correct environment." I would think that
> the answer is fairly simple--recognition by their institutions of
> etexts as an equivalent form of publication to print texts for
> in the tenure and promotion process.
>
> Kathleen Burnett
> Dept. of Library & Information Studies
> School of Communication, Information & Library Studies
> Rutgers University
> burnet@zodiac.rutgers.edu  "Yes, that's burnet with just one t.
> Some battles aren't worth fighting!"
>
And I believe that in order to achieve this objective two minimal
conditions (and perhaps more) must be fulfilled:
 
1. Refereeing must be just as rigorous, if not more than in the
case of printed journals;
 
2. Acceptance of the materials by standard bibliophies in the
corresponding discipline.
 
Integrity of the text is another important matter for the author,
but rather than protecting the text (which would prevent quoting
it directly through a cut and paste procedure, for example),
being able to verify the integrity of the text is important.
 
From the viewpoint of the person quoting, the possibility of using
usual parameters (volume number, number, date of publication,
page numbers) is obviously crucial too.
 
There may be more, but these points do cover, I believe, the essential.
 
Jean-Claude Guedon
Litterature comparee
Universite de Montreal
=========================================================================
Date:         Tue, 7 Apr 1992 08:14:00 EDT
Reply-To:     "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
Sender:       "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
From:         Gail McMillan 
Subject:      Electronic journal access
 
What about Usenet?
 
Having experienced it only once, accessing Usenet seemed very difficult from my
 campus mainframe (VM at VPI&SU).  In theory, I understand that if an e-journal
 is 'mounted' on Usenet, then one does not have to subscribe to the e-journal
to have access to issues and articles to read, print, or download to diskette.
 
Is Usenet more difficult to access than INFO on VM1?  Is it someone's responsi-
bility to see that every issue of Psycoloquy, for example, is available?  I'm
asking from an archival point of view but also as a librarian who wants
unrestricted and timely access to electronic journals.  Is there a point in
time (even a theoretical one) when back issues will not be as readily avail-
able as current issues on Usenet?
 
Are any libraries advocating access through Usenet rather than more controlled,
online-on-campus access to electronic journals?
 
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
.........................Gail McMillan........................
___....____________......Serials Team Leader..................
\  \../  ___   ___/.........University Libraries VPI&SU.......
.\  \/  /../  /.............Blacksburg, VA - (703) 231-9252...
..\    /../  /..............FAX (703) 231-3694................
...\  /../  /.................................................
....\/../__/..........INTERNET.....gmcmilla@VTVM1.CC.VT.EDU....
......................BITNET.......gmcmilla@VTVM1.............
=========================================================================
Date:         Tue, 7 Apr 1992 09:08:06 -0400
Reply-To:     "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
Sender:       "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
From:         Chuck Bacon 
Subject:      Re: Electronic journal access
 
Usenet is an anarchic system for remote access to all kinds of rapidly
changing data.  It was not designed for archival use.  There is almost
nothing in even the deepest and oldest archives on Uunet, for instance,
which is more than ten years old.
 
Involvement by the management of some of the archiving companies, like
Uunet, would do the library community some good (would somebody go bug
Rick Adams).  Electronic archiving should become an important industry;
it is not, at present.  The safest and best archives still seem to be
on paper and film.
 
	Chuck Bacon - crtb@helix.nih.gov
		ABHOR SECRECY	-   PROTECT PRIVACY
=========================================================================
Date:         Wed, 8 Apr 1992 00:20:59 EDT
Reply-To:     "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
Sender:       "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
From:         Stevan Harnad 
Subject:      Usenet archiving
 
To: AESJ-L@ALBNYVM1.BITNET (Assoc El Sch Jnls), arachnet@uottawa.BITNET
    (Arachnet, EJ list), cnidir-l@unmvm.BITNET (cni list ej),
        lstown-l@indycms.BITNET (Bitnet List Owners),
        moderators@cs.purdue.edu, pacs-l@uhupvm1.BITNET
    (Pacls-l list), serialst@uvmvm.BITNET (Lib Serials list),
Date: Tue, 7 Apr 92 20:56:36 -0400
From: tale@uunet.uu.net (David C Lawrence)
 
 > > Chuck Bacon [crtb@HELIX.NIH.GOV] wrote:
 > >
 > > >>"Usenet is an anarchic system for remote access to all kinds of rapidly
 > > >>changing data. It was not designed for archival use. There is almost
 > > >>nothing in even the deepest and oldest archives on Uunet, for instance,
 > > >>which is more than ten years old.
 > > >>
 > > >>"Involvement by the management of some of the archiving companies, like
 > > >>Uunet, would do the library community some good (would somebody go but
 > > >>Rick Adams).  Electronic archiving should beocme an important industry;
 > > >>it is not, at present . The safest and best archives still seem to be
 > > >>on paper and film."
 
The archivists at UUNET are definitely interested in building a better
archive.  Coincidentally, today I suggested that we should attend some
sort of library seminars to learn more about good categorisation.  At
some point I am sure I (on behalf of the company or not) will be
attending such a thing to the end of making our archives better.
 
It is worth pointing out that this isn't as simple a matter as
attempting to implement an existing library categorisation scheme like
the Dewey Decimal System.  There is a distinct bias in the sort of
archive service which UUNET provides, and such a system does not
adequately help the management and use of that service.
 
David Lawrence                                          uunet archives
=========================================================================
Date:         Wed, 8 Apr 1992 08:42:54 EDT
Reply-To:     "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
Sender:       "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
From:         GMCMILLA@VTVM1.BITNET
Subject:      Re: Usenet archiving
In-Reply-To:  Message of Wed,
              8 Apr 1992 00:20:59 EDT from 
 
I give up--Are Usenet and Uunet the same thing?
=========================================================================
Date:         Wed, 8 Apr 1992 15:48:13 +0100
Reply-To:     "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
Sender:       "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
From:         Michel Eytan LILoL 
Subject:      Re: Usenet archiving
 
	I give up--Are Usenet and Uunet the same thing?
 
There are *many* nets, their union is the Net. Here is some more:
 
--------------------begin insert------------------------------------------
 
From: spaf@cs.purdue.EDU (Gene Spafford)
Subject: How to Get Information about Networks
Date: 7 Dec 91 02:14:04 GMT
Followup-To: news.admin
Organization: Dept. of Computer Sciences, Purdue Univ.
Lines: 105
Supersedes: <15998@ector.cs.purdue.edu>
 
Archive-name: network-info/part1
Original-author: Randall Atkinson 
Last-change: 30 Nov 91 by spaf@cs.purdue.edu (Gene Spafford)
 
This is a periodic posting on how to get information about the
Internet and how to get information about connecting to the (US)
National Science Foundation's NSFNET through an NSF-affiliated
regional network, or to get commercial Internet service through a
commercial service provider.
 
I. The NSFNET Network Service Center (NNSC) makes current documentation
   on the NSFNET available via a mail server and by anonymous ftp.
 
   Because the contents of the documents are constantly being updated,
   this posting only describes how to obtain a current copy rather than
   providing the data directly.
 
   Using the mail server: Send mail to the address shown below
   (nnsc.nsf.net) and leave the "Subject;" line blank.
   The first line of the message body should contain a "Request:"
   line, followed by a "Topic:" line, as described below.  You do not
   need a "Subject:" line, but be sure your mailer puts out a valid
   "From:" line that the server can respond to!
 
  To obtain current contact information on the NSFNET and its affiliated
  regional networks, send the following mail message to the mail-server:
  "info-server@nnsc.nsf.net":
 
	Request: NSFNET
	Topic:   NNSC
 
  To obtain information on how to connect to the Internet through the
  NSFNET or an NSF-affiliated network, send the following mail message
  to the mail-server "info-server@nnsc.nsf.net":
 
	Request: NSFNET
	Topic:   CONNECTING
 
  To obtain information on the documents currently available on the
  NSFNET from the info-server, send the following mail message to the
  mail server "info-server@nnsc.nsf.net":
 
	Request: NSFNET
	Topic:   NSFNET-HELP
 
 
  If you need to contact the people at the NNSC directly, you can either
  send mail or call them.  It would be a good idea to read the NSFNET
  documents first though.
 
	Electronic Mail:  
        Telephone:        +1 (617) 873-3400.
 
II.  General Internet information documents are available from the
   DDN Network Information Center (which is part of the Internet).
   There are several "For Your Information (FYI)" documents
   published as part of the Internet "Request For Comments (RFC)"
   series of documents.  These can be helpful in getting a better
   understanding of the Internet and its services and organization.
   Experienced, novice, and would-be Internet users can all benefit
   from reading these documents.
 
 Included among these are:
 
  RFC-1208 Glossary of Networking Terms
  RFC-1207 FYI: Answers to commonly asked "experienced Internet user" questions
  RFC-1206 FYI: Answers to commonly asked "new Internet user" questions
  RFC-1178 Choosing a Name for your Computer
  RFC-1150 FYI on FYI: Introduction to the FYI notes
 
  These RFCs can be obtained by anonymous ftp from nic.ddn.mil or via
  email server from nisc.sri.com.  To use the RFC email server, send
  an email message with the subject line indicating the RFC desired to
  mail-server@nisc.sri.com.  The NIC service will email the requested
  RFC back to you.
 
  For example, to get a copy of RFC-1208 send an email message to
  mail-server@nisc.sri.com with the subject line containing:
 
  send rfc/RFC1208.txt
 
 
III. The Internet is composed of many networks, not just those
   sponsored or affiliated with the US Government. There are also
   commercial Internet service providers.  Commercial firms that might
   not meet requirements for connecting to a US Government-related
   network can still connect to the TCP/IP Internet via commercial
   service providers not affiliated with the NSFNET or the DDN
   Internet:
 
   UUNET Communications Services (UUNET)
   alternet-info@uunet.uu.net
 
   Performance Systems, Inc. (PSI)
   nisc@nisc.psi.net
 
   You should contact them directly to obtain more information about
   their services. Nothing in this posting is intended or should be construed
   as an endorsement of any commercial service or commercial firm.
 
--
Gene Spafford
NSF/Purdue/U of Florida  Software Engineering Research Center,
Dept. of Computer Sciences, Purdue University, W. Lafayette IN 47907-1398
Internet:  spaf@cs.purdue.edu	phone:  (317) 494-7825
 
----------------------end insert------------------------------------
 
------------------------begin 2nd insert----------------------------
 
Date: 8 Jul 91 07:56:37 GMT
From: rsw@cs.brown.EDU (Bob Weiner)
Subject: Basic guide on how to send e-mail
 
[I don't profess that this will work for those who know nothing about
computers, but I do think it is a good, short example of how to explain a
problem like e-mail addressing to a novice computer user.
 
It does not discuss X.400 based e-mail but should at some future time.]
 
************************ Bob Weiner Article ***********************
                   Internet / Usenet Mail Addressing Guide
                                 Bob Weiner
                               rsw@cs.brown.edu
                                 July 8, 1991
 
This document discusses how to address mail to or from both Usenet (via UUCP =
UNIX to UNIX Copy Protocol) and the Internet (via SMTP = Simple Mail Transfer
Protocol).  Mail through the Internet can reach Usenet, Compuserve, MCI Mail,
and many research and corporate organizations throughout the world.
 
It assumes you have a mail reader and composer program with its own
documentation, on a computer which can connect to Usenet or the Internet.  The
mail address is what you will put or receive on the message line that begins
with the literal string: "To:".
 
************************
Sending Worldwide E-mail
************************
 
Here is how you mail to someone else.  (Items within <> or in all capitals are
field names for which you must give literal values.  Items in [] are optional
fields, which are only included in certain electronic mail addresses. An |
symbol means choose one from the set of alternatives separated by the symbol. A
host is a computer)
 
 
>From an Internet Host - To an Internet Host
-------------------------------------------
 
If a user's organizational address is registered on the Internet, he will
have an address of the form:
 
                @.[.][.]
 
for example:      bert@ladder.princeton.edu
 
where  is a computer name and  is a recursive specification
of a logical location, that is, it may contain subdomains as in:
 
           = DOMAIN_IDENTIFIER | SUBDOMAIN_IDENTIFIER.
 
Organization should always be one of the following:
 
             net           for network gateways, e.g.  uu.net
             edu           for educational institutions, e.g. brown.edu
             org           for non-profit organization,  e.g. osf.org
             com           for commercial firms, e.g. hp.com
             gov           for government entities, e.g. nasa.gov
             mil           for war gamers, e.g. army.mil
             uucp          for non-interneters, Usenet hosts, e.g. novavax.uucp
             arpa          obsolete, refers to the Arpanet that evolved into
                             the Internet.
 
Country is typically a two letter country code for mail outside of the US:
 
             ca            Canada
             fr            France
             se            Sweden
             dk            Denmark
             ch            Switzerland
 
One example of a self-deprecating Internet mail address might be:
 
          nerdy@wimpy.eecs.berkeley.edu
 
This addresses a message to the , nerdy, at the , wimpy, in the
EE Computer Science department , eecs, at UC Berkeley, berkeley,
which is obviously an educational institution, edu.
 
To send, simply place the user's address in the 'To:' field of your mail
message.
 
>From a Usenet Host - To a Usenet Host
-------------------------------------
 
Now consider that you are a user whose computer is registered on the UUCP
Usenet, who has only a dialup connection to the network and you want to mail to
another such user.  Let's say you actually wanted to communicate withearning a
 lot of money, call him smiley@bucks.  His machine bucks communicates
directly with a registered machine, cash.  So you could send to him with the
following address:
 
     uunet!cash!bucks!smiley
 
The host 'uunet' is a very important one; it serves as a mail gateway between
Usenet and the Internet, so it knows how to properly address mail for
practically every Internet domain and registered UUCP host in the world.  This
is why your mail must go through it, because locally your mail host will never
be as smart as uunet.  If your host computer can't send directly to uunet, you
will have to precede the above path with one that starts with a machine that
your's communicates directly with and ends with a machine name that
communicates with uunet, plus another '!', e.g.
 
     nearby!farther!uunet!cash!bucks!smiley
 
 
>From an Internet Host - To a Usenet Host
----------------------------------------
 
If your machine is on the Internet and the other is on Usenet, you can
use something like:
 
              bucks!smiley@uunet.uu.net
 
 
>From a Usenet Host - To an Internet Host
----------------------------------------
 
If your machine is on Usenet only and the other is on the Internet, you can
use something like either of the following:
 
              nearby!farther!uunet!ladder.princeton.edu!bert
              nearby!farther!uunet!bert@ladder.princeton.edu
 
 
>From an Internet Host - To a Compuserve User
--------------------------------------------
 
To mail to a Compuserve user with an ID of  aaaaa,bbbb:
 
              aaaaa.bbbb@compuserve.com
 
Note that the comma in the ID becomes a period in the Internet address.
 
