VPIEJ-L Discussion Archives

May 1995

=========================================================================
Date:         Mon, 1 May 1995 13:28:08 EDT
Reply-To:     weibel@oclc.org
Sender:       Electronic Journal Publishing List 
From:         weibel@oclc.org
Subject:      Accreditation of Knowledge in the Electronic World
 
 
 
> The underlying transformation is from the dependence of on jounals
> that have high reputations to the dependence upon authors that have
> high reputations. The challenge is how to accredit knowledge in an
> environment where posterior review (review after publication) is the
> dominant mode of evaluation. This is already accepted as the best way
> to evaluate authors (i. e., citation counts).
 
This is an interesting dimension of the scholarly publication process,
and one that may in fact be undergoing a major change.  I am personally
skeptical that the role of the publisher will be so easily displaced.
 
Its easy enough to imagine how established authors will sustain their
credibility (and enhance it) in a world of only  electronic
imprints...  it is less obvious how young investigators acquire their
reputation.  Do we really think that network publishing will promote a
true meritocracy, where the strength of one's ideas will be clearer
(without the meddling of reviewers who have agendae and biases of their
own)?   This may be the case, but it is not clear to me that it is so.
 
 
{Aside: I do not accept that citation counts are the best way to
accredit scholarly achievement.  It is simply the only easy way,
requiring no actual intellectual investment.  heh... computers can
do it, and we know how smart THEY are ;-) }
 
Finally, before you throw out the conventional publication process,
consider for a moment how the record of scholarship is archived and
maintained.  Will the preprint archives persist?  Will they be
organized, accessible, secure?  These questions must be answered for
electronic documents of all types, whether published formally or
informally.  The  solutions are neither easy nor clear.
 
stu
 
Stuart Weibel
Senior Research Scientist
OCLC Office of Research
weibel@oclc.org
(614) 764-6081 (v)
(614) 764-2344 (f)
http://www.oclc.org:5046/~weibel
=========================================================================
Date:         Mon, 1 May 1995 13:29:03 EDT
Reply-To:     RCOLLINS@carins.cariboo.bc.ca
Sender:       Electronic Journal Publishing List 
From:         RCOLLINS@carins.cariboo.bc.ca
Subject:      Re: the 70% solution?
In-Reply-To:  <01050105.sbgmlu@arch.ping.dk>
 
 
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
Roger Collins
Dept. of Accounting - FAA 13            Phone:- (604)-371-5560
University College of the Cariboo
P.O.Box 3010                            Fax:-   (604)-371-5675
Kamloops
British Columbia V2C 5N3                E-mail:- RCOLLINS@CARIBOO.BC.CA
CANADA.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
 
On Fri, 28 Apr 1995, David Stodolsky wrote:
 
>
> The underlying transformation is from the dependence of on jounals
> that have high reputations to the dependence upon authors that have
> high reputations. The challenge is how to accredit knowledge in an
> environment where posterior review (review after publication) is the
> dominant mode of evaluation. This is already accepted as the best way
> to evaluate authors (i. e., citation counts).
>
> dss
>
 
Hold on a minute...- accepted by whom ? I think you'll find that
acceptance of citation counts varies widely between disciplines and
institutions. Also, citation counts aren't problem-free; for example, its
quite possible that authors having a very high reputation for past work
might benefit from a "fan-mail" effect whereby they receive citations for
indifferent current work from less-than-critical acolytes.
 
It may also be possible for "citation cartels" to form (remember the apocrypha
about the churchman and the sailor who promised one another that whenever they
heard each other's name mentioned, they would point out how praiseworthy
the individual was ? - And how one became a bishop, and the other, an
admiral ?).
 
Time is also a problem - in essence, the scope for citation exists for
the whole of remaining time..... it might be useful to know what limits
academics apply here - not to mention the scope for retrospective revisions
(anyone for granting an honorary D.Litt to a certain William Shakespeare ?).
 
On a lighter note, citations are neuter; I realise that Pons and
Fleishmann have given this strategy a bad name, but a less ambitious
academic could make quite a reasonable career of writing articles which
others could quote .... does anyone know of a dean who makes a habit of
reading all his/her Faculty's citations in the original - ie, the papers
where the citations were made ?
 
 - I acknowledge the deficiencies of the "publish - anything - anywhere -
or perish" system. Just so long as we are also clear that citations are,
of themselves, no researchers' Valhalla....
 
Roger.
=========================================================================
Date:         Mon, 1 May 1995 13:29:32 EDT
Reply-To:     RCOLLINS@carins.cariboo.bc.ca
Sender:       Electronic Journal Publishing List 
From:         RCOLLINS@carins.cariboo.bc.ca
Subject:      Re: the 70% solution?
In-Reply-To:  <9504241426.AA03116@alfred.econ.lsa.umich.edu>
 
 
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
Roger Collins
Dept. of Accounting - FAA 13            Phone:- (604)-371-5560
University College of the Cariboo
P.O.Box 3010                            Fax:-   (604)-371-5675
Kamloops
British Columbia V2C 5N3                E-mail:- RCOLLINS@CARIBOO.BC.CA
CANADA.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
Hal, a couple of comments re your message. First, Noll & Steinmueller
have an article entitled "An Economic Analysis of Journal Prices" in the
Spring and Summer 1992 issue of Serials Review  - pages 32-37. They
concentrate on analysing subscription prices against paid circulation
levels (no attempt to account for split circulations - ie individual vs
institutional -  as far as I can see) - and, apart from a paragraph on
page 34, don't pay much attention to the prestige issue. N&S are trying
to develop an economic model of the scholarly journals market. One of the
problems I have with the article is that that graphs they use to make
their points are capable of more than one interpretation. Anyway, take a
look and see what you think...
 
Secondly, I remember that the Accounting Review published an article re
journal rankings "recently" where the average price was around $120 U.S..
However, the journal ranked around 8th out of 100 in the lineup -
Accounting, Organisations and Society - was priced at around $650 U.S.
Guess who publishes A.O.S. ? A free byte to whoever responds with
"Elsevier" - under their Pergamon (ex Robert Maxwell) cloak...
 
On a more general note, I for one am getting seriously concerned at the
way in which the prices of those academic journals published by
commercial presses are diverging from the average and at the way in which
certain presses appear to be determined to exact a maximum from their
monopoly of prestige. The consequences of rising journal prices for my
own institution are serious; we are looking at a budget for the coming
year which will involve substantial reductions in the number of journals
to which we subscribe. After four years of subsidy from other resource
areas the Library has decided to pull the plug; I can hardly blame them.
I'm not sure whether the root causes of this are changes in exchange
rates (I doubt it - UK journals not published by commercial presses
continue to be reasonable buys) - or other factors; what I have noticed
is how often the names Elsevier, Kluwer and Spinger-Verlag crop up
whenever this topic is mentioned. Academics, in my experience, tend to be
indifferent to the price of journals (particularly those purchased by
their own departments). Perhaps it is time to change this....
 
Roger
(Member, U.C.C. Library Advisory Committee).
 
On Tue, 25 Apr 1995, Hal Varian wrote:
 
> I agree with Andrew Ordlyzko's statement that "The game for authors
> has always been to get their papers into the most prestigious
> journals possible....Price was not a critical issue, since it
> affected libraries, not the authors."   However, I am curious about the
> relationship between journal price and prestige.  In my field
> (economics) the most prestigous and widely cited journals are the
> cheapest, since they are the ones published by the nonprofit
> professional organizations and university presses.  The special
> interest journals are typically published by commercial presses.
> Many of these are "prestigous" but they don't carry the same weight as
> the top journals.
>
> Is this pattern similar to those found in other fields?
> Has anybody looked at the relationship between price, prestige, publisher
> and circulation?  I've could put someone to work on this this summer if it
> hasn't already been done.
>
> ---
> Hal.Varian@umich.edu                    Hal Varian
> voice: 313-764-2364                     Dept of Economics
> fax:   313-764-2364                     Univ of Michigan
> http://gopher.econ.lsa.umich.edu        Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1220
>
=========================================================================
Date:         Mon, 1 May 1995 13:30:22 EDT
Reply-To:     amo@research.att.com
Sender:       Electronic Journal Publishing List 
From:         Andrew Odlyzko 
Subject:      economics of scholarly publishing
X-cc:         Hal.Varian@umich.edu, ginsparg@qfwfq.lanl.gov,
              harnad@ecs.soton.ac.uk
 
A repeated question that has been raised in this forum is whether
authors can be persuaded to behave so as to reduce costs of journals,
say by steering their works to inexpensive publications.  Unfortunately
there is little evidence that this will happen.  Altruism is not
a powerful motive, and there are few ways to make it more attractive.
The perverse economic incentives that operate in scholarly publishing
are illustrated well by the following bit of history, extracted from
an email message from Paul Ginsparg (ginsparg@qfwfq.lanl.gov), the
creator of the preprint server that has revolutionized information
dissemination in many subfields of physics and other disciplines.
 
   ******* quoted from a message from Paul Ginsparg **********
 
   i need to provide a small amount of background. in the late 70's, the
   elsevier journal nuclear physics b took over [from Physical Review D]
   as the "journal of choice" in this field [nuclear physics] by
   abolishing page charges (no matter that their subscription
   charges to libraries were many times larger than the aps journals
   [such as  Physical Review D],
   that was an indirect cost that researchers never saw). all the larger
   more active groups (harvard, princeton, ...) decided across the board
   they would not pay any page charges (under the guise of fairness: since there
   wasn't enough on the grant to cover a large group of students, postdocs,
   jnr and senior faculty), which moved all of those contributions to
   nucl phys b.  the belated response from phys rev d in the mid '80s was
   to eliminate page charges as well, but just for phys rev d, and by the
   early 90's patriotic americans began resubmitting to the aps journal.
 
   but now, times are evidently getting tighter -- library subscriptions
   are not increasing, and the aps comes right out and explains that its
   publishing activities are used to subsidize its other activities
   (lobbying efforts, educational outreach, ...). so more or less in defiance
   of its editors, the financial wing decides to reinstitute page charges and
   increase them across the board ...
 
   ********* end of quote *********
 
Note that the physicists in this story behaved in a perfectly rational
way.  The money they saved by not paying page charges was money they
could use for support of graduate students, etc.  They did not have to
use their grants to pay for the increase in library costs associated
with the shift from an inexpensive journal to a much pricier one.
Furthermore, even if they had to pay for that cost, they would have
come out ahead;  the inrease in the costs of just their own library
associated with an individual decision to publish in Nuclear Physics B
instead of the less expensive Physical Review D (could such a small
change been quantified) would have been much smaller than the savings
on page charges.  Most of the extra cost would have been absorbed by
other institutions.
 
To make this argument more explicit, consider two journals, H (high
priced) and L (low priced).  Suppose that each one has 1,000 library
subscriptions and no individual ones.  L is a very lean operation,
and it costs them $3,000 to publish each article.  They collect
$1,000 of that $3,000 from authors through page charges, and the
other $2,000 from subscribers, so that each library in effect pays
$2 for each article that appears in L.  On the other hand, H collects
$7,000 in revenue per article, all from subscriptions, which comes
to $7 per article for each library.  (It does not matter much whether
the extra cost of H is due to profits, higher quality, or inefficiency.)
From the standpoint of society as a whole, or of any individual library,
it would be desirable to steer all authors towards publishing in L,
as that would save a total of $4,000.  However, look at this situation
from the standpoint of the author.  If she publishes in L, she loses
$1,000 that could be spent on graduate students, conferences, etc.
If she publishes in H, she gets to keep that money.  She does not
get charged for the extra cost to any library, at least not right
away.  Eventually the overhead rates on her contract might go up
to pay for the higher library spending at her institution.  However,
this effect is delayed, and is very weak.  Even if we had accounting
mechanisms that would provide instantaneous feedback (which we
manifestly do not, with journal prices set over a year in advance
and totally insensitive to minor changes caused by individual authors
deciding where to publish), our hyppothetical author would surely only
get charged for the extra $5 that she causes her library to spend
($7 for publication in H as opposed to $2 in L), and not for the
costs to all the other 999 libraries.  She would still save $995
($1000 - $5) of her grant money.  Is it any wonder if she chooses
to publish in H?
 