 
>From an Internet Host - To an MCI Mail Customer
-----------------------------------------------
 
              @mcimail.com
 
 
***********************************
Why me?  Can't I just lick a stamp?
************************
Once you realize that you can get a message from across the country in under 2
hours depending on how frequently you poll a dial-up computer or within a few
minutes on the Internet, you'll learn to enjoy the convenience of this
facility.
 
The main benefits of electronic mail are that:
 
       it always sits and waits until the addressee has time for it;
 
       it decreases work interruptions, allowing more time and thoughtful
       responses to other people's thoughts and questions;
 
       it provides data that you can work with and modify, unlike
       facsimiles and voice mail;
 
       it is the backbone of many large organizations wide-area
       communications strategies for the 90's and thus a safe investment of
       time and money;
 
       logical, non-location dependent addressing is much simpler and
       reliable than postal addressing; automatic mail forwarding is also
       available;
 
       e-mail is a very cost effective means of messaging.
 
 
By the way, UUCP mail is a 1970's technology, although it has advanced a great
deal.  (UUCP mail addresses use the '!', which is called a 'bang' rather than
an exclamation point because networking people don't have much time to read and
because they love to save syllables.  Internet mail dates back even farther
than UUCP mail.  Domain-based mail addressing became a phenomenon in the
mid-1980's.
==============================================================================
 
                          Bob Weiner
                          rsw@cs.brown.edu
                          --  Explaining Real Computers to Real People
----------------------------end 2nd insert------------------------
 
This could be of help; it may, better should, be edited.
 
==michel eytan@dpt-info.u-strasbg.fr
=========================================================================
Date:         Wed, 8 Apr 1992 11:18:08 EDT
Reply-To:     "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
Sender:       "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
From:         Stevan Harnad 
Subject:      re:ejournals/ AVAILABLE VIA USENET
 
Below, Timo Harmo points out the important alternative that I omitted:
That an already established Listserv group can establish a Usenet feed
without having to go through the formality of a vote. -- SH
 
> Date:         Wed, 8 Apr 1992 10:54:00 EET
> From: "TIMO HARMO (FAC. OF SOCSCI U OF HELSINKI)" 
> Comments: To: ARACHNET@acadvm1.uottawa.ca
>
> >  with a readership of 200 or more are POTENTIALLY on Usenet,
> > because all that is needed is an affirmative vote of about that
> > many in order to establish a new Usenet group. This is how
> > PSYCOLOQUY created its
>
> There is also a easier way. If you want to establish a link to Usenet,
> you can:
> 1. Get the agreement of the people in the list (it is enough if there
>  are no serious objections, you don't have to vote)
> 2. state your wish in bit.admin (again, hoping that there will be no serious
> objections)
> 3. get the agreement of the postmaster of your listserv-site and of the
> news-gateway you'll be using, and get these two to co-operate to
> establish the link (most bitnet-list are gatewayed thru ... was it
> American University, american.edu I think)
>
> You will find more detailed instructions in bit.admin, they make a regular
> posting of it.
> I don't think any worth-while list will be refused a link.
>
>  -Timo Harmo, harmo@cc.helsinki.fi
=========================================================================
Date:         Wed, 8 Apr 1992 11:34:48 EDT
Reply-To:     "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
Sender:       "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
From:         Howard Pasternack 
Subject:      re:ejournals/ AVAILABLE VIA USENET
 
I am sort of surprised on the archiving discussion that no one has mentioned
Faxon and its announced intention to become a distributor or electronic
publications.
 
As head of systems of academic library, I would have to say that I do not
view Usenet as a viable solution for distributing electronic information
to our local clientele.  A Campus Wide Information Server would provide
far superior capabilities for making available both local and networked
electronic information using a common interface.  An even a CWIS server
with its ASCII text emphasis is not a full solution, particularly
as electronic publications migrate from ASCII text to full electronic
markup.
 
Howard Pasternack
Brown University
=========================================================================
Date:         Wed, 8 Apr 1992 21:33:22 EDT
Reply-To:     "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
Sender:       "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
From:         Bill Kownacki 
Subject:      Do Electronic Journals Make Sense?
 
     I have been following with interest the recent postings on
cooperative publishing and archives/repositories of electronic
information and it seems to me that there's a fundamental issue
that needs to be addressed:  i.e.  does the journal as a means of
scholarly communication still make sense in the electronic medium?
 
I'd like to suggest here that many of the problems that seem so
confusing and unresolvable such as archival storage, academic
hesitance to accept electronic publication, the legitimacy of the
scholar's text when it can be so easily manipulated, etc. arise
primarily because we are trying to duplicate in an electronic
format the exact same system we currently have in print.  Although
this system has worked well for slightly over 300 years, there are
now a number of signs that it is starting to break down including:
 
-Rapid inflation in serials pricing
-Explosive growth in the size of the literature and in new titles
-The breakdown of research into "least publishable units" and
extensive co-authorship.
-Severe fiscal constraints on libraries which find they can no
longer afford to purchase many articles (bundled in a journal) for
the few that will actually be read.  The situation is excacerbated
by shortages of storage space and extensive costs in processing
large numbers of subscriptions.
 
We have also arrived at the seemingly bizarre situation described
by Ann Okerson where: "...articles based on work created largely in
universities and laboratories and paid for-and value added-largely
at public expense become the property of organizations that own the
rights, with the result that it is increasingly difficult for the
public to own and read publicly supported research." ^1^
 
The publishers of today's electronic journals are to be commended
for showing us it is possible to break out of this model and
support an inexpensive (for the consumer), free flow of quality
information.  Yet in automating the journal format, we may be
simply preserving some of the other problems in a new medium.
There is a major trend within academic libraries toward what may be
called "access (where appropriate) over ownership" or the
procurement of materials "just-in-time" as opposed to "just-in-
case."  What this will ultimately boil down to is electronic
document delivery within the context of a print (or download)-on-
demand system.  It seems to me that the article, and not the
journal, is now becoming the basic unit of information, and that
the major challenge to libraries is to bring physical access
(getting your hands on it) up to par with bibliographic access.
With the ascendancy of electronic bibliographic information from
online services and CD-ROM, it seems that users of information are
thinking less in less in terms of the journal (which may have
previously been regularly browsed) and more in more in terms of
individual articles (or conference papers) that they have
discovered through citations or searches of electronic databases.
If we are moving to a system of retrieve on demand, does it make
sense to continue to bundle unrelated articles into a journal
issue, whether it is in print or electronic format?
 
To be fair, today's e-journal publishers are making sensible
concessions to the electronic format: publishing one article per
issue, sending out just the abstracts and allowing users to
retrieve only desired articles, storing an index of documents
available at the Listserv, etc.  Others, such as the _Online
Journal of Current Clinical Trials_ are really databases, even
though they probably wouldn't admit it and can even demonstrate
ISSNs as proof of their serial status. :-)  I suspect that the
phrase "electronic journal" has simply become fashionable and we're
overlooking the obvious: that electronic information naturally
coalesces into databases, with articles (or electronic documents)
being the basic unit of information.  Even the "concessions"
described above are all movements in the direction of article
databases and away from being journals proper.
 
 I want to make it clear here that I am talking about a model for
the publishing and archival storage of scholarly research.
Electronic newsletters, Bitnet discussion lists, and journals
following the Psycoloquy model, will undoubtedly continue to
thrive, as they take advantage of the computer and networks as an
interactive, near instantaneous means of communication.  Today's
peer-reviewed electronic journals have, to their credit, attracted
a surprising number of high qualtiy submissions.  Yet as Michael
Strangelove has pointed out, many scholars are still reluctant to
publish in this medium and I think to make the transition we need
a different model than the electronic journal.
 
What I would like to see is some of the large information and
library players join with one or more scholarly societies to begin
creating some national subject databases.  Such databases would
require peer review (no I haven't worked out all the details) to
get into, and also maintain the archival copy (assured textual
integrity) of the articles or documents.  Users could probably
print or download specific articles as desired at low cost, since
none of the players in the system would appear to have a strong
profit motive.  (Certainly not the original authors who are not
used to selling or benefitting from their copyright).  The system
could easily provide current awareness, both in print and
electronic newsletters of abstracts, which could even be user-
tailored by various subject parameters.  It would also seem
feasible to incorporate menu, boolean, and even more advanced
searching capabilities over time so that it would be a fully
integrated bibliographic, storage, and delivery system.  Ultimately
such a system could increasingly incorporate multimedia, hypertext
(within and between documents), and other capabilities unique to
the electronic medium.  Why not click on a piece of text, for
instance, to see a reference or a related image or chart?  Over
time, all of the limitations of the current system we find so
natural could be increasingly questioned.  An article, for
instance, could be as long or as short as it needed to be and
include the supporting raw data.  The best early example of what
may be coming is probably the _Online Journal of Current Clinical
Contents_.  There have been calls for such a system in the
literature, with the most impressive, in my opinion, being a recent
report from the American Physical Society calling for a National
Physics Database. ^2^
 
There are still, of course, many issues to be resolved and I'd love
to hear peoples' comments on these ideas since there are
undoubtedly questions I have failed to consider or address.  I do
think such a system is coming and that the academic/non-profit
community is in a race with commercial interests to create it,
whether we realize it or not.  Actually such a system operated by
commercial interests would probably still be a great improvement
over the present information chaos, but it would still probably be
just as expensive.
 
Another underlying issue is the format in which such electronic
documents would be stored, and I'd like to briefly advocate SGML
for it's flexibility, storage of text in manipulable ASCII, and the
ease in which such marked up documents could be indexed in a
database.  An enhanced SGML could probably provide the links to
images and other multi-media which could also be stored. ^3^
 
1.  Okerson, Ann  "Incentives and Disincentives in Research and
Educational Communication,"  in "A University-Based Electronic
Publishing Network"  _EDUCOM Review_  25, 3 (Fall 1990): 14-20.
 
2.  Report of the APS Task Force on Electronic Information Systems"
reprinted in _Bulletin of the American Physical Society_ 36,
(1991): 1119.
 
3.  "The Role of a Descriptive Markup Language in the Creation of
Interactive Multimedia Documents for Customized Electronic
Delivery,"  in _Proceedings of the International Conference on
Electronic Publishing, Manipulation & Typography_  Gaithersburg,
MD, September 1990.  New York: Cambridge University Press, 1990.
 
 ______________________________________________________________________
| ___      ___________                                                 |
| \  \   / ___   ___ / Bill Kownacki, Room 302 Newman Library          |
|  \  \/  /  /  /    Science Department, Virginia Tech Libraries       |
|   \   /   / /    P.O. Box 90001, Blacksburg Virginia 24062-9001      |
|    \/    /_/   Phone: 703-231-9237  E-Mail: kownacki@vtvm1.cc.vt.edu |
|______________________________________________________________________|
=========================================================================
Date:         Thu, 9 Apr 1992 02:11:57 -0700
Reply-To:     "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
Sender:       "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
From:         "Lee Jaffe, McHenry Library, UC Santa Cruz,
              408/459-3297" 
Subject:      Re: Do Electronic Journals Make Sense?
 
It is late and I should know better than to take on this issue
in my condition but I've been thinking along similar (but different)
lines ever since I've started following this forum.
 
Some of my points of departure are close to the same.  For instance
I saw Richard Lucier, UCSF, speak at last summer's ALA meeting and he
posed the current situation as one in which universities spend large
amounts creating information, give it away and then buy it back at
highly inflated rates.
 
I also look at the awful lag in disseminating information through
journals.  This was a problem that journals were originally created
to solve!  As a consequence of the need to know long before something
can be published officially, scholars have found quite a few other
means of communicating more quickly.  However, the journal remains
the primary record of "authenticated" research/work and the primary
means of attributing sources and the primary means of judging the
merits of scholarship (and scholars - don't forget citation counts
and tenure committees!).
 
Another nail in the coffin of scholarly communication is the referee
system.  It tends to perpetuate the "ol'boy" system and forcesgood,
but controversial scholarship into the fringe literature or just
stifles creativity.  Further, the number of highly publicized cases
of academic fraud, published in prestigious, refereed journals raises
doubts as to whether it is worth the wait.
 
So when I look at this brave new world of electronic publishing
I'm disappointed in how much it apes the print world.  It is parti-
cularly aggravating when it tries to compete with print on print's
strong points, specifically archivability.  And then we try to saddle
e-journals with refereeing when its strong point ought to be rapid
dissemination.
 
My take on this is that electronic publishing ought to change,
perhaps even improve, scholarly communication in some significant
way.  I think that it could help turn the tables in the uneven
exchange between universities and publishers.  I think that it
should help get information out quickly and perhaps more democrat-
ically than we are doing now.  I don't think that it should worry
too much about authenticating results, developing archival or
retrieval tools.  These can be taken care of by others or the
means will show up eventually.  (Do you think that the NY Times
published an index with the first issue or mailed a set to UMI?)
 
I think that universities should self-publish the research they
support.  I think that the university itself would be taking
more responsibility for authenticating the validity of the work
though not necessarily refereeing articles.  The primary focus
would be quick dissemination.  Some effort at archiving and
retrieval, though minimal, would have to be made but for a
relatively short term.  The importance and validity of electroni-
cally published works would be established by vox populi --
comment it generated -- and by the usual methods -- citation,
generally.  Publishers would vie for rights to reprint important
material and libraries would still buy print journals in order
to have archival copies.
 
That's the short version.
 
--- Lee Jaffe
    UC Santa Cruz
=========================================================================
Date:         Thu, 9 Apr 1992 09:45:22 EDT
Reply-To:     "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
Sender:       "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
From:         Stu Weibel 
Subject:      Re: Do Electronic Journals Make Sense?
 
> I think that universities should self-publish the research they
> support.  I think that the university itself would be taking
> more responsibility for authenticating the validity of the work
> though not necessarily refereeing articles.
 
University validation of results is both impractical and unrealistic.
 
Often there might be only a single person or group at the institution
with sufficient depth of understanding to do the validation (the group
that did the work).
 
In addition, the University may have a vested interest in the success
of the work, and might be less than rigorous in challenging the work of
its own investigators.  The cold fusion debacle at the University of
Utah is the definitive example here; the glare of huge economic
potential blinded decision makers and dealt a fine University a serious
blow, to say nothing of the taxpayer's of Utah.
 
It is not clear that universities will publish research in a more cost
effective manner than publishers, though the ability redistribute the
costs in new ways may well make it appealling for the budget process.
 
The charge that publishers are gouging is common and seldom challenged
(except by the publishers).  Has anyone systematically examined the
underlying economics to understand the true costs involved?  The root
cause of the crippling inflation in serials costs may be more complex
than is now clear, and making universities into publishers may not be
the best way to promote the goal of freely flowing information.
 
Stuart Weibel
OCLC Office of Research
=========================================================================
Date:         Thu, 9 Apr 1992 10:38:09 EDT
Reply-To:     "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
Sender:       "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
Comments:     Resent-From: GMCMILLA@VTVM1
Comments:     Originally-From: Howard Pasternack 
From:         GMCMILLA@VTVM1.BITNET
 
I thought readers of VPIEJ-L would be interested in Pasternack's response. As
is not unusual, I'm confused by all that I don't know.  It seems to me that so
far there isn't a better alternative than the one VPI&SU has chosen for
archiving electronic journals:  University Libraries subscribes to 8 e-
journals, mounts them on VM1 (university's mainframe computer) and thereby
archives them locally, and informs our user community through the online public
catalog that these e-journals are available.  Am I missing something?  While
what the library has chosen to do with e-js is in many ways following tradi-
tional library practices, we have consciously chosen to do so because it is
what works best with the resources (computer, personnel, reference, etc.) that
we have at hand.  What the better alternatives are NOW, today available?
 
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
.........................Gail McMillan........................
___....____________......Serials Team Leader..................
\  \../  ___   ___/.........University Libraries VPI&SU.......
.\  \/  /../  /.............Blacksburg, VA - (703) 231-9252...
..\    /../  /..............FAX (703) 231-3694................
...\  /../  /.................................................
....\/../__/..........INTERNET.....gmcmilla@VTVM1.CC.VT.EDU....
......................BITNET.......gmcmilla@VTVM1.............
----------------------------Original message----------------------------
 
Date:         Thu, 09 Apr 92 10:04:42 EDT
From:         Howard Pasternack 
Subject:      Re: re:ejournals/ AVAILABLE VIA USENET
To:           "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving, and Access"
 
In-Reply-To:  Message of Thu, 09 Apr 92 09:52:05 EDT from 
========================================================================
A CWIS server has nothing to do with CMS.  I am not sure what INFO is,
but I assume it is the name of some service on your local mainframe.
A CWIS server is typically a UNIX fileserver which a user accesses from
a network.  A lot of them run software developed by MIT. They look like
Macintoshes, but they are not.  Typically they have file folders in them
with files which can be read or printed.  The files are all "text only".
This means there are no fonts, highlighting, graphics, or anything else
to enhance the text.  The CWIS servers work well with the "text only" files
masquerading as "electronic journals".  You have a file folder in your
"library" folder for different journals.  The CWIS servers also provide
the capability to search the text. Several of these servers are listed
in the Art St. George list of opacs and are accessible via telnet.
 
-- Howard
 
On Thu, 09 Apr 92 09:52:05 EDT  said:
>Could you please translate the very last sentence.  Do you know if CWIS server
>is something that makes CMS and INFO work?  And, why won't CWIS work with "full
>electronic markup"?   Thanks,
>
> ---------------------------Original message----------------------------
>I am sort of surprised on the archiving discussion that no one has mentioned
>Faxon and its announced intention to become a distributor or electronic
>publications.
>
>As head of systems of academic library, I would have to say that I do not
>view Usenet as a viable solution for distributing electronic information
>to our local clientele.  A Campus Wide Information Server would provide
>far superior capabilities for making available both local and networked
>electronic information using a common interface.  An even a CWIS server
>with its ASCII text emphasis is not a full solution, particularly
>as electronic publications migrate from ASCII text to full electronic
>markup.
>
>Howard Pasternack
>Brown University
>
>------------------------------------------------------------------------------
>.........................Gail McMillan........................
>___....____________......Serials Team Leader..................
>\  \../  ___   ___/.........University Libraries VPI&SU.......
>.\  \/  /../  /.............Blacksburg, VA - (703) 231-9252...
>..\    /../  /..............FAX (703) 231-3694................
>...\  /../  /.................................................
>....\/../__/..........INTERNET.....gmcmilla@VTVM1.CC.VT.EDU....
>......................BITNET.......gmcmilla@VTVM1.............
========================================================================
=========================================================================
Date:         Thu, 9 Apr 1992 10:54:01 EDT
Reply-To:     "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
Sender:       "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
From:         Editors of PMC 
Subject:      Re: Do Electronic Journals Make Sense?
In-Reply-To:  Message of Wed, 8 Apr 1992 21:33:22 EDT from 
 
Bill--
 
I don't think that many e-journal editors/publishers would disagree with
your forecast or your wish-list; certainly that's the direction that
PMC is moving in.  But I do think that there is still a utility to the
term "journal" and even (at this point in the history of transition from
paper to e-text) to "issues": the utility of these fictions is that they
make authors more comfortable and more willing to publish in this medium.
There's also the business of special issues--grouped sets of articles on
a single topic or theme.  I'd argue there's still some utility to that,
too.  Perhaps in physics, it would be enough to say to one's tenure
committee that one had several articles in the peer-reviewed national
physics database: in the humanities, it still makes sense to say "I had
an article published in Journal X."  One step at a time.
 
John Unsworth
=========================================================================
Date:         Thu, 9 Apr 1992 08:53:09 PDT
Reply-To:     "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
Sender:       "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
From:         David Robison 
Subject:      Re: Do Electronic Journals Make Sense?
 
One advantage (as I see it) of print-journal publication is the
relationship between the reader and the journal itself.  Readers
come to respect a journal and the articles within it.  We, as both
users and librarians, evaluate material to a certain degree according
to the journal it is in.
 
Further, readers become accustomed to the editorial style of a
journal and come to expect articles in the journal to conform
to that style.
 
Readers may also like a journal enough to read or at least scan
each article in each *issue* of a journal that they might not
otherwise retrieve.
 
These advantages may be retained in a non-article-based publishing
scheme through the use of some approval method (i.e., "This article
is published under the auspices of PMC").  I hope we don't lose
these advantages as paradigms shift.
=========================================================================
Date:         Thu, 9 Apr 1992 12:13:42 EDT
Reply-To:     "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
Sender:       "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
From:         Joseph Raben 
Subject:      Universities as publishers of scholarly information
 
Suggestiong that universities "authenticate" information by
publishing it associates two distinct functions: refereeing submissions
and disseminating them. As for the former, seeking authorities within a
single university would not benefit cutting-edge activities. When I
started _Computers and the Humanities_ in 1966, there was no one in CUNY
(and only one person in all New York) who could act as a referee on
submissions, and I had to scour North America and Europe for people who
could pass judgement on such esoterica as whether a computer could help
to establish a "national quality" in selected string quartets! So I
would suggest that refereeing be kept as it is now, a function of
experts wherever they may be. As for dissemination, however, the current
economics of print publishing should not be used as a basis for
advocating (or contesting) the role of electronic networks in speeding
up the distribution of research results and cutting the cost to all
involved.
=========================================================================
Date:         Sun, 12 Apr 1992 02:29:19 EDT
Reply-To:     "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
Sender:       "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
From:         Stevan Harnad 
Subject:      Peer Review and the Net
 
Michael C. Berch (mcb@presto.ig.com) wrote to the Usenet moderators
group:
 
> Date: Sat, 11 Apr 92 15:50:53 -0800
> Subject: Re: Usenet and Archiving of Electronic Journals
> To: moderators@cs.purdue.edu
>
> While the concept of formal peer review has its place in academic
> research and publication, it is hardly a litmus test for the current
> importance or lasting value of a publication.
>
> In some ways, Usenet and similar conferencing systems have made
> journals and traditional academic communication obsolete. Dr. Harnad
> seems to want to cling to the traditional forms which retain the
> power of academic elites (even if clothed as "electronic journals").
 
Peer review is far from infallible, but it's the best form of quality
control we can manage in scholarly and scientific publication. It also
provides a basis for calibrating one's reading in what would otherwise
be an overwhelming information glut.
 
As to Nets making journals obsolete: this is far from true.
Unfortunately, the transition to the Net is still far too slow; and the
current demography of Usenet is VASTLY different from the readership
and authorship of the tens of thousands of scholarly and scientific
journals that exist today.
 
There are indeed some academic elites, but I hardly represent them! I'm
considered a maverick in those circles. Nor is the kind of open peer
commentary I advocate the kind of thing that perpetuates entrenched
interests. There's room for reform in peer review, to be sure, but
let's not think of it as being all that sinister: Virtually everything
eventually gets published in some (paper) journal or other. Peer review
just channels it to a particular level in the qualitative hierarchy,
and the beleaguered readership is grateful for that. Grepping keywords
and citations is no substitute for prescreening by qualified
specialists in any given field.
 
> I would like to see libraries take, retain, and archive as much
> information as is possible (Usenet as well as other electronic
> sources), free of ivory-tower bias, and then make available to
> users/consumers powerful tools that permit them to search, sort,
> organize, annotate, and copy the desired information, and to obtain
> input on how other people, academics included, view that information.
> I consider it our mission as Usenet "librarians" to help build and
> distribute those tools, not to help perpetuate a backward system.
 
This seems to conflate the mission of Usenet and that of academic and
research libraries. The latter are currently specialized in the tens of
thousands of paper journals I mentioned. Their interest in Usenet, at
least initially, would be as a format for making the electronic
counterparts of those (mostly) peer reviewed journal available to their
readerships. Usenet's anarchic spirit is to be admired and encouraged
on its own turf, but it makes about as much sense to recommend this
unconstrained model on the scholarly community as it does to recommend
that all Usenet postings should first undergo peer review! The agendas
are different, even if they will converge and overlap in part.
 
For the record, though, I do think that new and powerful electronic
methods of bibliographic search, retrieval and evaluation will become
increasingly important to the scholar trying to make his way through
the information glut, but it will be no substitute for peer review.
 
Stevan Harnad
 
---------------------------------
Harnad, S. (1979) Creative disagreement. The Sciences 19: 18 - 20.
 
Harnad, S. (ed.) (1982) Peer commentary on peer review: A case study in
scientific quality control, New York: Cambridge University Press.
 
Harnad, S. (1984) Commentary on Garfield:  Anthropology journals:  What
they cite and what cites them. Current Anthropology 25: 521 - 522.
 
Harnad, S. (1984) Commentaries, opinions and the growth of scientific
knowledge. American Psychologist 39: 1497 - 1498.
 
Harnad, S. (1985) Rational disagreement in peer review. Science,
Technology and Human Values 10: 55 - 62.
 
Harnad, S. (1986) Policing the Paper Chase. (Review of S. Lock, A
difficult balance: Peer review in biomedical publication.)
Nature 322: 24 - 5.
=========================================================================
Date:         Mon, 13 Apr 1992 10:40:35 EDT
Reply-To:     "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
Sender:       "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
From:         Stevan Harnad 
Subject:      Re: Peer Review and the Net
 
> Date: Mon, 13 Apr 92 01:19:52 -0700
> From: jaffe@ucscm.UCSC.EDU (Lee Jaffe, McHenry Library, UC Santa Cruz)
>
> I realize I'm coming into this debate cold and late and I'm
> willing to listen to reason.  I had a talk with someone over
> the weekend while at the "Bibliotheque de France and the
> Future of the Library" program and they also felt refereeing
> was important.  But I get a sense that this repeated more as
> a litany and with the assumption that it is either that or
> nothing.  Maybe my idea isn't that practical.  Would you
> consider something along the lines of the Genome project's
> approach, issuing un-reviewed items but tagging them as such
> until they can be reviewed.  Once they've been passed, they
> go into another database with a seal of approval.  What other
> forms of authenticating work would you consider?  Citations?
> Reproduction of the experiments?  Does it have to be refereeing?
>
> -- Lee Jaffe
 
There is room for many approaches in this new medium, but I have a
rather specific agenda: Currently, the world scholarly community reads
and writes in peer reviewed paper. The proportion of them that is on
the Net at all (in the West, perhaps 10 - 40 %, depending on
discipline) uses the Net to send email and perhaps read some lists, but
virtually none would consider publishing an article in an electronic
journal. Why? Because the paper medium is fully "authenticated" (as you
put it) already, and the electronic medium is not.
 
I believe it is a foregone conclusion that the world scholarly
community will convert completely to the Net sooner or later, for
virtually all their reading and writing. I would like it to be sooner
rather than later (life is short). The one tried and true common factor
that the two media can share is classical peer review as their method of
quality control. In my judgment, nothing less rigorous and familiar
will make the world scholarly community consider the Net safe for their
publications in the immediate future. There is of course plenty of room
for innovation on the Net, but only AFTER the exodus has taken place
(or at least a critical mass has been reached). Until then, more
futuristic forms of peer review (or no review at all) will only retard
the process by compounding the novelty of, and hence the doubts about,
the new medium.
 
There is only one respect in which I have departed from this goal of
making the new waters as familiar and hence safe for swimming as
possible, and that is in stressing the Net's unique potential for rapid
interactive publication ("open peer commentary" in the paper medium,
"scholarly skywriting" on the Net), but this, too, would only consist
of REFEREED target articles and REFEREED peer feedback on them. I
believe, though, that this unique interactive capability of the Net,
which it can provide over and above providing classical peer-reviewed,
archived publication, may just be the factor that will put the Net over
the top, for it can extend a scholar's intellectual lifeline by an
order of magnitude, and the effect can be felt virtually at once, at
a biological tempo that is much more in phase with the potential speed and
scope of human thought than the hopelessly slow turnaround time of paper
publication.
 
So: Classical peer review (with peer commentary) on the Net for now;
innovations of peer review only once a significant portion of the world
scholarly community is already publishing on the Net.
 
Stevan Harnad
=========================================================================
Date:         Mon, 13 Apr 1992 11:33:00 EDT
Reply-To:     "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
Sender:       "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
From:         Bill Drew -- Serials Librarian 
Subject:      Re: Peer Review and the Net
 
Is there any reason why the discussion of referreeing of ejournal must
be carried out on four different lists?  Why does it need to be on
PACS-L as well as the lists specializing in ejournals/?  How many
people are truly unique to just one of the four?  I subscribe to all
four because the material interests me not because I want to see the
same item four times.  Please consider this comment.
 
 
 -Bill Drew-
 
 ******************************************************************
 Wilfred Drew (call me "BILL")
 Serials/Reference/Computers Librarian
 SUNY College of Agriculture & Technology
 P.O. Box 902,  Morrisville, NY 13408-0902
 Bitnet: drewwe@snymorva  SUNYNET(DECnet): smorv::drewwe
 InterNet: drewwe@SNYMORVA.CS.SNYMOR.EDU
 Voice:   315-684-6055       Fax:  315-684-6115
=========================================================================
Date:         Mon, 13 Apr 1992 09:44:04 -0700
Reply-To:     "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
Sender:       "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
From:         "Lee Jaffe, McHenry Library, UC Santa Cruz,
              408/459-3297" 
Subject:      Re: Peer Review and the Net
 
So: Classical peer review (with peer commentary) on the Net for now;
innovations of peer review only once a significant portion of the world
scholarly community is already publishing on the Net.
 