Andrew Odlyzko
AT&T bell Laboratories
=========================================================================
Date:         Mon, 1 May 1995 13:31:02 EDT
Reply-To:     Guedon Jean-Claude 
Sender:       Electronic Journal Publishing List 
From:         Guedon Jean-Claude 
Subject:      Re: the 70% solution
 
To Andrew Odlyzko and Hal Varian, and others,
 
In view of the question very well put by Hal (However, I am curious about the
relationship between journal price and prestige)
 
and even more the following:
 
Has anybody looked at the relationship between price, prestige, publisher
and circulation?
 
I wonder whether we could not organize some co-ordinated effort to
bring out these statistics. In other words, could we not approach various
grant agencies in the States, in Canada (I could take care of that) and
elsewhere (I have some good contacts in France, for example) to really
draw a comprehensive picture of what is going on in the field of
scholarly periodicals.
 
For example, getting some good benchmarks on page production costs (with
or without illustrations, etc.), along with the correlations sought by
Hal, could really help design policies for library purchases on the one
hand and for the development of electronic serials on the other hand.
 
Any reaction to this proposal. This is a *concrete* research project
that I am talking about, and one that should be conducted on an international
scale.
 
Best,
 
Jean-Claude Guedon
 
 
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
        Jean-Claude Guedon                              Tel. 514-343-6208
        Professeur titulaire                            Fax: 514-343-2211
        Departement de litterature comparee             Surfaces
        Universite de Montreal                          Tel. 514-343-5683
        C.P. 6128, Succursale "A"                       Fax. 514-343-5684
        Montreal, Qc H3C 3J7                            ftp ftp.umontreal.ca
        Canada                                          guedon@ere.umontreal.ca
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
=========================================================================
Date:         Mon, 1 May 1995 13:31:25 EDT
Reply-To:     ball@tsclion.Trenton.EDU
Sender:       Electronic Journal Publishing List 
From:         "William J. Ball" 
Organization: Trenton State College
Subject:      looking for HTML sytle sheets for scholarly articles
 
I am beginning work on a project to publish political science
research on the web. I have browsed a variety of the on-line journals
and compared document formats like html (2 and 3), acrobat, etc.
 
I would like to establish contact with people or organizations active in
 defining
html style appropriate for publishing scholarly research. I would
appreciate any leads in this regard.
 
I have been experimenting a bit on my own--ideas can be found on my
home page at URL http://web1.trenton.edu/~ball
 
----- Bill Ball, Trenton State College, ball@trenton.edu -----
=========================================================================
Date:         Mon, 1 May 1995 13:36:23 EDT
Reply-To:     Sharp Review 
Sender:       Electronic Journal Publishing List 
From:         Sharp Review 
Subject:      Katharine Sharp Review - Final Call
 
 
 
 
                        Call For Papers
                         (Final Call)
                   The Katharine Sharp Review
 
(This information can also be found at http://alexia.lis.uiuc.edu/~review)
 
This is the final call for submissions to The Katharine Sharp Review,
the peer-reviewed e-journal devoted to student scholarship and research
within the interdisciplinary scope of library and information science.
 
The deadline for all submissions is May 15.
 
The Katharine Sharp Review exists as a journal to present articles by
student authors who are concerned with topics relevant to library and
information science and can consist of work that has been both prepared for
coursework and through independent study.  Recognizing the breadth that
library and information science encompasses, submissions may cover a
wide variety of topics in the field, and be represented in many forms:
research findings and their application, analysis of policies and
practices within the industry, thematic textual review, to name but a few.
 
 
                        Preparation of Manuscripts
 
I. All manuscripts must be received in machine readable form.
This can be in one of two ways:
 
As an ASCII text file submitted via e-mail to: sharp-review@alexia.lis.uiuc.edu
                                    OR
Contained on a 3.5" computer disk, formatted for IBM or compatible.
We can accept disks produced with a number of various word processing
packages and any files that have been converted to ASCII format. Please
provide the name and version of the word processing package used. Disks
can be mailed to:
                        Kevin Ward, The Katharine Sharp Review
                        Publications Office
                        Graduate School of Library and Information Science
                        501 E. Daniel Street
                        Champaign, IL 61820-6211
 
 
II. Figures, diagrams, and other graphical forms must also be provided in
electronic format. This can be in any of the standard graphic formats
(.gif, .jpg, etc.).  If you have any questions regarding this
requirement, please e-mail the Review.
 
                        Editorial Guidelines for Authors
 
III. Use a recognized standard form and style, preferably according to the
Chicago Style Manual (14th Edition).
 
IV. If submitting in ASCII format, please use underscoring to indicate
italics and asterix to indicate bold face.  This will allow for more
accurate formatting upon receipt.
 
V. Footnotes should be kept to a minimum, if at all.
 
VI. If citing from a journal that is found in electronic format, please
include its site address (i.e. ftp, gopher, etc.)
 
VII. Copyright: The Katharine Sharp Review will not hold copyright
permissions for any published article but does reserve the right to grant
reprint permissions to non-profit organizations.  The submission of any
article to the Review is done so in agreement with this provision.
 
 
                        Correspondence
 
All submissions and correspondence regarding The Katharine Sharp Review
should be directed to the editor, Kevin Ward.  Receipt of all articles
will be acknowledged and authors contacted upon acceptance of their
contribution.
 
Any questions or comments?  Please direct them to The Katharine Sharp
Review (sharp-review@alexia.lis.uiuc.edu).
 
For more information regarding the review, please visit our homepage at:
 
http://alexia.lis.uiuc.edu/~review
 
 
 
                  +                                    +
                                Kevin Ward
                                  Editor
                        The Katharine Sharp Review
                     sharp-review@alexia.lis.uiuc.edu
                    http://alexia.lis.uiuc.edu/~review
 
                  +                                    +
=========================================================================
Date:         Tue, 2 May 1995 09:05:23 EDT
Reply-To:     Gregory Kealey 
Sender:       Electronic Journal Publishing List 
From:         Gregory Kealey 
Subject:      Re: the 70% solution
In-Reply-To:  <9504301447.AA13091@tornade.ERE.UMontreal.CA>
 
While I can't speak for the group I am certain that the Canadian
Association of Learned Journals would be very interested in working on
such a project.
greg kealey
 
On Mon, 1 May 1995, Guedon Jean-Claude wrote:
 
> To Andrew Odlyzko and Hal Varian, and others,
>
> In view of the question very well put by Hal (However, I am curious about the
> relationship between journal price and prestige)
>
> and even more the following:
>
> Has anybody looked at the relationship between price, prestige, publisher
> and circulation?
>
> I wonder whether we could not organize some co-ordinated effort to
> bring out these statistics. In other words, could we not approach various
> grant agencies in the States, in Canada (I could take care of that) and
> elsewhere (I have some good contacts in France, for example) to really
> draw a comprehensive picture of what is going on in the field of
> scholarly periodicals.
>
> For example, getting some good benchmarks on page production costs (with
> or without illustrations, etc.), along with the correlations sought by
> Hal, could really help design policies for library purchases on the one
> hand and for the development of electronic serials on the other hand.
>
> Any reaction to this proposal. This is a *concrete* research project
> that I am talking about, and one that should be conducted on an international
> scale.
>
> Best,
>
> Jean-Claude Guedon
>
>
>
 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
>         Jean-Claude Guedon                              Tel. 514-343-6208
>         Professeur titulaire                            Fax: 514-343-2211
>         Departement de litterature comparee             Surfaces
>         Universite de Montreal                          Tel. 514-343-5683
>         C.P. 6128, Succursale "A"                       Fax. 514-343-5684
>         Montreal, Qc H3C 3J7                            ftp ftp.umontreal.ca
>         Canada
 guedon@ere.umontreal.ca
>
 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
>
=========================================================================
Date:         Tue, 2 May 1995 09:05:46 EDT
Reply-To:     Ann Okerson 
Sender:       Electronic Journal Publishing List 
From:         Ann Okerson 
Subject:      Existing Studies
 
For anyone who wants to get "serious" about a research project in the
area of journals prices, values, etc., we at ARL have a pretty
comprehensive bibliography of such studies as have been done over the
last 10 years or so.  I'd be glad to share it and discuss some of the
work therein of which we have firsthand knowledge.
 
These studies have been conducted in specific discipline areas and none
of them have dug as deep as Hal and Jean Claude propose.  For the most
part, they stop short of prestige assessments, though a few have
factored in citation data from ISI.  Four of the studies, an ARL study
of 1988-89, a Utah Study and the Noll/Steinmuller studies of the early
90s, and Chressanthis' recent work, have involved economists, but mostly
did not attempt to assess prestige.  The largest data sets have included
no more than 200-400 journal titles (more or less).  Most studies have
assessed a smaller set of titles.
 
Way back in 1990/91, ARL tried to assemble funding to create a sizeable
and comprehensive dataset in order to learn some of the kinds of things
that have been proposed here recently.  Approaching foundations about
their interest in funding a research project yielded little.  (The work
of gathering good data on individual journal titles was, as we learned
from the 150 titles or so we worked on, finnicky and labor-intensive.
Without solid data sets, it is impossible to learn much of anything.)
 
What we heard at the time was that everyone knew enough about the costs
of journals (or as much as we need to know) and that examining the costs
of the current paper system was passe since the new, cutting edge of
interest was in electronic dissemination.  My bet is that any study, in
order to be successful in attracting funds and answering much needed
questions, will attempt to develop data that give us all a leg up on the
economics, prestige, etc., of *electronic* publication as well.
 
Given our long-term interest in this area, we would be happy to work
with anyone who is interested in defining a real study and identifying
funding for it.  At the least, I'd be glad to discuss what information
we do have and some of the tricky areas of such studies, with those who
want to mount a project.
 
 
Ann Okerson/Association of Research Libraries
ann@cni.org
=========================================================================
Date:         Wed, 3 May 1995 09:59:02 EDT
Reply-To:     Christine Irizarry 
Sender:       Electronic Journal Publishing List 
From:         Christine Irizarry 
Subject:      Re: the 70% solution plus a grain of salt
In-Reply-To:  <9504301447.AA13091@tornade.ERE.UMontreal.CA>
 
A grain of salt from a Manhattannite:
 
Don't underestimate the power of Elsevier-Pergamon-Kluwer-Springer. While
you muse about the print business, some serious lobbying is going on to
enforce copyrights aggressively and not freely... I heard indirectly that,
online, there'll be something like an on-and-off switch to make sure
everyone pays per view, so to speak, or to put it in French, une esp`ece
de robinet des droits d'auteurs...  Good luck with your study! Everyone
even slightly familiar with scientific publishing knows what the picture is,
who owns the rights, who calls the shots. Will it change? Inch Allah...
 
We can be glad that we don't get charged for reading a book or any
printed matter more than once; the logic being: shouldn't someone who
reads an article more than once, or quotes from it, be charged more than
someone who just browses its contents? After all you're just buying the
paper and the glue, but not the prized intellectual property. In France,
in fact, the whole idea of using a library, any library, free of charge
is seriously being put in question. We in New York are a bit luckier.
There are books littering the streets... Who pays for the free rides? Are
they free?
 