Stevan Harnad
====================================================
 
Dear Stevan,
 
Your approach is eminently practical.  I wouldn't suggest you
change it.  There have to be people willing and interested in
bridging the two worlds.  On the other hand, I consider myself
to be an iconoclast.  I would be railing about the print world
even if there wasn't electronic publication as a possibility.
Perhaps because what I've seen happen to journal prices and
library budgets, I'm convinced that the print business has become
corrupt and unwieldy.  One of my basic tenets is that technology
doesn't make problems but reveals them.  I'm looking for a way
to change the way we communicate, not the media but the social
and economic relations.
 
-- Lee Jaffe
=========================================================================
Date:         Mon, 13 Apr 1992 17:57:08 +0100
Reply-To:     "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
Sender:       "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
From:         Michel Eytan LILoL 
Subject:      Re: Peer Review and the Net
 
	Is there any reason why the discussion of referreeing of ejournal must
	be carried out on four different lists?  Why does it need to be on
	PACS-L as well as the lists specializing in ejournals/?  How many
	people are truly unique to just one of the four?
 
I am, sorry.
 
==michel eytan@dpt-info.u-strasbg.fr
=========================================================================
Date:         Mon, 13 Apr 1992 16:54:43 EDT
Reply-To:     "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
Sender:       "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
From:         Stevan Harnad 
Subject:      Re:  Do Electronic Journals Make Sense?
 
> Bill Kownacki 
>
> ...does the journal as a means of scholarly communication still make
> sense in the electronic medium?... in automating the journal format, we
> may be simply preserving some of the other problems in a new medium...
>
> I suspect that the phrase "electronic journal" has simply become
> fashionable and we're overlooking the obvious: that electronic
> information naturally coalesces into databases, with articles (or
> electronic documents) being the basic unit of information...
>
> Today's peer-reviewed electronic journals have, to their credit,
> attracted a surprising number of high qualtiy submissions. Yet as
> Michael Strangelove has pointed out, many scholars are still reluctant
> to publish in this medium and I think to make the transition we need a
> different model than the electronic journal...
>
> What I would like to see is some of the large information and library
> players join with one or more scholarly societies to begin creating
> some national subject databases. Such databases would require peer
> review (no I haven't worked out all the details) to get into...
>
> There have been calls for such a system in the literature, with the
> most impressive, in my opinion, being a recent report from the American
> Physical Society calling for a National Physics Database...
>
> Report of the APS Task Force on Electronic Information Systems"
> reprinted in _Bulletin of the American Physical Society_ 36,
> (1991): 1119.
 
Unfortunately, "working out the details" of implementing peer review in
a database amounts to EXACTLY the same thing as designing peer-reviewed
electronic journals (what you call them does not much matter)! Quality
control and overcoming "scholars' reluctance" are still the problems
that need to be solved, no matter what label is used. The APS report
cited above is discussed in the article below in Serials Review's
special forthcoming issue on "Economic Models for Electronic
Publication."
 
Harnad, S. (1992) Interactive Publication: Extending the American
Physical Society's Discipline-Specific Model for Electronic Publishing.
Serials Review: pp. 58 - 61.
 
Stevan Harnad
=========================================================================
Date:         Mon, 13 Apr 1992 14:20:38 PDT
Reply-To:     "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
Sender:       "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
From:         tleonhardt@MADVAX.UOP.EDU
Subject:      Mojo Sloth Seeks Info on archiving electronic material
 
Recently I received a letter from Joseph A. Reynolds, III, the
editor of THE MOJO SLOTH, P.O. Box 20676, Roanoke, VA 24018 (703)
772-4801. The text of his letter is as follows. If any of you have
some ideas for Mr. Reynolds, I would appreciate it if you would
contact him directly. The MOJO SLOTH is not on the Internet (don't
you wish it were?) so USPS and the telephone are your means of
reaching him. Thanks for any help you can give him.
Tom Leonhardt, Editor, INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AND LIBRARIES
 
To Whom It May Concern:
 
I am an editor for a regional magazine in Southwestern Virginia.
Currently, we are in the process of setting up an in house
archiving system. We are also considering setting up access to an
on-line system such as Viewtext, Nexus, etc. Although Viewtext
would be our preferred on-line system, we were hoping that you
[LITA/ITAL] might be able to refer us to a system that would be
more suitable to our needs, specifically, a regional alternative
press in the process of expanding.
Any information that you could send us would be greatly
appreciated.
Thank you,
Joseph A. Reynolds, III
THE MOJO SLOTH
P.O. Box 20676
Roanoke, VA 24018
(703) 772-4801
=========================================================================
Date:         Tue, 14 Apr 1992 16:30:10 EDT
Reply-To:     "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
Sender:       "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
From:         James Powell 
Subject:      SGML FAQ
 
Frequently asked questions concerning SGML are now answered in the VPIEJ-L
archive.  Send mail to LISTSERV@VTVM1.CC.VT.EDU with a get command:
 
GET SGML FAQ
 
___    ____________  |---------------------------------------|
\..\  /..___...___/  |   James Powell                        |
 \..\/../  /../      |   Systems Support and Development     |
  \..../  /../       |      University Libraries, VPI & SU   |
   \../  /../        |      Blacksburg, VA   (703) 231-3336  |
    \/  /__/         |      FAX (703) 231-3694               |
Internet JPOWELL@VTVM1.CC.VT.EDU or JPOWELL@VTTCF.CC.VT.EDU  |
=========================================================================
Date:         Wed, 15 Apr 1992 00:01:54 +0200
Reply-To:     Erik Naggum 
Sender:       "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
Comments:     Warning -- original Sender: tag was enag@IFI.UIO.NO
From:         Erik Naggum 
Subject:      Re: SGML FAQ
In-Reply-To:  <199204142033.AAifi05373@ifi.uio.no> (14 Apr 1992  16:30:10
              -0400)
 
|   From: James Powell 
|
|   Frequently asked questions concerning SGML are now answered in the VPIEJ-L
|   archive.  Send mail to LISTSERV@VTVM1.CC.VT.EDU with a get command:
|
|   GET SGML FAQ
 
I'm the author of this *draft* FAQ, and I've been gathering responses
for some four months, occationally writing on a publishable version 1.
This is, as you will notice, version "0.0", a very quickly written
piece which nonetheless has seemed useful enough not to delete.
 
A new version is in the making, and it may even be published on
schedule, which is before 15 Apr 1992 24:00:00 GMT.  If you get this
file, please note that it's obsolete as of 16 Apr 1992.
 
I would really appreciate input on things people wonder about, and
the posters to this list form a very different population than those
who post to comp.text.sgml, so your questions are probably of a
slightly different nature than theirs.
 
Please mail suggestions, critique, comments, whatever's on your mind,
so I can produce an even better FAQ now right before Easter.
 
Thank you, and best regards,

 
--
Erik Naggum       |  +47-295-0313     |  ISO 8879 SGML     |  Memento,
Naggum Software   |   "fuzzface"      |  ISO 10744 HyTime  |  terrigena.
Boks 1570, Vika   |   |  JTC 1/SC 18/WG 8  |  Memento,
0118 OSLO, NORWAY |  |  SGML UG SIGhyper  |  vita brevis.
=========================================================================
Date:         Wed, 15 Apr 1992 17:33:01 EDT
Reply-To:     "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
Sender:       "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
From:         Stevan Harnad 
Subject:      Gatewaying the bitnet ej lists to Usenet
 
One of the outcomes of the "multiple postings" discussion is the
repeated suggestion (e.g., see below) that some or all of the bitnet
electronic journals lists should also be gatewayed to Usenet -- another
world, and potentially a much larger constituency. I already gateway
PSYCOLOQUY, so I could not take this on, but I understand it is fairly
straightforward for the list owners themselves to make the requisite
arrangements. I hope they will do so. (It will cut down on the flames
for multiple postings too!)
 
Stevan Harnad
Co-Editor, PSYCOLOQUY
 
> Date: Wed, 15 Apr 92 12:03:40 PDT
> From: Brian Reid 
>
> I have no idea how to deal with listserv and every time I have tried it
> has either done nothing or bombarded me with hundreds of messages per
> day. Whatever it is on the other side of the bitnet fence is
> sufficiently alien that I'd just as soon stay out of it. Thanks though.
>
> It sounds as though a usenet discussion devoted to electronic journals
> needs to get started too. The cultural barrier between usenet and
> bitnet is pretty large.
=========================================================================
Date:         Fri, 17 Apr 1992 16:17:10 EDT
Reply-To:     "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
Sender:       "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
From:         James Powell 
Subject:      Random Survey Questions
 
The first in a series of questions gleaned from the recent survey.
All notes will be posted without the original authors name or email address.
Only questions about topics not recently discussed will be posted, as much
as possible.
---
What would YOU like to know more about?
 
        a) what are publishers and potential publishers of ejournals/
        thinking about Formats, Distribution, Copyright, and who do
        they think their users are (i.e., individuals or libraries or
        both?).
        b) have others found creative (but easy-to-duplicate!) ways to
        make available to a campus community (that does not share
        common hardware or software) e-information in rich formats
        (such as SGML, word processing formats, hypercard, etc...?
        c) my personal basic philosohpy is that e-information should be
        easier to make available to lots of folks than print
        information; that users should not have to come into the
        library to use ejournals/ but should have access remotely; and
        that all users, not just the technically proficient and well
        endowed should have access to ejournals/.  In addition, i'm
        looking forward to ejournals/ being more than just text and
        incorporating graphics, images, fonts, layouts, sounds,
        hyper-links, etc. to make them better than print.  But, these
        things currently seem to be mutually exclusive (the "richer" the
        e-text, the fewer can access or use it.  so, do we just have to
        wait for standards to evolve and access to hardware software to
        proliferate?  or maybe we should be content with plain e-text
        and the advantages it has on its own (fast delivery, search and
        display, analyze, etc...)?
 
___    ____________  |---------------------------------------|
\..\  /..___...___/  |   James Powell                        |
 \..\/../  /../      |   Systems Support and Development     |
  \..../  /../       |      University Libraries, VPI & SU   |
   \../  /../        |      Blacksburg, VA   (703) 231-3336  |
    \/  /__/         |      FAX (703) 231-3694               |
Internet JPOWELL@VTVM1.CC.VT.EDU or JPOWELL@VTTCF.CC.VT.EDU  |
=========================================================================
Date:         Tue, 21 Apr 1992 14:14:27 EDT
Reply-To:     "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
Sender:       "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
From:         James Powell 
Subject:      test newsletter
 
ViewPoints
Newsletter of the Visual Communication Division of the Association for
Education in Journalism and Mass Communication
February, 1992
Electronic Edition
*********************************************************
 
Electronic edition launched
    The February edition of ViewPoints has been included in this
electronic format in order to test the interest for such a publishing option.
News of the Visual Communication Division of the AEJMC may be of interest
to a wide variety of individuals who may not receive the printed version.  As
a test, the February edition has been sent to several interest groups:  the
JFORUM in CompuServe, VPIEJ-L, the electronic publishing interest group on
internet,  and an informal interest group on computer assisted journalism
also on the internet electronic mail network.
    If there is wide-spread interest in this information, plans will be
made to include an electronic version of the Newsletter each time it is
printed -- four times a year.  A special interest will be made to incorporate
typography, graphics and interactive features in future editions of the
electronic ViewPoints.  The next edition of the Newsletter is scheduled for
June 1 with a May 15th deadline for copy. Please send your comments and/or
stories to the editor:
 
Paul Lester
ViewPoints Editor
Associate Professor
School of Communications
California State University
Fullerton, California 92634
VOX: 714 449-5302
FAX: 714 773-2209
VAX: in%"lester@fullerton.edu"
CIS:  70372, 3217
 
    To join the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass
Communication (AEJMC) and its Visual Communication Division, call (803)
777-2005 or write to:
AEJMC
1621 College Street
University of South Carolina
College of Journalism
Columbia, SC 29208-0251
 
    For information about membership in CompuServe call (800) 848-
8199 or in Ohio, (614) 457-0802.
    If you are connected to internet and wish to join VPIEJ-L, send a mail
message to LISTSERV@VTVM1.CC.VT.EDU and simply type:
SUB VPIEJ-L (Your Name).
    If you want to receive news of interest about computer assisted
journalism, send an internet e-mail message to:
Elliot Parker
Journalism Department
Central Michigan University
3ZLUFUR@CMUVM.CSV.CMICH.EDU
*********************************************************
Results from the standing committees: Stand tall
Bob Baker, Division Head
The annual evaluations of AEJMC's three standing committees are in,
and I'd like to share some of their reports with you.
    Of particular note to the Professional Freedom and Responsibility
folks was the slide presentation, "Banned: A Celebration of Visual Freedom"
which was the brainchild of those attending the VisCom business meeting in
Minneapolis (1990) and a reality thanks to the fine work of Jim Roche of
Maryland. Jim has explored duplicating the slide show or transforming it to
videotape and would welcome inquiries from those interested in accessing
it. Keith Kenney's VisCom newsletter article (Jan. 1991) on racial
stereotyping was also a plus, according to the evaluators.
    On the negative side was a void in non-convention, non-newsletter
PF&R activities. This has been a perennial problem. I'd like to note two
avenues among many that Jim Kelly of Southern Illinois and others are
exploring. One is to propose for membership approval, a division
constitution that clearly articulates PF&R (as well as Teaching and
Research) issues so that we might better reinforce them in our academic
pursuits. Elsewhere in this newsletter is the outline of the standing
committee's PF&R guidelines; Kelly would appreciate hearing from you about
more sharply defined areas that you would like to see the division develop.
Concurrently, I am also proposing a 2-3 hour brainstorming session for
VisCom members attending the Pittsburgh Conference in May. This session
would be open to nonacademic members of NPPA and SND and other
professional groups that might like to help us establish an agenda for the
remainder of the 20th Century. We particularly want to explore ways to
avoid overlap with the fine work that NPPA and SND are doing. I would
welcome any comments at (803) 873-0679.
    Of particular note in the AEJMC Research evaluation is that VisCom
had the third highest (of 14) acceptance rate of faculty papers and the
second lowest (of 13) acceptance rate of student papers. While the findings
may suggest the quality of our research submissions has improved, we need
to be concerned about our students' work. Although not explicitly stated in
the evaluation, we need to establish if this next generation is getting
adequate grounding in visual research methodologies.
    The Research folks also recommended that VisCom clearly articulate
a research agenda on visual communication. One program session in Montreal
is designed to begin doing just that. We have also received approval for a
VisCom Research Congress on the evening following the pre-convention
teaching workshop. The session would explore issues about the direction of
visual communication research and perceived need for a journal.
    In the Teaching area, the division was commended for the pre-
convention teaching workshop although a significant gender imbalance in
presenters was noted. More items on pedagogical issues of interest to visual
communication faculty were recommended for the newsletter. And, it was
strongly urged that the syllabus bank be re-activated.
    All are reminded to submit their Spring 1992 syllabi to Jan Colbert of
Missouri. If she has not heard from you in the next few weeks, you can
expect to hear from her in the way of wanting your Fall 1991 and Spring
1992 syllabi. Submit your syllabi now, and save her the correspondence.
We hope a pre-convention teaching workshop, organized by us (with the
expert coordination of Rob Heller of Tennessee), but co-sponsored by the
Advertising, Magazine, Newspaper and Radio-Television divisions on
"Teaching Across the Curriculum" will be widely attended in Montreal. Rob
welcomes your ideas.
    It should be noted that your division officers had been working
actively to enhance VisCom's service function long before the evaluations
arrived in January. Julieanne Newton of Texas has been doing a great job of
organizing Montreal convention activities. We appreciate the AEJMC's gentle
but firm reminder about how we all might better serve our colleagues. Do
get involved!
*********************************************************
Big plans for Montreal -- get involved
Julianne Newton, First Vice Head
The time is August 1992.
    The place is Montreal.
    The topic?
    Some of the most important issues facing mass media educators in
decades:
    --imaging diverse faces and hearing diverse voices,
    --making the best use of converging and emerging technologies,
    --redefining not only journalism but the very nature of how we
communicate to/with the masses/individuals, and,
    --last, but hardly least, increasing awareness of the power of the
visual in our lives.
    We are planning 15 topical sessions and four business sessions to
address these issues from both practical and theoretical standpoints.
Highlights include a pre-convention teaching workshop and an open caucus,
sessions on looking beyond stereotypes, on visual ethics, on teaching with
computers, on research issues in visual communication, on critical
approaches to design, and more.
    We have planned an especially important day of pre-convention
activities, with an afternoon teaching workshop and an evening caucus on
the future of visual communication.
    When we proposed our idea for a teaching workshop in Washington,
four divisions asked to co-sponsor the event.  As a result, the Newspaper,
Magazine, Advertising and Radio-Television divisions will be working with
us to support a workshop on "Getting Visual Throughout the Curriculum."  We
have asked for funding for a special keynote speaker at the workshop.  Rob
Heller, as workshop chair, is working with Jan Colbert, teaching chair, to
plan an exceptionally thoughtful and useful afternoon for all of us.
    In the evening, we have planned our first open caucus to discuss the
future of visual communication--both in terms of the division and in terms
of the future of the field.  It is critical that as many of you as possible
bring your best ideas and concerns to this forum, so we can map goals and a
plan of action that will help us move forward in a comprehensive way.
    Wednesday sessions will feature a discussion among Canadian
journalists of communicating with images to diverse audiences, a session
on lifting the ban on tobacco advertising in Canada, and a discussion on
moving beyond stereotypical images, co-sponsored with the Minorities and
Communication Division.  Our annual business meeting also is scheduled for
Wednesday evening.
    Thursday highlights include a session on Research Issues in Visual
Communication, co-sponsored with Communication Theory and Methodology,
and a discussion of Critical Approaches to Design.
    Friday features several key sessions:  one on Images and the Self, one
on Redefining Journalism--Redefining Journalists?  The Impact of Emerging
Technologies, and a special critique of core course syllabi in visual
communication.
    A Saturday session will explore how machines are changing the way
we teach, think, create and communicate.
    Anyone who has ideas for panelists or about how to fine tune the
thinking on some of the sessions is more than welcome to submit
suggestions.  We need and want everyone's support, ideas and participation.
Please call Julie Newton at  512-471-1976, FAX me something at 512-471-
8500, or send me a note at  Dept. of Journalism, University of Texas, Austin,
TX 78712.
    More later . . . .
*********************************************************
1992 Montreal Program by Primary Area of Focus*
 
Professional Freedom and Responsibility
People, Color and Images:  Moving Beyond Stereotyping
    Co-sponsored with Minorities and Communication
A World of Images:  Common Language or Tower of Babel?
Lifting the Ban on Tobacco Advertising in Canada:  Free Speech Implications
for  Canada and the U.S.
    Co-sponsored with Advertising and International divisions
Critical Approaches to Design
 
Research
Research Issues in Visual Communication
    Co-sponsored with Communication Theory and Methodology Division
Visual Ethics:  Images and the Self
Creative Projects
    Co-sponsored with Communication Technology and Policy Interest
Group
Juried Research Papers
    Co-sponsored with Magazine Division
Juried Research Papers
Juried Research Papers
 
Teaching
Preconvention Workshop:  Getting Visual Throughout the Curriculum
    Co-sponsored with Magazine, Newspaper, Advertising and Radio-
Television divisions
Core Course Critique:  The Course in Visual Communication
Redefining Journalism--Redefining Journalists?  The Impact of Emerging
Technologies
    Co-sponsored with Newspaper Division and Communication Technology
and Policy              Interest Group and Mass Com Bibliographers
Cultural Hegemony in the Classroom
    Co-sponsored with Commission on the Status of Women and History
Division
 
Business
Pre-Convention Caucus:  Mapping the Future of Visual Communication
    Open town hall meeting for all interested persons
1991-92 Executive Committee Meeting
Division Business Meeting
1992-93 Executive Committee Meeting
 
*This is still a tentative list subject to discussion by committee chairs,
other division representatives and so forth.  General topic concerns will
probably remain constant.
 
********************************************************
Yogi says it in just three words: thank you -- Julie uses 381
You can observe a lot just by watching.
                                   --Yogi Berra
    And you can learn a lot just by listening.
    Thanks to the fine ideas of many people, we have a superb program in
progress for the 1992 annual convention.
    I especially would like to thank Lucy Ganje, University of North
Dakota; Karen Christy and Kathryn Gilbert, University of Texas at Austin;
Kevin Barnhurst, Freedom Forum Fellow; and Bob Craig, University of
Minnesota, for their thoughtful program proposals which led to several key
sessions.  Enn Raudsepp, Concordia University, Montreal, has been working
closely with Bob Baker to secure leading Canadian journalists for our
program.
    AEJMC President Terry Hynes fielded our eight requests for speaker
support--along with other divisions' requests--and wrote grant proposals to
help secure funding for the convention.  We are waiting to hear results of
those requests.
    In addition, the following people have been instrumental in getting
the program organized by offering ideas and feedback:
 
    Rich Beckman, University of North Carolina
    J.B. Colson, University of Texas at Austin
    Bob Craig, University of Minnesota
    Wayne Danielson, University of Texas at Austin
    Mercedes Lynn de Uriarte, Freedom Forum Fellow
    Robert Jeffrey, University of Texas at Austin
    Bill Korbus, University of Texas at Austin
    Jim McNay, San Jose State University
    Jim Tankard, University of Texas at Austin
    Reggie Owens, Grambling University
    John Pavlik, Freedom Forum
    Adam Clayton Powell III, San Francisco
    Steve Reese, University of Texas at Austin
    Pamela Shoemaker, Ohio State University
    Alice Tait, Butler University
    A special thanks goes to our committee chairs, who all had great
ideas and session proposals and are working hard to put names and faces
into program slots:
 
    Jim Kelly, PF&R, Southern Illinois University
    Jan Colbert, Teaching, University of Missouri
    Keith Kenney, Research, University of South Carolina
    Rob Heller, University of Tennessee, Pre-Convention Workshop
    Craig Denton, Membership, University of Utah
    And finally, a special thanks to Bob Baker, Patsy Watkins and Jan
Colbert, who helped synthesize ideas at the mid-winter meeting in
Washington and helped us secure key co-sponsors and prime program slots.
    We still have a lot of work to do.  Final program copy must be in
Columbia before March 13.  But it never hurts to give credit where credit is
due--or to let people know their work is appreciated.
    Thanks, everybody.
    --Julie Newton
*********************************************************
Pre-convention workshop planned
    Plans are progressing for the VisCom division pre-convention
workshop scheduled for Tuesday, August 4, from 1 to 5 p.m. at the Montreal
AEJMC convention. The workshop is tentatively entitled "Getting Visual
Throughout the Curriculum" and is co-sponsored by the Magazine,
Advertising, Newspaper, and Radio-TV divisions.
    The intent of this workshop is to show how visual communication is
important to all the disciplines of journalism and mass communications.
We want to examine how both theoretical and practical applications of
visual communication are incorporated into the classroom in editing,
broadcast, advertising, mass communications, history, law and ethics, and
other courses.  Master teachers from these areas will share their methods
with us as part of the workshop.
    We are hoping to bring in a well known visual communicator to
introduce the topic, and we will follow up with several panel discussions
with representatives of all the co-sponsoring divisions.
    Your suggestions for panelists and specific topics for discussion are
invited. Please send your ideas and/or questions to:
 