/ Christine
 
On Mon, 1 May 1995, Guedon Jean-Claude wrote:
 
> To Andrew Odlyzko and Hal Varian, and others,
>
> In view of the question very well put by Hal (However, I am curious about the
> relationship between journal price and prestige)
>
> and even more the following:
>
> Has anybody looked at the relationship between price, prestige, publisher
> and circulation?
>
> I wonder whether we could not organize some co-ordinated effort to
> bring out these statistics. In other words, could we not approach various
> grant agencies in the States, in Canada (I could take care of that) and
> elsewhere (I have some good contacts in France, for example) to really
> draw a comprehensive picture of what is going on in the field of
> scholarly periodicals.
>
> For example, getting some good benchmarks on page production costs (with
> or without illustrations, etc.), along with the correlations sought by
> Hal, could really help design policies for library purchases on the one
> hand and for the development of electronic serials on the other hand.
>
> Any reaction to this proposal. This is a *concrete* research project
> that I am talking about, and one that should be conducted on an international
> scale.
>
> Best,
>
> Jean-Claude Guedon
>
>
>
 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
>         Jean-Claude Guedon                              Tel. 514-343-6208
>         Professeur titulaire                            Fax: 514-343-2211
>         Departement de litterature comparee             Surfaces
>         Universite de Montreal                          Tel. 514-343-5683
>         C.P. 6128, Succursale "A"                       Fax. 514-343-5684
>         Montreal, Qc H3C 3J7                            ftp ftp.umontreal.ca
>         Canada
 guedon@ere.umontreal.ca
>
 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
>
>
>
=========================================================================
Date:         Wed, 3 May 1995 09:59:20 EDT
Reply-To:     Richard Meyer
              
Sender:       Electronic Journal Publishing List 
From:         Richard Meyer
              
Subject:      Re- the 70% solution
 
                       Subject:                               Time:10:57 AM
  OFFICE MEMO          Re: the 70% solution                   Date:5/2/95
Warning: the following is about a dozen paragraphs, which makes it longer than
many of the contributions to this forum. Much of the discussion here has
focused on costs of production and speed of communication as driving forces
that will determine whether or not publications will emerge in the electronic
domain. This offers a broader set of considerations than simply production
costs or communications.
 
Scholars demand (as in the economic sense of acquiring) two things:
1)  documentation of the latest and most accurate knowledge and/or information
on scholarly subjects; and 2)  outlets for their contributions to this pool of
scholarship. Scholars pay a limited set of costs for number 1): searching costs
(labor) when information is being sought; printing (usually photocopy) and
borrowing costs (labor or interlibrary loan charges) for individual articles;
and, indirect overhead on their grant proposals which subsidizes the library.
Scholars pay the following costs for number 2): page charges (sometimes);
creative and editorial effort (labor); and usually, they relinquish copyright
in trade for acceptance of their scholarly expressions.
 
Scholars receive value in four areas for their contributions which accrue to
one or both of their demands as noted by the number in parentheses:
Communication -- every individual's contribution to knowledge, information and
data is conveyed to others; thus impacting the reputation of the author (2) and
educating the reader (1). Archiving -- historically relevant scholarship is
preserved and fixed in time (1). Filtering -- contributions in given
disciplines are separated into levels of quality, which improves search costs
allocation (1) and establishes or enhances reputation (2). Segmenting -- all
scholarship is separated into discipline groupings, which is important to
reduce search costs to scholars (1).
 
These are values that publishers provide by sorting submissions on quality
margins as well as by discipline. To establish the brand names and
infrastructure in the electronic domain to provide this value adding process
can be accomplished, but costs related to each of the values described above
need to be accomodated and may depend on the transformation process utilized.
To this point, many have assumed the emergence of an all electronic replacement
of older print publications by competing and completely new electronic
alternatives. This seems to be predicated on the narrow assumption that the
only value received from publisher efforts has been in the area of
communication. That is to say, the higher communication speed of electronics
presumably will drive this transformation predicted by Odlyzko and others.
However, given the larger framework described here, it appears possible that a
transformation could be achieved at lower cost by moving existing print
journals to the electronic sphere rather than creating a whole new set.
 
The infrastructure and complex inter-relationships currently existing in the
print domain of scholarship evolved over a long time. In order for a parallel
structure to evolve in the electronic domain, electronic publishers have to be
able to add as much value to the process of scholarship as print publishers. As
noted, value must be added in archiving, filtering and segmenting as well as
communication. Electronic publishers starting with a new journal must establish
a brand name that readily communicates the level of quality associated with
their product. Traditionally, this brand name has rested on the reputation of
editors and has been nurtured by years of consistent performance. On the
surface it may appear that the 200 plus electronic titles identified by the
Association of Research Libraries represent successful efforts along the lines
 described,
but examination of actual numbers indicates otherwise.
 
For example, if you look at PACS Review ( a librarians' publication from the
University of Houston on electronic catalogs) the growth in new submissions per
year is flat at best and more likely declining. Over the four year period 1990
to 1993, the number of articles in PACS Review declined from 16 to 8. The
number of pages from 241 to 194 and the number of new authors declined as well.
The same seems to be true for many of the electronic upstarts.
 
However at the same time, traditional print journals are being packaged in
groups and successfully marketed to libraries in electronic form. For example,
the Adonis collection contains over 600 print journals on CD-ROM going back
about 5 years. It costs $20,000 for a single workstation subscription.
Coincidently, Trinity University subscribes to the print version of 26 titles
covered by this product. Cost to Trinity: $34,000 per year. Trinity could
cancel the print, purchase Adonis and save $14,000 at little or no increase in
non-dollar user cost to patrons. However, users would have to pay $7 for each
article that they print. If Trinity's library subsidized user printing, it
would still break even at 2,000 article prints per year. With 230 faculty and
2,400 students, it appears likely that favorable economies could accrue from
switching. Of course, unmet demand and related issues would emerge to cloud the
scenario, but the existence of scale economies seems temptingly real. What's
more, the revenue stream to publishers could easily expand under this
situation. As it turns out, Ebsco, UMI, CD-PLUS, Information Access,
SilverPlatter and other companies are implementing similar products. Thus, I am
tempted to say that much of the discussion in this forum is focused on
incomplete data and misses the obvious.
 
This message is in response to several that discuss the relationship of
prestige to the price of certain scholarly journals. In some disciplines --
librarianship included -- less expensive society publications have better brand
names (higher prestige) than more expensive commercial publications. I think
commercial publishers have an interest in maximizing capture of consumer
surplus and have a vehicle to do so in that every individual scholarly
publication is a monopoly of sorts -- there are  no absolute substitutes for
any given journal. Whereas, with the scholarly society -- which also owns a
monopoly for each title published-- there is no incentive to extract excess
consumer surplus since the members of the society are also the consumers.
 
So far, the electronic domain has given little evidence of being able to
provide archiving, filtering and segmentation of contributions with sufficient
enough associated value to persuade many scholars to transfer their efforts to
that domain. At some point, technology will provide secure methods to stablize
long term continuance of electronic archives. Some of the electronic
publications have associated editorial boards consisting of scholars with
established reputations in the discipline, thus they provide a major component
needed to determine brand name. And hopefully, better organization of the
resources electronically available on the Internet will emerge. The
transformation from print to electronic is driven by the combination of costs
and values associated with not only communications, but also archiving,
filtering and segmenting. When those combine appropriately for any given
discipline, the shift is likely to occur. When an electronic publication offers
total value to scholars summed over all four dimensions which exceed scholar's
costs and summed values in the print domain, that electronic publication will
be successful. Publications already existing in print have at least two steps
ahead of any new title on the highway to success. Therefore it seems reasonable
to not expect a crumbling of the print empire, but a relocation of that empire
or its duplication in the electronic world. Costs and values associated with
filtering, segmenting and archiving must all be considered in addition to
communicating to complete the model describing the transition from print to
electronic.
 
Cheers, Rich Meyer
 
===========================================================
Richard W. Meyer, Director, Maddux Library, Trinity University
715 Stadium Drive, San Antonio, TX  78212 -7200
Telephone:  (210) 736-8121  FAX: (210) 735-3342
E-mail: richard_meyer@library.trinity.edu
============================================================
=========================================================================
Date:         Wed, 3 May 1995 10:00:37 EDT
Reply-To:     Bruce Kingma 
Sender:       Electronic Journal Publishing List 
From:         Bruce Kingma 
Subject:      Existing Studies
 
> For anyone who wants to get "serious" about a research project in the
> area of journals prices, values, etc., we at ARL have a pretty
> comprehensive bibliography of such studies as have been done over the
> last 10 years or so.  I'd be glad to share it and discuss some of the
> work therein of which we have firsthand knowledge.
 
Ann, please send me the ARL list of papers.  For others, the list
of papers I use in my economics of information class are given
below.
 
There are several interesting papers (in addition to the Noll and
Steinmueller paper) in the library science and economics literature
which you may want to read on this topic.  Two nice papers on the
relationship between pricing and journal prestige include:
 
     "The Economics of Economics Journals: A statistical
     Analysis of Pricing Practices by Publishers" H. Craig
     Peterson, College & Research Libraries, 1992
 
     "Publisher monopoly power and third-degree price
     discrimination of scholarly journals" Chressanthis and
     Chressanthis, Technical Services Quarterly, 1993
 
Both papers focus on economics journals.  I think the authors of
the above papers would agree that as economists their natural focus
was on economics journals, while the "journal pricing problem"
is more relevant to the technical, science, and medical journals.
 
There are also several good theoretical papers of various degrees
of difficulty including:
 
     "The Provision of Scholarly Journals by Libraries via
     Electronic Technologies: An Economic Analysis" Zahray
     and Sirbu, Information Economics and Policy, 1989/90
 
     "The Economics of the Scholarly Journal" Lewis, College
     & Research Libraries, 1989
 
     "Prices of Foreign and Academic Journals:  A Supply and
     Demand Analysis" Woolsey and Strauch, Publishing
     Research Quarterly (?)
 
and two excellent related papers:
 
     "Copying and Indirect Appropriability: Photocopying of
     Journals" Leibowitz, Journal of Political Economy, 1985
 
     "Journal Price Escalation and the Market for Information:
     The Librarians' Solution" Kingma and Eppard, College &
     Research Libraries, 1992.
 
Liebowitz showed a positive coefficient on journal quality
(measured by citation statistics) and journal price to libraries
relative to individual prices.  This result was confirmed by
Peterson (1992) and by Chressanthis (1993).
 
Those that are interested in this topic may also want to attend the
upcoming conference "Challenging Marketplace Solutions to the
Problems in the Economics of Information" in Washington D.C.,
September 18-19, at which Hal Varian and Roger Noll are
scheduled to speak.  More information about registration for this
conference will be sent to this listserve in a few weeks.  (Please
feel free to send a message directly to me--NOT TO THIS LIST--
for more information.  I am one of the conference organizers.
The sponsors include ARL, CLR, CNI, SUNY, NASULGC).
 
 
**********************************************
 Bruce R. Kingma, Assistant Professor
 School of Information Science and Policy
 Department of Economics
 State University of New York at Albany
 Albany, New York 12222
 phone: (518) 442-5123    fax: (518) 442-5232
***********************************************
=========================================================================
Date:         Wed, 3 May 1995 10:00:56 EDT
Reply-To:     Bruce Barton 
Sender:       Electronic Journal Publishing List 
From:         Bruce Barton 
Subject:      Re: the 70% solution
 
While I support the idea of a systematic study of the relation between
journals prices per page, compositional complexity, circulation, and
prestige, I'm not certain what implications this would have the
publication of electronic journals.
 
 
 
The 70% solution is often cited by publishers to rebut the suggestion
that the move from paper to ether will bring with it a dramatic reduction
in production costs and, therefore, in journal and book prices.  After
the 30% of a publisher's total costs attributable to typesetting,
printing, and binding are eliminated,  an intractable 70% remain, and to
this we must add the new costs of electronic delivery--equipment,
technical staff, network connectivity, and the like.  Publishers conclude
that because their costs will not be reduced by much, consumers of
epublications should not expect a significant reduction in prices.
 
 
 
In fact, one could argue that publishers' costs could increase as the
value-added features of epublications increase in sophistication or as
the role of scholarly archivist shifts from libraries to publishers (if
that happens, as it may well).
 
 
 
Jim O'Donnell's intriguing suggestion is that the 70% figure may not be
intractable.  Here is some corroborating evidence.
 
 
 
In book publications (the area with which I am most familiar), marketing
expenses account for a sizable chunk of the publisher's so-called fixed
costs.  The sales force is one such marketing expense.  Sales
representation to bookstores, wholesalers and to a lesser extent to
libraries is the principal method publishers use to bring their product,
physical books, to the ultimate consumer, the readers of books.  Along
the way the books may have been sold several times.  (They may have also
been shipped several times: publishers sometimes quip that the only
people who make money in publishing are trucking companies.)  The cost of
putting the sales force on the road is the cost of priming this
distribution channel for physical books.
 