Prof. Rob Heller
School of Journalism
330 Communications Building
University of Tennessee
Knoxville, TN 37996-0330
(615) 974-3463
CIS# 72570, 1241
FAX (615) 974-3896
*********************************************************
PF&R and VisCom
    The Visual Communication Division was created 10 years ago at a
Boston convention which affirmed the merger of the former Photojournalism
and Graphic Arts divisions of AEJMC.
    We have been acting across that period without a constitution, and
many would like to formally establish one for continuity's sake.
    While the content of such a document is fairly consistent from
division to division, the specifics vary. We would value your feedback on the
five areas that the Standing Committee.   on Professional Freedom and
Responsibility endorses.
    1. Free Expression. The freedoms of speech and press embodied in
the First Amendment have played a central role in the field of
communications. AEJMC traditionally has been concerned with protecting
the open circulation of ideas. Its members should not only work to improve
the understanding of free expression historically and legally but to
implement this freedom in the broadest sense.
    2.  Ethics. The ethical issues in each of the communications
professions and all divisions will vary somewhat. However, ethical concerns
most certainly include such topics as individual privacy, confidentiality,
conflict of interest, sensationalism, truthtelling, deception, social justice,
news coverage of terrorism and tragedy, pornography and violence. Media
professionals and educators should be encouraged to seek the highest
ethical standards possible through education and research.
    3. Media criticism and accountability.  Educators should conduct
constructive evaluation of the professional marketplace. Together educators
and practitioners ought to inspire media analysis. The search for
appropriate mechanisms to foster media accountability must be facilitated.
    4. Racial, gender and cultural inclusiveness. This addresses
issues of unequal treatment of women and minorities reflected in hiring and
promotion practices, institutional policies and stereotyped portrayal in
mass media. One of the functions of the PF&R Committee is to monitor
division programming within AEJMC to make sure that it includes women
and minorities at all levels. Cultural inclusiveness means that efforts
should be made to include segments of the population historically excluded
from public communication because of lack of opportunity.
    5. Public service. Educators have a mandate to serve society beyond
their teaching and research, and educators concerned with communications
should offer services related to their appropriate fields. This category
refers to activities that enhance understanding among media educators,
professionals and the general public. It includes assistance to AEJMC
committees or divisions, other media organizations and media practitioners.
For divisions with an academic orientation, public service may involve
establishing meaningful liaisons with their counterpart scholarly
organizations.
    Are there more sharply defined areas within these that VisCom needs
to pay special emphasis? Are there areas missing?
    Please take a few minutes to write Jim Kelly (1218 Communication
Building, School of Journalism, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL
62958) or call him (618-453-3278) with your list of the three most
important PF&R issues that VisCom should be working on and any other
concerns you might have. We'll try to incorporate your input into a draft
constitution that will appear in the next issue of the newsletter. Do let us
hear from YOU.
*********************************************************
Students redesign minority newspapers
Kevin G. Barnhurst, Freedom Forum Fellow
During the Spring 1991, ten students at the University of Illinois
studied and then redesigned newspapers published for women and ethnic,
political, and cultural minorities, such as libertarians, gays, and African
and Native Americans.
Their work responded to two currents in American culture affecting
publishing. Since the sixties, many groups have demanded recognition, from
the civil rights movement to feminism, gay liberation, and ethnic pride. And
these groups, along with corporations, political parties, government
agencies, and cultural institutions have become more concerned with their
public image.
Magazines responded to the demands of social movements with
minority publishing Ebony, Ms, and the Advocate are the best known of many
examples. Newspapers renamed the women's page and added stories on
social groups in a generic section sometimes called "lifestyle."  The front
page and news sections reported on these movements without being much
affected by them. But newspapers did participate in the increased visual
consciousness by redesigning, hiring more artists, moving them into the
newsrooms, and using more charts and illustrations.
    The course in community newspaper design in the Illinois Journalism
Department explored the relationship between social groups and visual
design. To understand the general-circulation newspaper, students examined
papers published for specialized audiences and compared them to the
general interest press.
    Each student selected an alternative newspaper published for a
specific group: radical feminists, African Americans in Ohio and in Chicago,
Indiana gay men and lesbians, Native Americans in the Pacific Northwest,
and the like. After completing an analysis of their study newspapers, the
students redesigned them to reflect the particular group each newspaper
serves. The course was divided into two parts: theory and practice.
Recent News Design Theory
The first part of the course ran much like a seminar. Students read
articles, discussed them, and then applied the ideas, to understand their
study newspapers. Here are a few of the questions considered:
    What is news? News used to be considered a naturally-occurring
phenomenon, but recent theories suggest it is created socially. Different
social groups may judge newsworthiness differently. Their opposing points
of view raise important questions about the belief in objectivity. Students
tried to discover how their study newspaper constructs news, compared to
general interest newspapers.
    How does newspaper design change? The appearance of the things
people create, commonly called style, changes not only for individual
newspapers but for entire societies over time. Design history has been
viewed as a succession of style periods or as a pantheon of great designers.
These two explanations propose very different motive forces: one is a sort
of natural progress and evolution, and the other is the power of individuals
to change the world. Newspaper designs have usually been classified as
either traditional or modern style, and the stories of how they changed from
the old to the new reveal beliefs about what changes the world. The
students found themselves sifting the individual characteristics of their
study newspapers from the elements that identified them with larger style
periods or with individual design innovators.
    How does design communicate? The students surveyed several ways
that visual images are understood to convey ideas. The system known as
formalism considers abstract geometry and form meaningful. Semiotics
looks at the identifiable elements or objects as signifiers. Other critical
theories find meaning in visual narratives and discourses, larger social
mythologies, or linguistic structures. The students used these theories to
discover the patterns of meaning in the layout and design of their
newspapers.
    How can design appeal to and serve newspaper readers?
Functionalism, the idea that newspapers are useful, drives most of the
books and research related directly to newspapers. But arguments about the
function of things are usually circular: Do people use newspapers the way
they do because of design, or do designers create newspapers for the way
people use them? Such chicken-and-egg arguments expose an underlying
ideology-the way designers and journalists define their culture as natural,
rather than invented. Contemporary design theory considers the rules of
typography and reading to be customs, not natural or biological. The
students explored the give and take between designers and readers and also
how everyone involved tends to confuse convenience with style and with
beauty.
    How do newspapers use Photography? The most thorough analysis of
images has been not of typographic forms but of pictures. Older histories
insisted that the development of photography was driven by technology, but
recent histories assign responsibility to social forces. Most theorists insist
that photographs are neither mechanical nor objective documents. Instead,
pictures tell preconceived stories that recycle the ideologies and myths of
the cultural group. Comparing the pictures in minority and general interest
newspapers showed the differences between how a minority group depicts
itself and how it gets depicted by others.
    Do information graphics work for all groups? Since USA Today began
publishing, newspapers have begun using more charts, which collapse
individuals into groups and then show only certain facts about them. The
argument among practitioners and scholars is whether the chart should take
an editorial position or seek objectivity in a one-to-one correlation
between data and ink. But another question is whether marginal groups use
charts, and if not, why not. The students found that most of their
newspapers rejected the trend toward charts.
Applying Theory to Practice
In the second part of the course, students put theory into practice by
redesigning their study newspapers. Each week they tackled one aspect of
the newspaper. They began with the grid. Although newspaper grids
traditionally include only the columns and margins, the students
experimented with no grids and with more elaborate grids from magazines
and architecture. Next they turned to the typography, establishing a style,
which they codified in a manual. They were then ready to set the layout
pattern for articles and pages. At the last class, they presented a mock-up
of the redesigned newspaper. Each mock-up came with stories about how the
students learned about minority groups and, in the process, about
themselves. The most challenging project, acknowledged as best by
members of the class, was the Indianapolis gay and lesbian newspaper
Heartland, selected by Elio Leturia of Lima, Peru. Like others in the class,
his challenge was to move out of the comfort zone, creating a design that
didn't necessarily serve his personal tastes and interests. The student
designers brought their best thinking and visual skills into the service of a
client. In the process they learned more about themselves and their
attitudes, as well as about a group that was previously foreign to them. For
them graphic design became an act of empathy.
Bibliographic Note
Rather than a full-length book, each of the following recommendations
is a shorter article, containing references to other articles and books.
A good discussion of news and objectivity can be found in the section,
What Is News, Journal of Communication Vol. 26, No. 4, Autumn 1976,
especially pages 93-97,102-107, and 115-119.    Ellen Lupton's 1990
article in the Journal of Graphic Design Vol. 9, No. 2, pages 10-11 and 15,
provides an excellent, readable summary of current graphic design thinking,
covering style and history as well as critical theories.
A ground-breaking book, edited by Victor Margolin from articles
appearing in the journal Design Issues, is Design Discourse: History, Theory,
Criticism (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1989). See, especially, the
chapters on design history by Clive Dilnot on pages 213-232 and 233-250
and the chapter on the grid by Jack H. Williamson on pages 171-186.
Besides the many functional textbooks about newspaper design, an
intriguing critique of functionalism is the article by Robert C. Craig,
"Ideological Aspects of Publication Design," from Design Issues, Vol. 6, No.
2, Spring 1990, pages 18-27.
    Two important articles on photography are "The Determinations of
News Photographs," the classic but somewhat daunting article by Stuart
Hall, found on pages 176-190 in The Manufacture of News: Social Problems,
Deviance, and the Mass Media, 2d. ed., edited by Stanley Cohen and Jock Young
(Beverly Hills: Sage, 1979), and "Access and Consent in Public Photography,"
by Lisa Henderson, on pages 91-107 in Image Ethics, edited by Larry Gross,
John Stuart Katz, and Jay Ruby (New York: Oxford, 1988).
Kevin G. Barnhurst, associate professor of graphic arts, S. I. Newhouse
School of Public Communications, Syracuse University, is currently a
visiting scholar in the School of the Arts and research fellow at the
Freedom Forum Media Studies Center, Columbia University.
*********************************************************
Theoretical discussions get short shutter speeds
Jeffery Alan John, Wright State University
    En route to his interesting observations in the Spring issue of
Newspaper Research Journal on the safety of working photojournalists,
Michael Sherer lists a wealth of research on photojournalists, the images
they create, reader responses to those images, and even legal issues and
photojournalism.
    But something important is missing from that list.  Perhaps the
reason may be found in Keith Kenney's comments about a VisCom research
journal in the December issue of ViewPoints.
    Commentaries frequently describe images in mass media: political
image manipulation, the public's image of a product or personality, and so
forth.  Because we constantly work with images, that language can be
confusing for those of us in visual communication.  Yet even while we create
and study visual, non-verbal ways of communication, we don't seem to spend
much time examining how that process works.  That is, we don't see much in
our field about theories of visual communication.
    Perhaps it's because our field touches a variety of areas including,
but certainly not limited to art, journalism, film and broadcasting, as well
as assorted technologies.  Even VisCom scholars have difficulty grasping the
threads of theory joining all those areas, and colleagues in the generic field
of "communication" often don't seem to take visual communication
seriously, if they think about it at all.  I suspect more than one VisCom
scholar has encountered a colleague from a verbally oriented communication
discipline who has devalued a study or proposal because it examines the
pictures and not the words.
    I've pretty much decided other communication disciplines -- and
therefore most communication journals -- simply don't speak our language.
At the risk of exposing my own shallow roots in theory, I'd appreciate a
journal where references to works by Wilson Hicks, Suzanne Langer, Roland
Barthes, Sol Worth, Sergei Eisenstein or Andre Bazin would draw recognition
rather than blank stares.
    We need a place for theoretical discussions.  Granted, various
publications now present excellent analyses: Design provides great
examples and commentary on newspaper graphics, and Jim Gordon of News
Photographer told me years ago to get a subscription to that publication if I
really wanted to know photojournalism.  But after my first $100 and change
goes to AEJMC for membership, division dues and Journalism Quarterly, the
choices begin: Newspaper Research Journal?  The Society of Professional
Journalists and its The Quill?  How about Columbia Journalism Review?
Washington Journalism Review?  Editor and Publisher?  Or the more generic
scholarly communication journals?
    Clearly, a regular review of all the above journals would yield great
benefits for the visual communication scholar.  But the knowledge would
come at great expense in both dollars and time.  The alternative?  Given
publication costs and Professor Kenney's bleak assessment, we should keep
looking and willingly accept any journal space we can find.
*********************************************************
Visual Communication Research in 1991
Keith Kenney, Research Chair
    The purpose of this article is to identify and review research
published in 1991 that I think would interest Visual Communication division
members.  The first set of articles were published in AEJMC publications.
    Journalism Monographs 130 (December 1991) published Kevin
Barnhurst's study "News as Art."  I plan to use this in my visual
communication class because it applies visual concepts to improve
newspaper design.  He shows how the lines and shapes of articles have
connotational meanings, and these lines and shapes can be used to reinforce
or contradict the meanings of news articles and art.  In addition, Barnhurst
has sections on handling pictures and grouping visual elements to convey
complex ideas and events.
    Journalism Educator 46 (Spring 1991) published a special issue about
visual education.  Barnhurst, the editor, recommends that communication
colleges offer a survey course in the production and interpretation of visual
messages that would be required of all students.  Intermediate skills
courses in photojournalism, design, broadcasting, etc., would build upon this
survey course.  Finally, a capstone course would be offered to advanced
undergraduate and graduate students.  Other articles define visual
communication, suggest content for a core course in visual communication
and report on teaching desktop publishing, information graphics, advertising
design and TV news.  Robert Heller shows how photojournalism education is
thriving in some schools but neglected in others.
    The summer issue of Journalism Educator included an article by
Patricia Aufderheide about using films and video to help students break out
of their narrow perspective and to understand people with different
cultural, economic and political perspectives.  She provides a list of films
from various world regions and film sources.  More important, she explains
how teachers can use such films to encourage student discussions and
learning.  Carolyn Martindale's article in the winter issue, "Infusing cultural
diversity into communication courses," also provides tips for teaching
"multiculturalism."
    VisCom members interested in using computers for interactive
learning may wish to read William E. Smith's commentary in the summer
issue of Journalism Educator, "Multimedia Computing: Teaching and
Research with TV and PCs."
    Several articles in Journalism Quarterly will interest
photojournalism professors.  Sandra Moriarty and Mark Popovich updated a
study of newsmagazine photographs of the 1984 presidential election.  In
the 1988 election, they found that Republicans had a slight edge.  This study
makes an important contribution to methodology because it measures the
meaning of photographs rather than simply reporting their frequency or size.
They measure 15 attributes, including activity, posture, arms, hands, eyes,
expression, camera angle, props, setting, dress, etc.
    Other JQ articles will interest professors who teach design and
graphic arts.  In the winter issue, Kevin Barnhurst and John Nerone reported
how the front page design of three different types of newspapers changes
from 1885-1985.  They found that design changes were gradual, and they
attribute the changes to design theory and news ideology rather than
economics or technology.
    Finally, these articles may interest people who teach other visual
communication course.  Hans-Bernd Brosius, "Format Effects on
Comprehension of Television News," JQ (Autumn): 396-401.  Roger Cooper,
"Colorization and Moral Rights: Should the Unites States Adopt Unified
Protection for Artists," JQ (Autumn 1991): 465-473.
    Newspaper Research Journal (Spring 1991) included an article by
Michael Sherer.  Based upon a survey of National Press Photographers
Association members, he reports that 75 percent of photojournalists have
been threatened with assault and 33 percent have been physically assaulted
on the job.  Perhaps of equal value are the extensive footnotes.  Almost
every article about photojournalism ever published in Journalism Quarterly
is cited.
    This next set of articles were published in journals not related to
AEJMC.  Journal of Communication (Winter 1991) published "Woman as Sign
in Television News."  Lana Rakow and Kimberlie Kranich argue that we not
only need more coverage of women and more women journalists, but we need
a fundamental change in news as a narrative genre.  They show how news is
a masculine narrative, and that women function not as speaking subjects,
but as signs.  Communication Research (October 1991) published "The
Coherence of Visual Narratives," by Robert N. Kraft, Phillip Cantor and
Charles Gottdiener.  They used an experimental design to show how
establishing shots and directional continuity enable people to understand
and remember visual narratives.  Journal of Advertising (December 1991)
published, "The Effects of Visual and Verbal Advertising Information on
Consumers' Inferences" by Ruth A. Smith.  She found that consumers use
both verbal advertising claims and pictures to form inferences, but
inferential beliefs derived from pictures were weaker.  When advertising
copy and pictures focus on different product attributes, however, the
pictures disproportionately influences inferences.  Journal of Marketing
Research (June-July 1991) published "An Imagery-Processing View of the
Role of Pictures in Print Advertisements," by H. Unnava and Robert
Burnkrant.  They found that imagery-provoking copy minimizes effect of
pictures on recall of verbal information.
    Ken Kobre's book, Photojournalism: The Professionals' Approach, 2nd
ed. (Boston: Focal Press, 1991) has a bibliography that will be useful to
photojournalism professors.  It includes articles, theses and books derived
from searches of a number of different data bases.
    In the 1990 Journalism Abstracts, the following dissertations may
interest VisCom scholars: Jeffery John, "An Analysis of Visual Reference
Associations in Television News Coverage of the 1988 U.S. Presidential
Election Campaign," Ohio Univ., 1990; John Newhagen, "This Evening's Bad
News: Effects of Compelling Negative Television News Images on Memory,"
Stanford Univ., 1990; Frank Biocca, "Reading the Video Screen:
Psychological Measurement of Spatial Attention and Perceptual
Asymmetries Within Television, Video and Computer Monitors," Univ. of
Wisconsin-Madison, 1990; Suren Lalvani, "Photography and the Body in the
Nineteenth Century," Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1990; and
Wayne Melanson, "Effects of Involvement and Communicators' Level of
Physical Attractiveness in Magazine Advertising," Univ. of Tennessee, 1990.
    Master's students at the University of Pennsylvania (six) and
University of Texas-Austin (four) completed the most research in the visual
communication area.  Note the following: Enoh T. Ebong, "Visual Imagery in
Political Advertisements: An Analysis of Viewers' Interpretations and
Responses," Univ. of Penn., 1990; Cindy I. Zukerman, "Rugged Cigarettes
and Sexy Soap: Brand Images and the Acquisition of Meaning Through
Associational Juxtaposition of Visual Imagery," Univ. of Penn., 1990; Marc
B. Rubner, "Cameras in the New York State Courtroom: A Critical Analysis
of the New York State Evaluation of Its Trial Period with Audio-Visual
Coverage of Trial Proceedings," Univ. of Penn., 1990; Monique A.
Thompson, "Literal and Symbolic Visuals in Print Advertising," Univ. of
Penn., 1990; Peter R. Head, "Whose Voice? A Case Study in the Making of a
'Representative' Documentary," Univ. of Penn., 1990; Nadine J. Canter,
"The Use of Landscape Photography in the Environmental Movement: A Triple
Case Study," Univ. of Penn., 1990; Molly Mosley, "Effects of Color and
Program Context on How Commercials are Processed," Univ. of Texas-
Austin, 1990; Danal Terry, "Digital Imaging Technologies in
Photojournalism: A Baseline Study of Applications, Implications and
Attitudes of a Field in Flux," Univ. of Texas-Austin, 1990; Charles Murray,
"Cultural Maintenance Strategies Among Non Indigenous Mormons in
Northern Chihuahua: A Visual Ethnography," Univ. of Texas-Austin, 1990;
David Thompson, "Effects of Justification and Column Rule on Memory of
Tests in Magazines," Univ. of Texas-Austin, 1990; and Kristina L. Vang,
"Nonverbal Behaviors of Presidential Candidates," Univ. of Wyoming, 1990.
    From this review, it seems that 1991 was a good year for VisCom
scholars.  A lot of research was published, especially in AEJMC publications.
It also seems that a lot of research was conducted.  In fact, the large
number of theses and dissertations indicates that the supply of research is
not a problem.  I continue to argue, however, that the VisCom division should
create its own journal.  Few book reviews, commentaries or annotated
bibliographies concerning visual communication were published.  None of the
published research included photographs and few articles contained any
artwork.  In my next article, I will report which journals are concerned with
visual communication and which ones publish photographs.  This should
provide additional information for discussion about creating a new journal.
*********************************************************
Trade journal articles of interest
Jim Kelly, PF&R Chair
    The following have been recently published in various trade journals
other than News Photographer or Design and may be of interest to VisCom
members.
    "Desktop training," Most magazines are currently investing heavily in
desktop publishing hardware and software, but if personnel aren't trained
properly, the money is wasted.  The author suggests numerous methods and
considerations concerning DTP training. Folio: the magazine for magazine
management, MAY 1991 v 20 n 5 p 74.
    "Cooking up picture ideas," John Loengard. The increased emphasis on
eye-catching graphics means photography is getting serious, although not
humorless, attention in magazines.  This former photographer and picture
editor for Life and People dispenses some wit and wisdom for inspired
picture editing. Folio: the magazine for magazine management,APR 1991 v
20 n 4 p 64.
    "Using available photography," For magazines that can't afford a
photographer, the author describes various sources for photos including
stock houses, Library of Congress archives, and the collections of various
museums. Folio: the magazine for magazine management, OCT 1990 v 19 n 10
p 155.
    "Roundup," More State Courts Allow Cameras in Courtrooms; Federal
Experiment Operating Smoothly. The news media & the law, FALL 1991 v 15
n 4 p 38.
    "Roundup," Camera Use Experiment Begins in Federal Trial and
Appellate Courts. The news media & the law, SMMR 1991 v 15 n 3 p 18.
    "Photos Always Lied," Arthur Goldsmith. The author counters
arguments that electronically manipulated photographic images will destroy
photography's veracity by tracing the history of photo manipulation and
examining the relationship between photographic realism and objective
reality. Popular photography, NOV 1991 v 98 n 11 p 68.
    "The Future of Imaging (Computers) Is Here," Bill Holshevnikoff.
Article provides a general overview of electronic imaging and speculates on
the future of chemical-based photography. Petersen's photographic, SEPT
1991 v 20 n 5.
    Special Photojournalism Issue: The Power of Truth. Issue features the
recent work of James Nachtwey, Sabastiao Salgado, Mary Ellen Mark, Donna
Ferrato, Eugene Richards, and others.  Vicki Goldberg discusses six
photojournalism stories that she says changed our lives. American photo,
SEPT/OCT 1991 v 11 n 5.
    "Camcorders: When Amateurs Go After News," Greg Luft. The use of
amateur-recorded videotape by local TV news stations raises concerns of
liability for personal injury while taping spot news, copyright
infringements, and ethical questions about the new "reporters"
professionalism. Columbia journalism review, SEPT/OCT 1991 v 11 n 5
    "Readers design the news," Alarmed by a loss of readers, editors are
turning to a new "reader friendly" newspaper journalism that involves both
an evolved definition of news as well as new design strategies to make
papers "more scannable." Washington journalism review, APR 1991 v 13 n 3
p 20.
    "Microsoft," Experts examine Microsoft computer software company's
new contract that offers photographers a modest, one-time fee for
worldwide perpetual rights for unspecified electronic products and
concludes that the deal "runs roughshod over photographers' interests."
Photo district news, SEPT 1991.
*********************************************************
Educator takes advantage of ANPA internship
    Tom Hubbard served a two-week residency at the Ashland (Kentucky)
Independent in July.  While at the Independent, Hubbard sat in on editorial
meetings, shot routine assignments and presented three seminars to staff
members.  Hubbard worked with the photo and editorial staff on methods of
planning for the extra-effort project while doing daily routine work.
    Hubbard's residency was arranged via an ANPA internship program
that is open to all journalism educators and to any paper wishing to
participate.  An internship or residency is negotiated by the journalism
educator and the individual newspaper.  All areas of newspaper journalism
are open.  Individual newspapers often stipulate what areas they can
accommodate.
*********************************************************
Your VisCom officers
 