 
 
Incidentally, because of the structure of this distribution channel, the
publisher's costs do not add up to the list price value of sales.  At
each point of exchange in this channel, other costs are incurred and must
be covered by what the ultimate consumer pays for a book.  These costs
often approach 50% of the list price of a book.  Traditionally, they are
recovered through the discounts publishers offer to intermediaries in the
channel.
 
 
 
Eliminate the distribution channel that is designed to deliver printed
books and you eliminate the cost of priming it and the costs incurred in
distribution by that means.
 
 
 
Bytes, like books, are also physical objects, but do not require shelf
space in hundreds of bookstores to reach their readers (so long as they
do not reach them via diskette or CD ROM).  To deliver bytes, buildings
to house bookstores and warehouses, trucks to deliver products, and
people to coordinate this process are not needed.  In their place, we
pull fiber-optic cable, tether it routers, and set the network to
humming.  This new distribution channel will have a new set of costs.
But until the construction of this new infrastructure is complete and the
market forces that govern it begin to play themselves out, we may not
know what these costs will be.
 
 
 
Only after we take into account this shift in the structure of
distribution of publications can we guess what the pricing of
epublications will be.
 
 
 
Bruce Barton
 
The University of Chicago Press
 
bbarton@press.uchicago.edu
 
Voice:  312-702-7651   Fax:  312-702-9756
=========================================================================
Date:         Thu, 4 May 1995 09:50:42 EDT
Reply-To:     Ann Okerson 
Sender:       Electronic Journal Publishing List 
From:         Ann Okerson 
Subject:      Bibliography
 
 
For all those in VPIEJ-L land who have sent or are about to send us
messages asking for the biblography I mentioned yesterday, here's a way
to find 90+% of it in one easy swoop.  It contains most, but not all, of
the articles Bruce Kingma lists in his message.  The articles and
studies are all in paper; those who are interested in reading them, will
need to hunt them down in a library or via ILL.
 
Look at the ARL web site:  http://arl.cni.org
 
Open the menu item for:  AAU Task Force Reports (or it may be the
                         Association of American University Task
                         Force reports)
 
Open the menu item for:  STI or Science and Technology Task Force Report
 
In that document:        Appendix D
 
Appendix D comprises two parts:
 
o Working Bibliography of the Economics of Scholarly Communicationns
 
o Journal Pricing Studies
 
 
It is up to date (as best we knew) at the time of publication,
approximately a year ago.
 
 
Ann Okerson/ARL
ann@cni.org
=========================================================================
Date:         Thu, 4 May 1995 09:50:56 EDT
Reply-To:     David Stodolsky 
Sender:       Electronic Journal Publishing List 
From:         David Stodolsky 
Organization: University of Copenhagen
Subject:      Re: the 70% solution?
 
----------------------------Original message----------------------------
 
In Regards to your letter
 :
> On Fri, 28 Apr 1995, David Stodolsky wrote:
>
> >
> > The underlying transformation is from the dependence of on jounals
> > that have high reputations to the dependence upon authors that have
> > high reputations. The challenge is how to accredit knowledge in an
> > environment where posterior review (review after publication) is the
> > dominant mode of evaluation. This is already accepted as the best way
> > to evaluate authors (i. e., citation counts).
> >
> > dss
> >
>
> Hold on a minute...- accepted by whom ? I think you'll find that
> acceptance of citation counts varies widely between disciplines and
> institutions. Also, citation counts aren't problem-free; for example, its
> quite possible that authors having a very high reputation for past work
> might benefit from a "fan-mail" effect whereby they receive citations for
> indifferent current work from less-than-critical acolytes.
>
> It may also be possible for "citation cartels" to form (remember the apocrypha
> about the churchman and the sailor who promised one another that whenever they
> heard each other's name mentioned, they would point out how praiseworthy
> the individual was ? - And how one became a bishop, and the other, an
> admiral ?).
>
> Time is also a problem - in essence, the scope for citation exists for
> the whole of remaining time..... it might be useful to know what limits
> academics apply here - not to mention the scope for retrospective revisions
> (anyone for granting an honorary D.Litt to a certain William Shakespeare ?).
>
> On a lighter note, citations are neuter; I realise that Pons and
> Fleishmann have given this strategy a bad name, but a less ambitious
> academic could make quite a reasonable career of writing articles which
> others could quote .... does anyone know of a dean who makes a habit of
> reading all his/her Faculty's citations in the original - ie, the papers
> where the citations were made ?
>
>  - I acknowledge the deficiencies of the "publish - anything - anywhere -
> or perish" system. Just so long as we are also clear that citations are,
> of themselves, no researchers' Valhalla....
 
Citation counts, in their present form, are only slightly better than
publication counts. However, the "citation" in the electronic domain
does not have to be of the same "neuter" sort which appears in
paper publication. This is a function of the (logically) weak connections
between articles compared to the very strong connections between sections
of a paper article today. In the future, the articles will be shorter and
the connections between them just a strong as the connections within
them.
 
These "links" can not only be identified as in support or opposition
to a statement in the target article, but also "typed", that is,
point to a "logical error", failure to recognize earlier work, etc. Finally,
they will be constantly updated, as authors try to enhance their reputations,
and each link can be characterized as to whether it will hold up over
time. That is, the reputation of a given author will be calculable
from a global evaluation of said links. This could also be the basis
for knowledge accreditation, that is, identifying good articles.
 
This is covered in some detail in:
 
Stodolsky, D. (1984). Commonalities among conferencing systems
and their implication for marketing strategy. Organisatoriske Fragmenter
1984, 12, 43-58.
 
Stodolsky, D. (1984, December). Self-management of criticism in dialog:
Dynamic regulation through automatic mediation. Paper presented at the
symposium Communicating and Contracts between people in the
Computerized Society, Gothenburg University, Sweden.
 
 
Background paper:
 
(1988, September). Self-management of criticism in dialogue.
URL: FTP://ftp.EU.net/documents/authors/Stodolsky/selfman.crit.dialog.Z
 
dss
 
David S. Stodolsky, PhD,  Euromath Center,  University of Copenhagen
Universitetsparken 5, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark. david@euromath.dk
david@arch.ping.dk. Tel.: +45 38 33 03 30. Fax: +45 38 33 88 80. (C)
=========================================================================
Date:         Thu, 4 May 1995 09:51:44 EDT
Reply-To:     David Stodolsky 
Sender:       Electronic Journal Publishing List 
From:         David Stodolsky 
Organization: University of Copenhagen
Subject:      Re: the 70% solution
 
 
In Regards to your letter <199505022123.QAA06793@press-gopher.uchicago.edu>:
> people to coordinate this process are not needed.  In their place, we
> pull fiber-optic cable, tether it routers, and set the network to
> humming.  This new distribution channel will have a new set of costs.
> But until the construction of this new infrastructure is complete and the
> market forces that govern it begin to play themselves out, we may not
> know what these costs will be.
 
Assuming you prepare documents on a word processor connected to a
network, distribution is free (once capital investment has been made).
There are radio stations "broadcasting" onto the Internet today.
 
Stodolsky, D. (1991). Distribution costs already negligible.
Psychological Science, 2(6), 429.
 
dss
 
 
David S. Stodolsky, PhD,  Euromath Center,  University of Copenhagen
Universitetsparken 5, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark. david@euromath.dk
david@arch.ping.dk. Tel.: +45 38 33 03 30. Fax: +45 38 33 88 80. (C)
=========================================================================
Date:         Thu, 4 May 1995 09:53:54 EDT
Reply-To:     Schryburt Denis 
Sender:       Electronic Journal Publishing List 
Comments:     RFC822 error:  TO field duplicated. Last occurrence was
              retained.
From:         Schryburt Denis 
Subject:      Analytical Bibliography for Canadian Studies A Summer Course / La
              bibliographie analytique et les etudes canadiennes Un cours d'ete
              offert
 
 
ANNOUNCEMENT
 
The Institute on Canadian Bibliography is offering
Analytical Bibliography for Canadian Studies
A Summer Course
August 21 to 25, 1995
National Library of Canada, Ottawa
 
The Institute
 
The Institute on Canadian Bibliography, founded by the National Library of
Canada and the Bibliographical Society of Canada, provides a forum for
courses, lectures and discussions on Canadian bibliography.
 
The 1995 Course
 
The course, offered in English with some French sessions, will be held from
Monday, August 21 to Friday, August 25, 1995.  This course will include
lectures, demonstrations, and workshops on the techniques of
bibliographical analysis.  There will also be descriptions of Canadian
printing of the hand- and machine-press periods.  Methods of
bibliographical research will be presented in the context of historical and
textual applications.  Standards for imprint, thematic, and author
bibliographies will be discussed.
 
Topics will include paper, typography, illustration, and binding; the use
of publishers' records; and software for bibliography.  There will be
demonstrations and exhibitions at the National Library, the National
Archives of Canada, and the National Museum of Science and Technology.
Canadian bibliographers will lecture on their current work, and there will
be opportunities to discuss proposals and consult on work in progress.
 
Program director and lecturer:   Patricia Fleming, Faculty of Information
Studies, University of Toronto
Coordinator:                             Gwynneth Evans, National Library of
Canada
 
Staff of the Institute will include:
 
Joyce Banks, Michel Brisebois and staff of the National Library of Canada;
Jim Burant, Documentary Art Acquisition and Research, National Archives of
Canada; Anne Dondertman, Thomas Fisher Rare Book Library, University of
Toronto; Judy Donnelly, Southam InfoLab, Hamilton; Yvan Lamonde, Department
of French Language and Literature, McGill University, Montreal; Eric
Swanick, New Brunswick Legislative Library, Fredericton; Bruce Whiteman,
Department of Rare Books, McGill University, Montreal
 
Who Should Attend?
 
This course is intended for librarians, literary scholars, historians,
graduate students, and others interested in the history of the book in
Canada.
 
What Will the Course Cost?
 
The 5-day course will cost $375.00
 
How to Apply
 
For further details, including information on housing, and application
forms, please contact:
 
Gwynneth Evans
Director General
National and International Programs
National Library of Canada
395 Wellington Street
Ottawa ON K1A 0N4
 
Telephone:  (613) 995-3904
Fax:            (613) 947-2916
E-mail         gwynneth.evans@nlc-bnc.ca
 
 
Applications for the seminar will be accepted until all 25 places are
filled.  Applications received by June 30, 1995, will be accorded priority.
The organizers reserve the right to cancel the course if there is
insufficient number of applicants for the Institute to pay its expenses.
 
*****
 
ANNONCE
 
L Institut de bibliographie canadienne presente
La bibliographie analytique et les etudes canadiennes
Un cours d'ete offert
du 21 au 25 aout 1995 par la
Bibliotheque nationale du Canada, a Ottawa
 
L'Institut
 
Fonde par la Bibliotheque nationale du Canada et la Societe bibliographique
du Canada, l Institut de bibliographie canadienne offrira une tribune pour
des cours, des conferences et des discussions sur les bibliographies
canadiennes.
 
Le cours de 1995
 
Le cours, offert en anglais avec des sessions en francais, aura lieu du
lundi 21 aout au vendredi 25 aout 1995.  Ce cours presentera des
conferences, des demonstrations et des ateliers sur les techniques de
bibliographie analytique.  On y presentera egalement des descriptions
d'imprimes canadiens produits a l'epoque des presses manuelles et des
presses mecaniques.  Des methodes de recherche bibliographique seront
exposees dans le contexte des applications historiques et textuelles.  On
discutera des normes pour les bibliographies consacrees aux imprimes, les
bibliographies thematiques et les bibliographies d'auteur.
 
Les themes porteront sur le papier, la typographie, l'illustration, la
reliure, l'utilisation de documents de l'editeur ainsi que l'emploi des
logiciels pour les bibliographies.  Des demonstrations et des expositions
se tiendront a la Bibliotheque nationale, aux Archives nationales du Canada
et au Musee national des sciences et de la technologie.  Des bibliographes
canadiens vont faire etat de leurs recherches actuelles et il sera possible
de discuter de projets et de consulter les travaux en cours.
 
Directrice du programme et conferenciere :   Patricia Fleming, Faculty of
 
 Information Studies, Universite de Toronto
Coordinatrice:                                              Gwynneth Evans,
Bibliotheque nationale du
                                                                   Canada
 
Professeurs et conferenciers:
 
Joyce Banks, Michel Brisebois et membres du personnel de la Bibliotheque
nationale du Canada; Jim Burant, Acquisition et recherche en art
documentaire, Archives nationales du Canada; Anne Dondertman, Thomas Fisher
Rare Book Library, bibliotheque de l'Universite de Toronto; Judy Donnelly,
Southam InfoLab Hamilton; Yvan Lamonde, Departement de langue et
litterature francaises, Universite McGill, Montreal; Eric Swanick,
Bibliotheque de l'Assemblee legislative du Nouveau-Brunswick, Fredericton;
Bruce Whiteman, Departement des livres rares, Universite McGill, Montreal
 
Participants vises
 
Ce cours s'adresse aux bibliothecaires, aux chercheurs litteraires, aux
historiens, aux etudiants des 2e et 3e cycles et aux gens qui s'interessent
a l'histoire du livre au Canada.
 
Couts du cours
 
Le cours, d une duree de 5 jours, coute 375 $.
 
Inscription
 
Pour obtenir des renseignements additionnels sur les frais d'inscription,
l'hebergement et les formules d'inscription, veuillez communiquer avec:
 
Gwynneth Evans
Directrice generale
Programmes nationaux et internationaux
Bibliotheque nationale du Canada
395, rue Wellington
Ottawa ON K1A 0N4
 
Telephone:                   (613) 995-3904
Telecopieur:                 (613) 947-2916
Courrier electronique:  gwynneth.evans@nlc-bnc.ca
 
Les inscriptions au seminaire seront acceptees tant qu'il restera de la
place (25 places seulement).  Nous donnerons priorite aux demandes recues
avant le 30 juin 1995. Les organisateurs se reservent le droit d annuler le
cours lorsque le nombre insuffisant de participants ne justifie pas le
paiement des frais par l Institut.
=========================================================================
Date:         Mon, 8 May 1995 13:09:06 EDT
Reply-To:     Hal.Varian@umich.edu
Sender:       Electronic Journal Publishing List 
From:         Hal Varian 
Subject:      Re: Accreditation of Knowledge in the Electronic World
 
I've got a little write up on how one might develop an electronic journal
that uses a different kind of evaluation/filtering system that traditional
refereeing.  It's at http://gopher.econ.lsa.umich.edu/pages/PIE.html.  At
the moment this is very speculative, but I would welcome commentary by
members of this list.
 
---
Hal.Varian@umich.edu                    Hal Varian
voice: 313-764-2364                     Dept of Economics
fax:   313-764-2364                     Univ of Michigan
http://gopher.econ.lsa.umich.edu        Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1220
=========================================================================
Date:         Mon, 8 May 1995 13:10:07 EDT
Reply-To:     V.AINSCOUGH@elsevier.nl
Sender:       Electronic Journal Publishing List 
From:         Valerie Ainscough 
Subject:      electronic journals/electronic subsciptions
 
Please could someone help me.
 
I'm trying to find out the difference between electronic journals and
electronic subscriptions. I've seen various different definitions of each
and it seems to be the more I find out the less I know!
 
Anyone got any ideas or does anyone have the reference to an
article which covers this subject.
 
Thanks in advance.
 
Valerie Ainscough
Business Information Centre
Elsevier Science
=========================================================================
Date:         Thu, 11 May 1995 09:09:03 EDT
Reply-To:     "Efthimis N. Efthimiadis" 
Sender:       Electronic Journal Publishing List 
From:         "Efthimis N. Efthimiadis" 
Subject:      SIGIR-95: Text Encoding Standards Course
 
Please excuse any duplication.
  From: ERASMUS@NTUVAX.NTU.AC.SG (Edie Rasmussen)
        ________________________________________________________
 
           REUSABILITY, INTERCHANGEABILITY, AND COMPATIBILITY:
           ANSWERING THE QUESTIONS OF TEXT ENCODING STANDARDS
 
                     Lou Burnard, Oxford University
                   Judith Klavans, Columbia University
        C. M. Sperberg-McQueen, University of Illinois at Chicago
 
                         A PRE-CONFERENCE COURSE
                     to be held in association with
                               SIGIR '95:
        18th International Conference on Research and Development
                        in Information Retrieval
                            Seattle, WA, USA
                         Saturday, July 8, 1995
                          8:30 a.m. - 3:30 p.m.
        ________________________________________________________
 
   SIGIR '95, an international research conference on
information retrieval theory, systems, practice and
applications, will be held in Seattle, WA, from July 9-13. On
the Saturday prior to the conference, a one-day course will be
offered covering the theory and practice of markup languages
for the representation of textual and other data, such as SGML
and the Text Encoding Initiative.  Taught by Lou Burnard,
Judith Klavans, and C. M. Sperberg-McQueen.
 
COURSE DESCRIPTION:
   The representation of textual data has raised serious
problems since the early days of digital technology.
Incompatibility between representations range from simple
formatting issues, such as word delimitation, to data encoding
schemes, such as 7-bit encoding for English, 8-bit for
accented languages, up to 32-bit for Asian languages.
Furthermore, the complications seem to be growing as the
amount of digital data increases.  Recognizing the predicament
these complications cause in the information age, a group of
researchers and practitioners, sponsored by the Association
for Computational Linguistics, the Association for Computers
and the Humanities, and the Association for Literary and
Linguistic Computing, joined in 1988 to explore ways to
resolve the serious emerging incompatibilities in the
representation of text.  The Text Encoding Initiative has
addressed these problems by developing detailed SGML Document
Type Definitions (DTDs) to achieve comprehensive and
generalizable encoding standards for a range of data types,
from verse to syntactic analyses, from spoken language to
hypertext, from terminological data to multilingual corpora.
 
   This one-day course will consist of three parts: the first
will describe the challenges raised by the three ``abilities''
which concern effective text representation: reusability,
interchangeability, and compatibility.  The next section of
the course will present the types of data handled so far by
the TEI encoding scheme, some of the problems already solved,
some ongoing projects, and some unsettled questions.  If
hands-on is possible, we will provide a session to experience
the strengths of using the TEI for building intelligent text
data bases from existing on-line texts.  Otherwise, we will
demonstrate widely available software and discuss practical
issues in using the TEI for building intelligent text data
bases from existing on-line texts.
 
   The course will be of interest to: computer scientists who
are building large test-beds of textual data, researchers who
must analyze and encode representational systems over such
data, practitioners who must solve the incompatibility problem
by choosing a standard encoding scheme for textual data, SGML
hackers who want to know more about TEI DTDs, humanists who
want to learn more about the issues in text representation.
Since most of IR currently operates over textual data, the
indexing issues in the TEI are of particular and pressing
interest to the IR audience.
 
   Further information can be found at:
     http://www.columbia.edu/~klavans/home.html
     http://www-tei.uic.edu/pub/tei/sigir.html
Questions re workshop content should be directed to C.M.
Sperberg-McQueen,  u35395@uicvm.cc.uic.edu; addresses for
queries re registration and accommodation are given below.
 
MATERIALS AND PRESENTERS
   All participants will be provided with a printed
introductory summary guide to the TEI scheme and supporting
materials on PC disks, including full versions of the TEI
DTDs, public domain SGML software and sample TEI texts.  The
electronic version of the Guidelines will also be provided.
 
   Lou Burnard, of Oxford University Computing Services, is
the European editor of the TEI project.  He has degrees in
English literature from Oxford, and has worked in computers
since the seventies.  His areas of expertise are in the
applications of computing to linguistic and literary research,
particularly with reference to database and text retrieval
systems.  He has published and lectured widely on these and
related topics. His present responsibilities, aside from TEI
work, include management of the British National Corpus
project at OUCS, and the Oxford Text Archive, of which he is
Director.
 
   Judith Klavans is the Director of the Center for Research
on Information Access (CRIA) at Columbia University.  The
goals of the Center, established in January 1995, are to
integrate and coordinate the various digital library related
activities at Columbia University, to push forward research on
technologies related to information access, and to serve as a
source of information on the technological aspects of digital
library applications to external projects.  Dr. Judith Klavans
has a research career which combines aspects of computer
science and linguistics, including the automatic acquisition
of lexical knowledge, multilingual text analysis, and the
development of symbolic techniques for the presentation of
information within the context of digital libraries.
 
   C. M. Sperberg-McQueen is a senior research programmer at
the academic computer center at the University of Illinois at
Chicago; he currently works in the database group, on SGML
applications and the university library's information arcade.
Since 1988 he has been editor in chief of the ACH/ACL/ALLC
Text Encoding Initiative.
 
REGISTRATION:
   Cost of the course is $50 before May 29 and $65 after May
29 which includes a box lunch and course documentation.  The
attached registration form covers this course only.
 
   Attendance at SIGIR '95 is not required for this course.
Those wishing to attend SIGIR as well should complete the
separate SIGIR registration form; a copy plus full information
on SIGIR '95, including descriptions of tutorials, workshops,
all technical sessions, and accommodation, etc. is available
from  ftp.u.washington.edu (\public\sigir95\program) by
anonymous ftp; or via WWW at URL: http://info.sigir.acm.org/
sigir/conferences/SIGIR_95_adv.pgm.html; or request a copy of
the program by mail by contacting sigir95@u.washington.edu.
 
   The course venue will depend on enrolment but at present it
is expected that it will be at the SIGIR conference hotel, the
Seattle Sheraton Hotel & Towers, 1400 Sixth Avenue, Seattle,
WA 98101.  Details of conference accomodation are available
from the ftp and www addreses above.
 
Cut here: >--------------------------------------------------
 
                    SGML/TEI COURSE REGISTRATION FORM
                      in conjunction with SIGIR '95
                     Seattle, WA, USA, July 8, 1995
 
Please use block letters or type, and tick where appropriate
 
 __ Mr.    __ Ms.    __ Dr.    __ Prof.     Other: ______
 
LAST NAME:________________ FIRST NAME:_______________________
 
BADGE NAME (if different): __________________________________
 
COMPANY/ORGANIZATION:________________________________________
 
ADDRESS:_____________________________________________________
 
CITY:__________________   STATE:______   ZIP CODE: __________
 
COUNTRY:_______________   PHONE:  ( ___ )____________________
 
FAX:  ( ___ ) _______________ EMAIL: ________________________
 
COURSE REGISTRATION FEE:
$50 prior to May 29; $65 after May 29)    $ ________________
 
DO YOU HAVE ANY SPECIAL NEEDS?  Please explain:
___________________________________________________________
 
ARE YOU ALSO ATTENDING SIGIR '95?   ____  yes    ____ no
 
METHOD OF PAYMENT (US Currency only):
 
__ Check payable to ACM/SIGIR95
__ Credit card (Visa, MC, AMEX)
____________________________________
Credit card number, expiration date
 
______________________________________
Signature, date
(I authorize to charge my account fees indicated above)
 
Return Registration Form by May 29 to qualify for early
registration.  Use fax or email (credit card payment) or mail
check or credit card) to:
   SIGIR95
   c/o Convention Services Northwest
   1809 Seventh Avenue, Suite 1414
   Seattle, WA 98101 USA
   Fax:  +1 206-292-0559
   Email: SIGIR95@aol.com
(Registration queries to: +1 206-292-9198 (Ask for Sarah
 Amendola)
______________________________________________________________
 
Efthimis N. Efthimiadis
Assistant Professor
Department of Library and Information Science
Graduate School of Education & Information  Studies
University of California at Los Angeles
241 GSE&IS Building, 152003
405 Hilgard Avenue,
Los Angeles, CA 90095-1520
 
tel: 310-825-8975; fax: 310-206-4460; email: efthimis@gslis.ucla.edu
=========================================================================
Date:         Thu, 11 May 1995 09:11:13 EDT
Reply-To:     Hughlook@hughlook.demon.co.uk
Sender:       Electronic Journal Publishing List 
From:         Hugh Look 
Organization: Myorganisation
Subject:      electronic journals/electronic subsciptions
 
>
> I'm trying to find out the difference between electronic journals and
> electronic subscriptions. I've seen various different definitions of each
> and it seems to be the more I find out the less I know!
>
> Anyone got any ideas or does anyone have the reference to an
> article which covers this subject.
>
 
I don't think that you will find an authoritative definition for these. Usage is
 loose at the
moment, although it may settle down.
 