Head: Robert L. Baker
Penn State (on-leave), 101 Woodlawn Circle,
Summerville, SC 29485.  Phone: 803-873-0679;
FAX 803-554-0183 (be sure to include phone # on FAX).
 
lst Vice Head/Montreal Program Chair: Julieanne Newton
CMA 6.144, Dept. of Journalism, U. of Texas, Austin,
TX 78712.  Phone: 512-471-1976;
Home phone: 512-444-7316.  FAX 512-471-8500.
 
2nd Vice Head/Logo Contest: Patsy G. Watkins
116 Kimpel, Dept. of Journalism, U. of Arkansas,
Fayetteville, AR 72701. Phone: 501-575-3601;
Home phone: 501-361-2043.
 
PF&R Chair: Jim Kelly
1218 Communication Building, School of Journalism,
Southern Illinois U., Carbondale, IL 62958.
Phone: 618-453-3278; Home phone: 618-457-4557.
 
Teaching Chair: Jan Colbert
100 Neff Hall, School of Journalism, U. of Missouri,
Columbia, MO 65211. Phone: 314-882-2042;
Home phone: 314-442-4802; FAX 314-882-5431.
 
Research Chair: Keith Kenney
College of Journalism, U. of South Carolina,
Columbia, SC 29208.  Phone: 803-777-3302;
Home phone: 803-782-0104.
 
Special Projects: Danal Terry
Dept. of Journalism, Southwest Texas State
University, San Marcos, TX 78666.
Phone: 512-245-2656; Home phone: 512-396-8434.
 
Newsletter Editor: Paul Lester
School of Communications, California State U.,
Fullerton, CA 92636.  Phone: 714-449-5302;
Home phone:714-680-6124; FAX 714-773-2209.
 
Pre-Convention Workshop: Rob Heller
330 Communications Building, School of Journalism, U.
of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996.
Phone: 615-974-3463; Home phone: 615-694-0011.
 
Membership: Craig Denton
Dept. of Communication, U. of Utah, Salt Lake City,
UT 84112.  Phone: 801-581-5321;
Home phone: 801-255-3095.
 
___    ____________  |---------------------------------------|
\..\  /..___...___/  |   James Powell                        |
 \..\/../  /../      |   Systems Support and Development     |
  \..../  /../       |      University Libraries, VPI & SU   |
   \../  /../        |      Blacksburg, VA   (703) 231-3336  |
    \/  /__/         |      FAX (703) 231-3694               |
Internet JPOWELL@VTVM1.CC.VT.EDU or JPOWELL@VTTCF.CC.VT.EDU  |
=========================================================================
Date:         Tue, 21 Apr 1992 14:24:14 EDT
Reply-To:     "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
Sender:       "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
From:         James Powell 
Subject:      Usenet gateway
 
It has been suggested that a gateway be established for this list to Usenet
which would mean the creation of a Usenet group call bit.listserv.vpiej-l
which those with Usenet access could read.  This could increase the traffic
on the list and would certainly expand the audience.  Many of you who have
access to Usenet may want to read VPIEJ-L there instead of continuing your
ListServ subscription, since this would free up your mail and disk space.
 
Are there any objections to this proposal?
 
Thanks.  James.
 
___    ____________  |---------------------------------------|
\..\  /..___...___/  |   James Powell                        |
 \..\/../  /../      |   Systems Support and Development     |
  \..../  /../       |      University Libraries, VPI & SU   |
   \../  /../        |      Blacksburg, VA   (703) 231-3336  |
    \/  /__/         |      FAX (703) 231-3694               |
Internet JPOWELL@VTVM1.CC.VT.EDU or JPOWELL@VTTCF.CC.VT.EDU  |
=========================================================================
Date:         Tue, 21 Apr 1992 15:26:43 EDT
Reply-To:     "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
Sender:       "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
From:         BILL MCCONNELL 
Subject:      Re: Usenet gateway
In-Reply-To:  Message of Tue, 21 Apr 1992 14:24:14 EDT from 
 
   Sounds like a good idea.
   wfm
=========================================================================
Date:         Wed, 22 Apr 1992 14:27:59 EDT
Reply-To:     "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
Sender:       "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
Comments:     Resent-From: James Powell 
Comments:     Originally-From: 
From:         James Powell 
Subject:      authorization
 
Post responses to this note to list or to original author listed below.
--------------
Perhaps this is the proper forum for a question we are facing.  Vanderbilt
has subscribed to an electronic journal as a test case to develop policies
and guidelines.  We are interested in finding out from other libraries who
have already begun this:  who is responsible for "receiving" the issues?
The journal we have subscribed to is Psycoloquy, and the issues arrive as
MAIL messages.  We anticipate that someone will "read" the issues and
extract them from the MAIL program into text files, delete the "header"
information and preserve just the text of the issues.  We feel that the
person doing this task may be different from a person who checks in paper
copies of journals, etc.  But we want to treat electronic journals like
other publications as much as possible.  Could someone who has faced this
issue describe your procedures; who does what, etc.  Thanks for your input.
_______________________________________________________________________________
/ Ramona J. Steffey                    /               Bitnet:                /
/ Automation Project Librarian         /          STEFFERJ@VUCTRVAX           /
/ Vanderbilt University                /              Internet:               /
/ Library Systems                      /    stefferj@ctrvax.Vanderbilt.Edu    /
/ 419 21st Avenue South                /       Phone: (615) 322-7125          /
/ Nashville, TN  37240                 /         Fax: (615) 343-0394          /
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
=========================================================================
Date:         Wed, 22 Apr 1992 20:03:02 EDT
Reply-To:     "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
Sender:       "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
From:         Dennis Moser 
Subject:      Yes, another survey...
 
I am a graduate student in Library Studies and am soliciting
responses to several questions that were raised in a recent
class discussion.  With any luck, I will be able to supply a
report back about the comments that I receive, so if you wish
to receive my follow-up, please be sure to include either an
Internet return address or regular U.S. Postal address.
Please bear in mind that shorter answers mean less time on
line for me (and less damage to my mail budget!)  All responses
are welcome, including additional questions you might have
about these issues.  Please address responses to me, rather
than the LISTSERV where you see this.  This questionnaire has
also been posted on VPIEJ-L.
The discussion goes as follows:  We are increasingly talking
about libraries and other campus agencies serving as
'gateways' to an outside 'electronic world.'  What roles are
libraries playing and what roles are computing centers
playing?  Beyond being an electronic switching center, does
the computing center have a role to play?  Is there any
service(s) that the computer center uniquely provides?
Alternatively, do the libraries have any unique services that
allow them to provide the gateway?  Do you see any merging of
the roles?
Thanks for your comments.  Again, please address responses to
me, rather than the LISTSERV where you see this.
Dennis_Moser@UM.CC.UMICH.EDU
or at
70253.2646@COMPUSERVE.COM
=========================================================================
Date:         Thu, 23 Apr 1992 16:48:40 CDT
Reply-To:     "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
Sender:       "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
From:         "Charles Bailey, University of Houston" 
Subject:      Electronic Serials Bibliography
 
             Electronic Serials and Related Topics:
                      A Brief Bibliography
 
                    By Charles W. Bailey, Jr.
 
 
Alexander, Adrian W., and Julie S. Alexander.  "Intellectual
Property Rights and the 'Sacred Engine': Scholarly Publishing in
the Electronic Age."  Advances in Library Resource Sharing 1
(1990): 176-192.
 
Amiran, Eyal, Elaine Orr, and John Unsworth.  "Refereed
Electronic Journals and the Future of Scholarly Publishing."
Advances in Library Automation and Networking 4 (1991): 25-53.
 
Amiran, Eyal, and John Unsworth.  "Postmodern Culture: Publishing
in the Electronic Medium."  The Public-Access Computer Systems
Review 2, no. 1 (1991): 67-76.  (To retrieve this article, send
an e-mail message that says "GET AMIRAN PRV2N1 F=MAIL" to
LISTSERV@UHUPVM1 or LISTSERV@UHUPVM1.UH.EDU.)
 
Bailey, Charles W., Jr.  "Electronic (Online) Publishing in
Action . . . The Public-Access Computer Systems Review and Other
Electronic Serials."  Online 15 (January 1991): 28-35.
 
Bailey, Charles W., Jr.  "Network-Based Electronic Serials."
Information Technology and Libraries 11 (March 1992): 29-35.
 
Brown, Heather.  "Standards for Structured Documents."  The
Computer Journal 32, no. 6 (1989): 505-514.
 
Duggan, Mary Kay.  "Copyright of Electronic Information: Issues
and Questions."  Online 15 (May 1991): 20-26.
 
Gardner, William.  "The Electronic Archive: Scientific Publishing
for the 1990s."  Psychological Science 1 (November 1990): 333-
341.
 
Harnad, Stevan.  "Post-Gutenburg Galaxy: The Fourth Revolution in
the Means of Production of Knowledge."  The Public-Access
Computer Systems Review 2, no. 1 (1991): 39-53.  (To retrieve
this article, send an e-mail message that says "GET HARNAD PRV2N1
F=MAIL" to LISTSERV@UHUPVM1 or LISTSERV@UHUPVM1.UH.EDU.)
 
Harnad, Stevan.  "Scholarly Skywriting and the Prepublication
Continuum of Scientific Inquiry."  Psychological Science 1
(November 1990): 342-344.
 
Harrison, Teresa M., Timothy Stephen, and James Winter.  "Online
Journals: Disciplinary Designs for Electronic Scholarship."  The
Public-Access Computer Systems Review 2, no. 1 (1991): 25-38.
(To retrieve this article, send an e-mail message that says "GET
HARRISON PRV2N1 F=MAIL" to LISTSERV@UHUPVM1 or
LISTSERV@UHUPVM1.UH.EDU.)
 
Hugo, Jane, and Linda Newell.  "New Horizons in Adult Education:
The First Five Years (1987-1991)."  The Public-Access Computer
Systems Review 2, no. 1 (1991): 77-90.  (To retrieve this
article, send an e-mail message that says "GET HUGO PRV2N1
F=MAIL" to LISTSERV@UHUPVM1 or LISTSERV@UHUPVM1.UH.EDU.)
 
Jennings, Edward M. "EJournal: An Account of the First Two
Years."  The Public-Access Computer Systems Review 2, no. 1
(1991): 91-110.  (To retrieve this article, send an e-mail
message that says "GET JENNINGS PRV2N1 F=MAIL" to
LISTSERV@UHUPVM1 or LISTSERV@UHUPVM1.UH.EDU.)
 
King, Tim.  "Critical Issues for Providers of Network-Accessible
Information."  EDUCOM Review 26 (Summer 1991): 29-33.
 
King, Timothy B.  "The Impact of Electronic and Networking
Technologies on the Delivery of Scholarly Information."  The
Serials Librarian 21, no. 2/3 (1991): 5-13.
 