My own observation, based on usage, is:
 
An electronic subscription is a way of getting the material of a journal in
 electronic as well as
printed form.
 
An electronic journal is a complete product, often including software, and does
 not usually
have a print equivalent. By implication, the entire editorial process is carried
 out electronically
as well as the journal being distributed electronically.
 
I emphasise, though, that this is loose. There are several electronic journals
 that do have a print
couterpart. A "pure" example is The Online Journal of Current Clinical Trials.
 
I doubt that there will be much agreement about these definitions!
 
--
Hugh Look: hughlook@hughlook.demon.co.uk
Electronic publishing consultant.
Editor, EPJournal: The International Electronic Publishing Newsletter
=========================================================================
Date:         Fri, 12 May 1995 08:54:33 EDT
Reply-To:     Stevan Harnad 
Sender:       Electronic Journal Publishing List 
From:         Stevan Harnad 
Subject:      Times Higher Education Supplement
 
Friday May 12 an essay about electronic journals by
Stevan Harnad, and a counter-essay by Steve Fuller will appear
in the Times Higher Education Supplement, Multimedia Page.
 
The first paragraph of each of these essays appears below.
Both essays can be accessed through the World Wide Web at the URL:
http://cogsci.ecs.soton.ac.uk:80/~harnad/THES/thes.html
 
There is a reply to Fuller as well, and more commentaries are invited
(see Instructions on the Web Page in question). The discussion will
also be archived at the Times Higher Education Supplement's Gopher
site:
 
http://gopher.timeshigher.newsint.co.uk/
email: izitim@pavilion.co.uk (Tim Greenough, Multimedia, THES)
 
        THE POSTGUTENBERG GALAXY: HOW TO GET THERE FROM HERE
 
                Stevan Harnad
                Cognitive Sciences Centre
                Department of Psychology
                University of Southampton
                Highfield, Southampton
                SO17 1BJ UNITED KINGDOM
                harnad@ecs.soton.ac.uk
                http://cogsci.ecs.soton.ac.uk/~harnad/
 
It is time to stop making apocalyptic predictions about the coming of
the electropublication era and to start providing concrete strategies
for hastening the day. But before proposing anything, I have to
describe in some detail an important parting of ways that will be
taking place as the literature is launched into cyberspace: The "trade"
literature (for want of a better word, though Shakespeare was hardly a
tradesman) will go one way, whereas the "esoteric" literature (of
specialised scholarly and scientific research) will go another. This
esoteric/trade distinction must be clearly understood and kept in mind
or none of what follows will make any sense... [see URL for rest]
 
 
      Commentary by Steve Fuller (University of Durham & University
      of Pittsburgh Steve.Fuller@durham.ac.uk fuller@vms.cis.pitt.edu)
 
The electronic medium is undoubtedly revolutionizing academic
communication. But it is still unclear who will benefit in the long
term by this revolution. Since so much is up for grabs at this point, a
clear sense of where we have come from is needed to make sense of where
we might be going. To his credit, Stevan Harnad offers such an account,
the "Faustian bargain", which is very much part of the folklore of
academic life. Its image of the profit-driven publisher provides a
convenient scapegoat and remedy for academics who feel that they never
quite get their message across to all who could potentially benefit
from it. Unfortunately, like all such self-serving stories, its grain
of truth is buried under a mountain of mystification... [see URL for rest]
=========================================================================
Date:         Mon, 15 May 1995 10:52:36 EDT
Reply-To:     AWEEDON@VAX2.LUTON.AC.UK
Sender:       Electronic Journal Publishing List 
From:         Alexis Weedon 
Subject:      Call for papers
 
Please cut and copy to other lists and noticeboards
 
Call for papers for the second and third issues of *Convergence: The Journal of
Research into New Media Technologies*
 
Interactivity
 
For the second issue of Convergence we are seeking research papers which
address the issues surrounding forms of *interactivity* in any area of the new
media from cable and telecommunications to electronic publishing, multimedia
and VR.
 
The Internet
 
For the third issue of the Journal we are seeking papers relating to research
projects or case studies which explore the use and potential of the *internet*
as a new media delivery system. Papers in any of the following areas are
welcome: control and censorship, copyright, media policy, internet and
education, gender and technology.
 
The first issue will be available from mid May. Send your subscription to John
Libbey & Co. Ltd., Journal Subscriptions, 13 Smiths Yard, Summerley Street,
London. SW18 4HR. Tel +44 181 947 2777. Fax +44 181 947 2664. Institutional
subscription rates: all countries (except N. America) surface mail #40; air
mail #45. N. America surface mail USA$80, air mail USA$90. Private subscription
rates: all countries (except N. America) surface mail #18, air mail #23. N.
America surface mail USA$32, airmail USA$40. ISSN 1354-8565.
 
_________________________________________________________________________
 
Convergence is a refereed academic journal which addresses the creative,
social, political and pedagogical issues raised by the advent of new media
technologies.   Published biannually in paper form and adopting an inter-
disciplinary approach Convergence will develop this area into an entirely new
research field.  The principal aims of Convergence are:
 
-       to develop critical frameworks and methodologies which enable the
reception, consumption and impact of new technologies to be evaluated in  their
domestic, public and educational contexts
 
-       to contextualise the study of those new technologies within existing
debates in media studies, and to address the specific implications of the
increasing convergence of media forms
 
-       to monitor the conditions of emergence of new media technologies, their
subsequent mass production and the development of new cultural forms
 
-       to promote discussion and analysis of the creative and educational
potentials of those technologies, and to contextualise those cultural practices
within wider cultural and political debates.
 
 
Submission details:  Two hard copies and where possible one disk copy
(Macintosh Word5 compatible) of all articles should be sent to the editors with
the following information attached separately: name, institution and address
for correspondence, telephone, fax and email address. Papers should be typed on
one side of the sheet with endnotes in accordance with the MLA style sheet
(abbreviated form available on request).  Authors should also enclose a 50 word
biography and an abstract. Submission deadline for the second issue is 30th May
1995 for the third issue it is 30th September 1995.
 
Proposals for articles or completed papers should be sent to: Julia Knight or
Alexis Weedon, Editors, Convergence, School of Media Arts, University of Luton,
75 Castle Street, Luton, LU1 3AJ, United Kingdom.  Tel: +44 1582 34111, fax: +
44 1582 489014, email: Convergence @vax2.luton.ac.uk.
 
Convergence is published by the University of Luton, School of Media Arts and
John Libbey & Co. Ltd.
=========================================================================
Date:         Wed, 17 May 1995 09:11:13 EDT
Reply-To:     JAMES TANNER 
Sender:       Electronic Journal Publishing List 
From:         JAMES TANNER 
Organization: University of North Texas
Subject:      RSAP NEWS 6.1 (SPRING '95)
 
 
 
 
                                                     ISSN: 1057-8188
 
                          RSAP NEWSLETTER
            (Research Society for American Periodicals)
                  Volume 6, No. 1 (Spring 1995)
 
                         E-MAIL VERSION
 
                  Edited by James T. F. Tanner
                      Department of English
                    University of North Texas
                      P.O. Box 5096 UNT Sta.
                      Denton, TX 76203-0096
                         (817) 565-2134
                       FAX: (817) 369-8770
                       jamest@cas2.unt.edu
 
RSAP OFFICERS
 
    Edward Chielens (Henry Ford Community College), President (2-year
        term: Expires 1995)
    Kenneth M. Price (Texas A&M University), President-Elect (2-year
        term: Expires 1995)
    Robert J. Scholnick (College of William & Mary),
        Immediate Past President
    James T. F. Tanner (University of North Texas),
        Secretary/Treasurer (2-year term: Expires 1996)
 
RSAP ADVISORY BOARD
 
    James T. F. Tanner (University of North Texas), RSAP NEWSLETTER
        Editor (3-year term: Expires 1997) (Appointed by Officers
        and Advisory Board)
    Lawrence I. Berkove (University of Michigan, Dearborn) (3-year
        term: Expires 1996)
    Shelley Fisher Fishkin (University of Texas) (3-year term:
        Expires 1997)
    Richard Kopley (Pennsylvania State University) (3-year term:
        Expires 1997)
    Janice Simon (University of Georgia) (3-year term: Expires 1995)
    Sam G. Riley (Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University)
        (3-year term: Expires 1996)
 
 
AMERICAN LITERATURE ASSOCIATION--ANNUAL CONFERENCE (1995)
 
Because the Research Society for American Periodicals (RSAP) is
affiliated with the American Literature Association and meets
annually with the ALA, information concerning the ALA and its annual
conference follows.
 
The American Literature Association will hold its sixth annual
conference at the Stouffer Harborplace Hotel in Baltimore, May 22-28,
1995 (Friday, Saturday, and Sunday of Memorial Day Weekend). Please
note that sessions begin on Friday morning, May 26, and end late
Saturday afternoon, May 28. As usual, the ALA will sponsor parties on
the Thursday evening preceding the conference (May 25) and after the
last session on Sunday. In addition, there will be special breakfast
seminars with discussions led by distinguished scholars.
 
Housing: The ALA room block at the conference hotel, the Stouffer
Harborplace Hotel in Baltimore, went surprisingly quickly. If you
wish to stay at the conference hotel, you can call them at 1-800-
HOTELS1 or at 1-410-547-1200 and check their availability and rates.
The primary overflow hotel is the Brookshire, an all-suites hotel
across the street from the Stouffer, which is offering a special
American Literature Association rate of $92 per single. If you wish
to reserve one of these suites, you can call the Brookshire directly
at 410-625-1300. You can call the Stouffer Hotel which should be able
to provide information on overflow housing or listen to the message
on the voice mail of Alfred Bendixen: 213-343-4291.
 
If you need to reach Alfred Bendixen, you may fax him at 213-343-
6470, leave a clear message on his voice mail at 213-343-4291, his E-
Mail at abendix@calstatela.edu, or try to call him directly at his
office 213-343-4140. If you need to contact the conference director,
Gloria Cronin, you can fax her at 801-373-4661, or e-mail her at
croning@jkhbhrc.byu.edu.
 
The conference fee is $40 ($10 for retired faculty, independent
scholars, and graduate students). Send a check, payable to American
Literature Association, c/o Alfred Bendixen, English Dept.,
California State Univ., L.A., 5151 State University Drive, Los
Angeles, CA 90032-8110.
 
 
ALA NOTES
 
To get on the mailing list for the American Literature
Association and to receive ALA Notes (Newsletter of the American
Literature Association), send $20 to:
 
        Professor Alfred Bendixen
        Department of English
        California State University, Los Angeles
        5151 State University Drive
        Los Angeles, CA 90032
 
 
RSAP SESSIONS AT ALA CONFERENCE IN BALTIMORE
 
    Friday, 26 May 1995
    5:30-6:30 P.M.
    FORMING & REFORMING FICTION FOR THE 19TH-CENTURY PERIODICAL
    MARKETPLACE
    Stouffer Harborplace Hotel, Baltimore B
    Chair: Kenneth M. Price (Texas A&M University)
 
        1. "'Without stopping to ring the bell...': How Fanny Fern's
           Newspaper Fictions Joined the American Family," Claire C.
           Pettengill, Univesity of Maryland
 
        2. "The Medium or the Message? Priorities in Antebellum Print
           Culture," Ezra Greenspan, University of South Carolina
 
        3. "How Authors Get Their Audiences: First Installments by
            Stowe, Twain, Hopkins, and Wharton," Michael Lund,
            Longwood College
 
   Saturday, 27 May 1995
   9:00-10:20 A.M.
   THE EDITOR'S IMPRINT: 19TH-CENTURY PERIODICALS & THE CREATION OF
   AMERICAN LITERATURE
   Stouffer Harborplace Hotel, Baltimore B
   Chair: Edward Chielens, Henry Ford Community College
 
        1. "Creating Readers, Shaping 'Middle Class' Literature: J.
           G. Holland's SCRIBNER'S MONTHLY," Robert J. Scholnick,
           College of William and Mary
 
        2. "Charlotte Porter and Helen Clarke, POET-LORE, in Dialogue
           with Horace Traubel, CONSERVATOR," Sherry Ceniza, Texas
           Tech University
 
        3. "Walter Hines Page at the ATLANTIC: Redefining the
           Editor's Role," Ellery Sedgwick, Longwood College
 
   Saturday, 27 May 1995
   12:00-12:50
   BUSINESS MEETING: RESEARCH SOCIETY FOR AMERICAN PERIODICALS
   Stouffer Harborplace Hotel, Maryland F
   Chair: Edward Chielens, Henry Ford Community College
 
 
ELECTION OF OFFICERS FOR RSAP AT THE 1995 ALA CONVENTION
 
The two-year term of RSAP President, Edward Chielens, will end this
year (1995). Kenneth M. Price, the President-Elect will
automatically become President of the RSAP. Chielens will
then automatically become the Immediate Past President.
 
Janice Simon's term on the RSAP Advisory Board will end this year
(1995). She must either be re-elected or replaced.
 
You are encouraged to attend the RSAP Business Meeting, Saturday, 27
May 1995, Stouffer Harborplace Hotel, Maryland F Room, during the
noon hour, 12:00-12:50.
 
 
RSAP TREASURER'S REPORT
 
James Tanner, Treasurer of the RSAP, will present the Treasurer's
Report at the scheduled Business Meeting. A copy of the Treasurer's
Report will be sent to each subscribing member of the Research
Society for American Periodicals.
 
 
RSAP NEWSLETTER
 
The RSAP NEWSLETTER is the official organ of the Research Society for
American Periodicals.
 
        Editor:                         James T. F. Tanner
        Managing Editor:                Stephen D. Adams
        Book Review Editor:             Judith Yaross Lee
        Associate Book Review Editor:   Joseph Bernt
        Consulting Editor:              Kim Martin Long
        Consulting Editor:              Stephen D. Adams
        Production Editor:              Jane L. Tanner
        Design Editor:                  Jane L. Tanner
        Bibliographer:                  Sam G. Riley
        Business Manager:               Elizabeth E. Gunter
 
Published semi-annually, the newsletter is financially supported by
the Research Society for American Periodicals. The Editor is
interested in considering for publication such items as very brief
articles, notes and queries, bibliographical citations, Calls for
Papers, announcements of forthcoming conferences, very brief book
reviews, e-mail information of special importance, and news
concerning the activities of individual RSAP members. E-Mail
submissions are particularly encouraged.
 
Grateful acknowledgment is made to the University of North Texas
English Department, to the UNT College of Arts and Sciences, to
the UNT Center for Texas Studies, and to the RSAP membership for
financial, technical, and moral support.
 
 
                        AMERICAN PERIODICALS:
        A JOURNAL OF HISTORY, CRITICISM, & BIBLIOGRAPHY
 
                        EDITORIAL STAFF
 
                    James T. F. Tanner, Editor
                Stephen D. Adams, Managing Editor
                Kim Martin Long, Consulting Editor
               Judith Yaross Lee, Book Review Editor
            Joseph Bernt, Associate Book Review Editor
                    Sam G. Riley, Bibliographer
            Virgil R. Albertini, Assistant Bibliographer
             Donald A. Barclay, Assistant Bibliographer
             Joseph R. McElrath, Assistant Bibliographer
                  Jane L. Tanner, Production Editor
                Elizabeth E. Gunter, Business Manager
 
                        ADVISORY EDITORS
 
        Martha Banta (University of California, Los Angeles)
       Nina Baym (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign)
        Lawrence I. Berkove (University of Michigan-Dearborn)
            Edward Chielens (Henry Ford Community College)
                 Cathy N. Davidson (Duke University)
             Shelley Fisher Fishkin (University of Texas)
              Robert A. Gross (College of William & Mary)
     Philip F. Gura (University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill)
              David D. Hall (American Antiquarian Society)
             David B. Kesterson (University of North Texas)
         Richard Kopley (Pennsylvania State University-DuBois)
                Patricia Marks (Valdosta State College)
              Joel Myerson (University of South Carolina)
       Sheila Post-Lauria (University of Massachusetts, Boston)
                Kenneth M. Price (Texas A&M University)
   Sam G. Riley (Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University)
            Robert J. Scholnick (College of William & Mary)
                 Janice Simon (University of Georgia)
              David E. E. Sloane (University of New Haven)
                William C. Spengemann (Dartmouth College)
                    Alan Trachtenberg (Yale University)
 
Mailed at Denton, TX. Postmaster: Send address changes to AMERICAN
PERIODICALS, P.O. Box 5096 UNT Sta., Denton, TX 76203-0096.
 
                            Volume 5 (1995)
 
            Copyright  1995 by University of North Texas Press
                            USISSN 1054-7479
 
 
 
American Periodicals: A Journal of History, Criticism, and
Bibliography (ISSN 1054-7479) is published annually by the Journals
Division of the University of North Texas Press, in cooperation with
the Department of English at the University of North Texas.
Subscription rates: 1 year, $15; 2 years, $28; Student Rates: 1 year,
$10; 2 years, $18. Advertising rates: $50 per full page, $25 per
half page. Back issues: $15 each. Address all correspondence to The
Editor, AMERICAN PERIODICALS, University of North Texas, P.O. Box
5096 UNT Sta., Denton, TX 76203-0096. Telephone: (817) 565-2134. FAX:
(817) 369-8770. E-Mail: jamest@cas2.unt.edu. Indexed in the MLA
INTERNATIONAL BIBLIOGRAPHY, ULRICH'S INTERNATIONAL PERIODICALS
DIRECTORY, COMMUNICATIONS ABSTRACTS: AN INTERNATIONAL PERIODICALS
DIRECTORY, COMMUNICATIONS ABSTRACTS: AN INTERNATIONAL INFORMATION
SERVICE, and HISTORICAL ABSTRACTS AND AMERICA: HISTORY AND LIFE.
 
AMERICAN PERIODICALS invites the submission of articles that treat
any aspect of American periodicals, both magazines and newspapers,
from the beginnings of American culture to the present. Submissions
that treat such topics as the editorial policy, financing,
production, readership, design, illustration, and circulation of one
or more periodicals are welcome, as are those which explore the
position of American periodicals within the larger culture. In
particular, we welcome articles which, like the periodicals
themselves, cross the boundaries of several disciplines and explore
the complex ways that periodicals have shaped, and havae been shaped
by, American culture. Book reviews, bibliographies, and notes of
professional interest will be included.
 
Manuscripts must conform to the latest edition of the MLA STYLE
MANUAL, be typewritten, double-spaced (including quotations and
offset material), and be limited to 6500 words. A 5.25 or 3.5 disk
(WordPerfect 5.1) is required. Two hard copies of the manuscript,
along with a self-addressed return envelope and postage (unattached)
are also required. A brief biographical "blurb," specifying academic
affiliation, recent publications, and scholarly activities should be
furnished on a separate page.
 
All submitted manuscripts are read by the Editor and two experts in
the appropriate scholarly field.
 
Book reviews (which should be sent to the Book Review Editor) must
contain the book author's complete name, the title of the book
(including the subtitle), the place of publication, the name
of the publisher, the date of publication, the ISBN number, and the
price of the book (both clothbound and paperbound, where relevant).
 
All manuscripts and correspondence should be addressed to the Editor,
AMERICAN PERIODICALS, University of North Texas, P.O. Box 5906 UNT
Sta., Denton, TX 76203-0096.
 
This journal is a member of  CELJ  the Conference of Editors of
Learned Journals.
 
 
ARTICLES ACCEPTED FOR AMERICAN PERIODICALS, VOL. 5 (1995)
 
1.  David A. Copeland, "Virtuous and Vicious: The Dual Portrayal of
    Women in Colonial Newspapers"
 
2.  Etsuko Taketani, "The NORTH AMERICAN REVIEW, 1815-1835: Inventing
    the American Past"
 
3.  Charles Johanningsmeier, "Expanding the Scope of 'Periodical
    History' for Literary Studies: Irving Bacheller and His Newspaper
    Fiction Syndicate"
 
4.  Sheila Post-Lauria, "Editorial Politics in Melville's 'Benito
    Cereno'"
 
5.  Mary Ellen Zuckerman, "From Educated Citizen to Educated
    Consumer: The Good Citizenship and Pro-Advertising Campaigns in
    THE WOMAN'S HOME COMPANION"
 
6.  Linda M. Clemmons, "'Nature Was Her Lady's Book': Ladies'
    Magazines, American Indians, and Gender, 1820-1859"
 
 
E-MAIL ADDRESSES FOR RSAP DISCUSSION GROUP
 
RSAP members are encouraged to send their e-mail addresses to James
Tanner, Secretary. We have not formed a LISTSERV on the Internet,
though this is in the talking stage. Nevertheless a list of e-mail
addresses of RSAP members and others interested in an American
Periodicals Discussion Group will be quite useful in furthering the
aims of the RSAP. Send e-mail addresses to the Secretary by posting an
e-mail message to jamest@cas2.unt.edu or by regular mail or telephone.
 
 
CALL FOR CONTRIBUTORS
 
STUDIES IN NEWSPAPER AND PERIODICAL HISTORY seeks articles from
Americanists for its 1996 hardcover volume. Subjects of interest
include the history of the American press; authorship in America;
audience studies; case studies of individual magazines, newspapers,
editors, or publishers; newspaper or periodical treatments of issues
in American culture or character; questions of copyright, contract,
circulation, or serialization; and topics in illustration, layout, or
design. Articles should be about 7500 words, in MLA style, and
submitted by 2 June 1995. Contact Amy Aronson, Deputy Editor,
Columbia University, 602 Philosophy Hall, New York, NY 10027,
aba2.columbia.com.
 
 
EDITOR NEEDED
 
The Research Society for Victorian Periodicals is searching for a new
editor for VICTORIAN PERIODICALS REVIEW. Send a letter of interest
and vita to Christopher Dahl, Provost, SUNY Geneseo, Geneseo, NY
14454-1450.
 
 
PERIODICAL MISCELLANY
 
Stephen Adams, Managing Editor for AMERICAN PERIODICALS, has accepted
a position as Assistant Professor of English at Murray State
University in Murray, Kentucky. Stephen is completing currently
completing his Ph.D. dissertation (on T.S. Eliot) at the University
of North Texas. Stephen will continue as a Consulting Editor. We wish
him well. Ken Price, a UNT doctoral student in English, will assume
the Managing Editor position, effective 1 September 1995.
 
Kim Martin Long, former Managing Editor for AMERICAN PERIODICALS, has
accepted a position as Assistant Professsor of English at
Shippensburg State University in Shippensburg, Pennsylvania. Kim will
continue as a Consulting Editor. She will be missed in the North
Texas area.
 
 
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
                            SUBSCRIPTION FORM
 
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(Includes membership in the Research Society for American Periodicals)
 
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CHRISTMAS 1995
 
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                        CONSTITUTION
        RESEARCH SOCIETY FOR AMERICAN PERIODICALS
                    (Approved 24 May 1991)
 
A copy of the Constitution of the Research Society for American
Periodicals will be sent to each person who joins the Society.
 
 
                            BYLAWS
            RESEARCH SOCIETY FOR AMERICAN PERIODICALS
                    (Approved 24 May 1991)
 
A copy of the Bylaws of the Research Society for American Periodicals
will be sent to each person who joins the Society.
 