Kovacs, Diane, Willard McCarty, and Michael Kovacs.  "How to
Start and Manage a BITNET LISTSERV Discussion Group: A Beginner's
Guide."  The Public-Access Computer Systems Review 2, no. 1
(1991): 128-143.  (To retrieve this article, send an e-mail
message that says "GET KOVACS PRV2N1 F=MAIL" to LISTSERV@UHUPVM1
or LISTSERV@UHUPVM1.UH.EDU.)
 
LaQuey, Tracy L., ed.  The User's Directory of Computer Networks.
Bedford, MA: Digital Press, 1990.
 
Litchfield, Charles.  "Local Storage and Retrieval of Electronic
Journals: Training Issues for Technical Services Personnel."
Serials Review 17, no. 4 (1991): 83-84.
 
Lucier, Richard E.  "Knowledge Management: Refining Roles in
Scientific Communication."  EDUCOM Review 25 (Fall 1990): 21-27.
 
McMillan, Gail.  "Embracing the Electronic Journal: One Library's
Plan."  The Serials Librarian 21, no. 2/3 (1991): 97-108.
 
McMillan, Gail.  "Technical Services for Electronic Journals
Today."  Serials Review 17, no. 4 (1991): 84-86.
 
Metz, Paul.  "Electronic Journals from a Collection Manager's
Point of View."  Serials Review 17, no. 4 (1991): 82-83.
 
Metz, Paul, and Paul M. Gherman.  "Serials Pricing and the Role
of the Electronic Journal."  College & Research Libraries 52
(July 1991): 315-327.
 
Neavill, Gordon B.  "Electronic Publishing, Libraries, and the
Survival of Information."  Library Resources & Technical Services
28 (January/March 1984): 76-89.
 
Okerson, Ann.  "Back to Academia?  The Case for American
Universities to Publish Their Own Research."  Logos 2, no. 2
(1991): 106-112.
 
Okerson, Ann.  "The Electronic Journal: What, Whence, and When?"
The Public-Access Computer Systems Review 2, no. 1 (1991): 5-24.
(To retrieve this article, send an e-mail message that says "GET
OKERSON PRV2N1 F=MAIL" to LISTSERV@UHUPVM1 or
LISTSERV@UHUPVM1.UH.EDU.)
 
Okerson, Ann, and Kendon Stubbs.  "The Library 'Doomsday'
Machine."  Publishers Weekly, 8 February 1991.
 
Okerson, Ann.  "With Feathers: Effects of Copyright and Ownership
on Scholarly Publishing."  College & Research Libraries 52
(September 1991): 425-438.
 
Piternick, Anne B.  "Electronic Serials: Realistic or Unrealistic
Solution to the Journal 'Crisis'?"  The Serials Librarian 21, no.
2/3 (1991): 15-31.
 
Piternick, Anne B. "Serials and New Technology: The State of the
'Electronic Journal.'"  Canadian Library Journal 46 (April 1989):
93-97.
 
Quarterman, John S.  The Matrix: Computer Networks and
Conferencing Systems Worldwide.  Bedford, MA: Digital Press,
1990.
 
Rogers, Sharon J., and Charlene S. Hurt.  "How Scholarly
Communication Should Work in the 21st Century."  College &
Research Libraries 51 (January 1990): 5-8.
 
Savage, Lon.  "The Journal of the International Academy of
Hospitality Research."  The Public-Access Computer Systems Review
2, no. 1 (1991): 54-66.  (To retrieve this article, send an e-
mail message that says "GET SAVAGE PRV2N1 F=MAIL" to
LISTSERV@UHUPVM1 or LISTSERV@UHUPVM1.UH.EDU.)
 
Strangelove, Michael, and Diane Kovacs.  Directory of Electronic
Journals, Newsletters and Academic Discussion Lists, 2nd ed.
Washington, D.C.: Office of Scientific and Academic Publishing,
Association of Research Libraries, 1992.
 
"Task Force Report Looks at Future of Information Services."
Bulletin of the American Physical Society 36 (April 1991): 1105-
1151.
 
Tuttle, Marcia.  "The Newsletter on Serials Pricing Issues."  The
Public-Access Computer Systems Review 2, no. 1 (1991): 111-127.
(To retrieve this article, send an e-mail message that says "GET
TUTTLE PRV2N1 F=MAIL" to LISTSERV@UHUPVM1 or
LISTSERV@UHUPVM1.UH.EDU.)
 
Yavarkovsky, Jerome.  "A University-Based Electronic Publishing
Network."  EDUCOM Review 25 (Fall 1990): 14-20.
 
 
-----------------------------------------------------------------
Copyright (C) 1992 by Charles W. Bailey, Jr.  All Rights Reserved.
 
Copying is permitted for noncommercial use by computer
conferences, individual scholars, and libraries.
This message must appear on all copied material.
All commercial use requires permission.
 
+------------------------------------------------------------+
| Charles W. Bailey, Jr.             Voice: (713) 743-9804   |
| Assistant Director For Systems     FAX:   (713) 743-9748   |
| University Libraries               BITNET: LIB3@UHUPVM1    |
| University of Houston              CompuServe: 71161,3410  |
| Houston, TX 77204-2091                                     |
|------------------------------------------------------------|
| Co-Editor, Advances in Library Automation and Networking   |
| Editor-in-Chief, The Public-Access Computer Systems Review |
| Co-Editor, Public-Access Computer Systems News             |
+------------------------------------------------------------+
Revised 4/23/92
=========================================================================
Date:         Thu, 23 Apr 1992 20:43:59 -0800
Reply-To:     "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
Sender:       "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
From:         "Michael C. Berch" 
Subject:      Re: Usenet gateway
 
In article  you write:
> It has been suggested that a gateway be established for this list to Usenet
> which would mean the creation of a Usenet group call bit.listserv.vpiej-l
> which those with Usenet access could read.  This could increase the traffic
> on the list and would certainly expand the audience.  Many of you who have
> access to Usenet may want to read VPIEJ-L there instead of continuing your
> ListServ subscription, since this would free up your mail and disk space.
>
> Are there any objections to this proposal?
 
Only that it might be more appropriate to gateway the group more
globally, either through the Usenet "inet" distribution, or by
creating a mainstream (global) Usenet group.  This would reach a
large number of sites, not merely those that receive the bit.listserv.*
groups.
 
I am willing to gateway the group/list here at presto.ig.com.  It
would merely take a couple of days to decide the proper name for the
group in the Usenet naming scheme, e.g., something like
comp.infosystems.e-journals, and have it approved and created by the
inet group czar.
 
--
Michael C. Berch
mcb@presto.ig.com
=========================================================================
Date:         Fri, 24 Apr 1992 13:00:13 EDT
Reply-To:     "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
Sender:       "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
Comments:      W: Field "Resent-To:/To:" duplicated. Last occurrence
              was retained.
From:         GMCMILLA@VTVM1.BITNET
Subject:      Re: Usenet gateway
In-Reply-To:  Message of Thu,
              23 Apr 1992 20:43:59 -0800 from 
 
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
.........................Gail McMillan........................
___....____________......Serials Team Leader..................
\  \../  ___   ___/.........University Libraries VPI&SU.......
.\  \/  /../  /.............Blacksburg, VA - (703) 231-9252...
..\    /../  /..............FAX (703) 231-3694................
...\  /../  /.................................................
....\/../__/..........INTERNET.....gmcmilla@VTVM1.CC.VT.EDU....
......................BITNET.......gmcmilla@VTVM1.............
=========================================================================
Date:         Tue, 28 Apr 1992 14:02:56 EDT
Reply-To:     "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
Sender:       "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
From:         James Powell 
Subject:      E-Journal Flowchart
 
I recently prepared a flowchart describing the subscription and retrieval
process for ListServ-distributed electronic journals.  The file is in
PostScript format.  If anyone would like to see it, retrieve LISTSERV PS from
the VPIEJ-L archives.  Please send me a note if you retrieve it and view or
print it successfully, OR if you fail.  The first line of the file should be:
%!PS-Adobe-2.0
if not, remove mail header information up to this line.  Thanks.
 
James Powell >>> Systems Support and Development, University Libraries, VPI&SU
             >>> JPOWELL@VTVM1.CC.VT.EDU   (or)   JPOWELL@VTTCF.CC.VT.EDU
             >>> Owner of VPIEJ-L, a discussion list for Electronic Journals
=========================================================================
Date:         Tue, 28 Apr 1992 16:52:24 MDT
Reply-To:     "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
Sender:       "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
Comments:     Converted from PROFS to RFC822 format by PUMP V2.2
From:         KCARTER@UALTAVM.BITNET
Subject:      E-Journal Flowchart
In-Reply-To:  note of 92-04-28 12:25
 
Don, do you think this would be useful to Acquisitions when you have to start
subscribing to electronic journals?
 
Kathy Carter
University of Alberta Library
Edmonton, Alta. (403) 492-5753
kcarter@vm.ucs.ualberta.ca or kcarter@ualtavm
=========================================================================
Date:         Wed, 29 Apr 1992 14:35:35 +0100
Reply-To:     "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
Sender:       "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
From:         Michel Eytan LILoL 
 
listserv ps
=========================================================================
Date:         Wed, 29 Apr 1992 08:47:13 EDT
Reply-To:     "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
Sender:       "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
From:         James Powell 
In-Reply-To:  Message of Wed,
              29 Apr 1992 14:35:35 +0100 from 
 
If you were trying to retrieve LISTSERV PS, send mail to LISTSERV@VTVM1.CC.VT.E
DU with the message:
GET LISTSERV PS
It should be sent back to you by mail, I think.  Thanks.  James.
 
James Powell >>> Systems Support and Development, University Libraries, VPI&SU
             >>> JPOWELL@VTVM1.CC.VT.EDU   (or)   JPOWELL@VTTCF.CC.VT.EDU
             >>> Owner of VPIEJ-L, a discussion list for Electronic Journals
=========================================================================
Date:         Wed, 29 Apr 1992 10:37:58 PDT
Reply-To:     "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
Sender:       "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
From:         David Robison 
Subject:      Retrieving the E-Serials Processing Flow Chart
 
I sent a GET message to the LISTSERV and received the PS document
back in punch format.  I forced a quick download (a log file of
a screen display), but the document would not print.
 
Is the punch format the problem?
 
Thanks for your help,
 
David F.W. Robison                   Internet: drobison@library.berkeley.edu
Editor, Current Cites                  Bitnet: drobison@ucblibra
Library Technology Watch Program        Voice: (510)642-7600
UC Berkeley Library                       Fax: (510)643-7891
Berkeley, CA 94720
=========================================================================
Date:         Wed, 29 Apr 1992 13:44:14 EDT
Reply-To:     "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
Sender:       "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
Comments:     Resent-From: James Powell 
Comments:     Originally-From: goddard@esvax.dnet.dupont.com
From:         James Powell 
Subject:      LISTSERV Command
 
If you are having problems retrieving the LISTSERV PS document, try the
following comand:
 
     GET LISTSERV PS F=MAIL
 
and send it to LISTSERV@VTVM1.BITNET or LISTSERV@VTVM1.CC.VT.EDU
 
     This command has worked for me.
 
Steven
goddard@esvax.dnet.dupont.com  (ASCII only)
 
James Powell >>> Systems Support and Development, University Libraries, VPI&SU
             >>> JPOWELL@VTVM1.CC.VT.EDU   (or)   JPOWELL@VTTCF.CC.VT.EDU
             >>> Owner of VPIEJ-L, a discussion list for Electronic Journals
=========================================================================
Date:         Wed, 29 Apr 1992 13:49:15 EDT
Reply-To:     "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
Sender:       "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
From:         James Powell 
Subject:      Appearances are something
 
I posted LISTSERV PS both as an experiment in distributing PostScript via
BITNET and to make a point: sometimes appearance is very very important.  I've
received several notes from people saying "geez, you could have fit the text
from this document into a small ASCII text file."  Good point, but the text was
just part of the presentation.  The effect would have been lost.  There is
information contained in the graphics that would have been lost.  The text
enclosed in the LIST FACT boxes would have been less effectual.  These are
things I deal with when I assist editors on our campus with their journals.
They want to see a reasonably accurate replica of the paper document made
available.
 
How do I balance the need to preserve the quality of the presentation with the
need to make the text searchable?
 
James Powell >>> Systems Support and Development, University Libraries, VPI&SU
             >>> JPOWELL@VTVM1.CC.VT.EDU   (or)   JPOWELL@VTTCF.CC.VT.EDU
             >>> Owner of VPIEJ-L, a discussion list for Electronic Journals
=========================================================================
Date:         Wed, 29 Apr 1992 15:36:00 EDT
Reply-To:     "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
Sender:       "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
From:         Bill Drew -- Serials Librarian 
Subject:      Re: LISTSERV Command
 
GET LISTSERV PS F=MAIL
=========================================================================
Date:         Thu, 30 Apr 1992 08:52:51 +0100
Reply-To:     "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
Sender:       "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
From:         Michel Eytan LILoL 
Subject:      listserv ps
 
James,
 
the file has been succesfully dowloaded, but won't print: there are numbers,
 separated by '/'s in front of the %s, in each line. This may be due to the
 'listpunch' format. I haven't tried erasing them, it can be time-consuming.
 
==michel
=========================================================================
Date:         Wed, 29 Apr 1992 23:02:43 EDT
Reply-To:     "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
Sender:       "Publishing E-Journals : Publishing, Archiving,
              and Access" 
From:         Gess Shankar 
Subject:      Appearances are something
 
James Powell  writes:
 
  I posted LISTSERV PS both as an experiment in distributing PostScript via
  BITNET and to make a point: sometimes appearance is very very important.  I've
  received several notes from people saying "geez, you could have fit the text
  from this document into a small ASCII text file."  Good point, but the text
 was
  just part of the presentation.  The effect would have been lost.  There is
  information contained in the graphics that would have been lost.  The text
  enclosed in the LIST FACT boxes would have been less effectual.  These are
  things I deal with when I assist editors on our campus with their journals.
  They want to see a reasonably accurate replica of the paper document made
  available.
 
  How do I balance the need to preserve the quality of the presentation with the
  need to make the text searchable?
 
Why not generate two versions of the document? One plain ascii and the other
in a formatted fashion?  The other option is for the user to use a utility
to convert ps to ascii, but this is not always desirable -especially if there
are graphics and figures involved.
 
GeSS
--
Gess Shankar      |<><>|Internet: gess@knex.Gwinnett.COM                |<><>|
Knowledge Exchange|<><>|{rutgers,ogicse,gatech}!emory!gwinnett!knex!gess|<><>|

__________________________________________________________________

James Powell