 
            Research Society for American Periodicals
 
 
                        Founding Members
 
Virgil R. Albertini     Cathy N. Davidson       Luanne Hicks
Robert A. Bader         Carl B. Davis           Janet G. House
Martha Banta            Mary De Jong            Nian-Sheng Huang
Donald A. Barclay       Tom Dickson             Frank W. Jennings
Roderick S. Barclay     Joanne A. Dobson        E. Claire Jerry
Nancy Warner Barrineau  Janet Dodd              Rebecca J. Johnson
Nina Baym               Vic Doyno               Robert M. Jones
Paula Bennett           Wallace B. Eberhard     Stephen Karetzky
Lawrence I. Berkove     Dennis W. Eddings       Ali Kashani
Joseph P. Bernt         Hendrik Edelman         Charles O. Kates
Glenn Blalock           Jonathan R. Eller       Mavis P. Kelsey, M.D.
Cheryl D. Bohde         Susan B. Fay            Laura B. Kennelly
Barbara Bradfield       Ben Franklin Fisher     David B. Kesterson
Wesley A. Britton       Shelley Fisher Fishkin  Edward J. Keyes
Joshua Brown            Tahita Fulkerson        Richard Kielbowcicz
Ray B. Browne           Richard D. Fulton       Michael Kingston
Jackson R. Bryer        Susan R. Gannon         Patricia C. Knight
Willis J. Buckingham    Ellen Gruber Garvey     Richard Kopley
Rita A. Capezzi         Barbara J. Gastel       Wanda Landry
Michael L. Carlebach    Susanne George          Helen L. Leath
Betty S. Carr           Donald C. Green         James W. Lee
Sherry Ceniza           Julie Greenblatt        Judith Yaross Lee
Richard R. Centing      Sarah L. Greene         William R. Linneman
Jocelyn Chadwick-Joshua Ezra Greenspan          Alfred G. Litton
Edward Chielens         Robert A. Gross         Kent Ljungquist
Boyd Childress          Dorys C. Grover         Kim Martin Long
Carol Lea Clark         M. Guilford-Kardell     Michael C. Lund
Barbara L. Cloud        Elizabeth E. Gunter     Anne Lundin
Ann Colbert             Philip F. Gura          Kevin M. McCarthy
Betsy Colquitt          David D. Hall           Joseph McElrath
John J. Connell, Jr.    Marina L. Hall          Patty Mamula
Allene Cooper           Jane Haspel             Shirley Marchalonis
Pascal Covici, Jr.      Bob Hays                Bayly Ellen Marks
 
 
Patricia Marks          William C. Spengemann
Ronald S. Marmarelli    Norman E. Stafford
John B. Mason           Madeleine B. Stern
Laurence W. Mazzeno     Katina Strauch
C. Menke                Brenda M.W. Strickler
Louise Montgomery       Guy Szuberla
Marilyn Moss            James T. F. Tanner
Joel Myerson            Jane L. Tanner
Cameron C. Nickels      Terence A. Tanner
Patricia Okker          Stuart Tarr
Anna R. Paddon          Ruth Anne Thompson
Scott Peeples           Alan Trachtenberg
Burton Pollin           Lon W. Travis
Thomas R. Pribek        William J. Trzeciak
Kenneth M. Price        Michael C. Turco
Richard Prosser         Rosemary Van Arsdel
Mary Reichardt          J. Don Vann
Carol Reuss             Norman E. Vogt
Sam G. Riley            Clyde Wade
Kenneth A. Robb         Joseph R. Weaver
Garyn G. Roberts        Daniel A. Wells
Eunice M. Roe           Janice L. White
Sandra Roff             Annette White-Parks
Gary F. Scharnhorst     James G. Wieghart
Dorey Schmidt           Susan S. Williams
Robert J. Scholnick     Douglas R. Wilmes
Ellery Sedgwick         Thomas Wortham
Janice Simon            George L. Wrenn
Carolyn M. Skopik       Michael J. Wrona
David E. E. Sloane      Mary Ellen Zuckerman
Harry Sova
Mary K. Sparks
Robert L. Spellman
 
James T. F. Tanner
Professor of English
University of North Texas
P.O. Box 13827, UNT Sta.
Denton, TX 76203-6827
AUDITORIUM BUILDING, ROOM 316
(817) 565-2134 (Office)
(817) 382-1661 (Home)
(817) 565-2050 (Msg.)
FAX: (817) 565-4355
FAX: (817) 369-8770
e-mail: jamest@cas2.unt.edu
=========================================================================
Date:         Wed, 17 May 1995 09:11:36 EDT
Reply-To:     "Frank E. Harris" 
Sender:       Electronic Journal Publishing List 
From:         "Frank E. Harris" 
Subject:      Optics Index/Optics Letters CD-ROM
X-cc:         preprint@e-math.ams.org
 
Dear E-Journal listers,
 
I thought this might be of interest to you.  Besides the scientific
content, the EBT Dynatext software used on this CD-ROM is one of the best
programs for searching, viewing, and printing large SGML documents.
 
Frank E. Harris
Optical Society of America
 
 
                               PRESS RELEASE
 
 
OSA's first CD-ROM, combining the Optics Index 1917-1994 and Optics Letters
1994, has been shipping for about a month.  The Optics Index, which is
searchable on titles, authors, subject terms, volume, page number, and
year, has aroused considerable interest and generated sales both to OSA
members and to members of allied societies who need occasional access to
OSA's Optics literature.  The OSA Optics Index covers the journals Applied
Optics 1962-1994, JOSA (The Journal of the Optical Society of America)
1917-1983, JOSA A 1984-1994, JOSA B 1984-1994, JoLT (The Journal of
Lightwave Technology) 1983-1994, and Optics Letters 1977-1994.
 
The Optics Letters portion of the CD-ROM contains the full 1994 year
of the peer-reviewed journal Optics Letters, with figures, equations,
tables, and full text.  Since we showed the prototype of Optics Letters
at the OSA Annual Meeting in October, 1994, we have made several
improvements.  Although the program was already fast, we have made it
faster, and we have added the original page numbers to the header
above the title of each article.
 
Several user-friendly features help you to concentrate on retrieving
information instead of interpreting complex functions.
   - Resize windows to jump effortlessly between the table of contents
     and the full text, including abstracts, equations, tables, and figures
   - Automatic word wrap - no columns spilling off the screen
   - Math, chemistry, and special characters are accurately displayed, the
     way you need them
   - Display figures within the text or in separate windows, as you prefer
   - Customize the typeface and size of text on screen for easy reading
 
Compatible with PC/Windows, Macintosh, and Unix systems (Unix precompiled
for SUN, HP, DEC, and Silicon Graphics workstations).
 
The OSA member price for Optics Index 1917-1994 and Optics Letters 1994
is $85.  The non-member individual price is $125, and libraries may have
a single site license for $275.  Please e-mail cust.serv@osa.org , phone
202/416-1907, or fax 202/416-6130 to order or for more information.
 
 
Alan N. Tourtlotte
OSA, Publications Department
 
 
--
Frank E. Harris                      fharri@osa.org
Optical Society of America           fharris@aip.org
2010 Massachusetts AVE NW            Phone - 202-416-1904
Washington, DC 20036-1023            http://192.239.36.3
=========================================================================
Date:         Wed, 17 May 1995 09:11:52 EDT
Reply-To:     Rob Cameron 
Sender:       Electronic Journal Publishing List 
From:         Rob Cameron 
Subject:      A Universal Citation Database and Reform of Scholarly
              Communication
 
I have written a draft of a paper entitled "A Universal Citation
Database as a Catalyst for Reform in Scholarly Communication" and
would appreciate comments on it.
 
It is available on-line at
http://fas.sfu.ca/1/projects/ElectronicLibrary/project/papers
 
Robert D. Cameron, Associate Professor           cameron@cs.sfu.ca
School of Computing Science                      FAX: (604) 291-3045
Simon Fraser University
Burnaby, B.C., Canada  V5A 1S6
=========================================================================
Date:         Thu, 18 May 1995 08:47:01 EDT
Reply-To:     Ann Okerson 
Sender:       Electronic Journal Publishing List 
From:         Ann Okerson 
Subject:      New Edition of Internet Journal Directory Available
 
[This is being cross-posted to several lists.]
 
Association of Research Libraries
PRESS RELEASE
May 18, 1995
Ann Okerson (ann@cni.org)
 
 
   ARL 5TH EDITION OF DIRECTORY OF ELECTRONIC PUBLICATIONS AVAILABLE
 
 
The Association of Research Libraries announces publication of the 5th
Edition of the hard-copy standard reference work for serials on the
Internet: the Directory of Electronic Journals, Newsletters, and
Academic Discussion Lists.
 
The extraordinary rate of expansion of microcomputers and linked
networks as vehicles for scholarly exchange, along with growth in the
rate of the use of the Internet, does not abate.  The number of
journals, newsletters, and serial-like academic publications continues
to increase daily and scholarly communication expands in exciting new
ways.  Many journals, newsletters, and scholarly lists may be accessed
free of charge through Internet and affiliated networks, along with
those that are increasingly available via paid online subscription.
Nonetheless, it is not always simple to find what is available.
 
The new edition of the Directory is a compilation of entries for nearly
2500 scholarly lists and 675 electronic journals, newsletters, and
related titles such as newsletter-digests -- an increase in size of over
40% since the 4th edition of April 1994 and 4.5 times since the 1st
edition of July 1991.  The Directory provides instructions for
electronic access to each publication.  The objective is to assist the
user in finding relevant publications and connecting to them quickly,
even if he or she is not completely versed in the full range of
user-access systems.
 
Diane Kovacs of the Kent State University Libraries continues to head
the KSU team of individuals who collaboratively created the 5th
edition's scholarly discussion lists and interest groups section.
Principal compiler of the journals and newsletters section is Lisabeth
A.  King, Research Assistant for the ARL Office of Scientific & Academic
Publishing, with support from Dru Mogge, Electronic Services
Coordinator.  Ann Okerson of the ARL/OSAP is overall project coordinator
for the printed directory.  The printed directory points to the widely
available Kovacs files as the free-of-charge Internet sources for the
discussion lists section.  ARL made an abridged gopher version available
in summer of 1994 and plans to create a World Wide Web directory in the
summer of 1995.
 
The 5th Edition is produced in 8.5 x 11 paperbound format in 770 pages.
Scholarly lists are grouped by broad subject areas, and journals and
newsletters are in alphabetical order.  A substantial index of keywords,
titles, and institutional affiliations is provided.  As in the previous
four years, frontmatter of value to electronic serial readers is
included.  Again, a scholarly article on electronic scholarly
publications leads, followed by works commissioned for the ARL book.
The article is Paul Ginsparg's (Los Alamos National Laboratories)
detailed description of the widely High Energy Physics preprints server
and the concepts behind it, revised and reprinted from a 1994 article in
Computers in Physics.  For the second year, Birdie MacLennan of the
University of Vermont has prepared a listing and assessment of sites for
electronic serials that are maintained by various organizations on the
Internet.  Charles Bailey of the University of Houston Libraries and
Editor in Chief of a notable Internet journal, The PACS Review, has
included a detailed bibliography on electronic publishing.  Included
again is Steve Outing's listing of newspapers available on the Internet,
a thriving project he began in 1994 and continues to maintain and
expand.
 
The Association of Research Libraries is a not-for-profit organization
representing 119 research libraries in the United States and Canada.
Its mission is to identify and influence forces affecting the future of
research libraries in the process of scholarly communication.
 
------------------------------------------------------------------
 
ASSOCIATION OF RESEARCH LIBRARIES
Office of Scientific & Academic Publishing
21 Dupont Circle, NW
Suite 800
Washington, DC  20036
202-296-2296
202-872-0884 (fax)
 
 
5th EDITION, 1994:      $62.00 (All purchasers)
                        $41.00 (Only to the 119 LIBRARIES that are
                        members of the ARL)
 
ALL ORDERS ADD Postage/shipping/handling *PER COPY*
 
U.S.A.                  $ 5.00
Canada                  $ 6.00
 
ORDERS SHOULD BE PREPAID BY CHECK, MONEY ORDER, MASTERCARD OR VISA.
=========================================================================
Date:         Thu, 18 May 1995 08:47:17 EDT
Reply-To:     AWEEDON@VAX2.LUTON.AC.UK
Sender:       Electronic Journal Publishing List 
From:         Alexis Weedon 
Subject:      Network journal publishing - advice
 
Could I ask the lists advice?
 
I am currently co-editing a paper journal on new technologies and am looking
into the feasibility of putting it on-line accessible via the Internet, though
probably (though not necessarily) held on a vms/vax system at the University of
Luton
 
Could anyone suggest suitable software, or give me references to comparisons
between systems which would enable me to do this?
 
Many thanks
 
Alexis Weedon
AWeedon@vax2.luton.ac.uk
=========================================================================
Date:         Fri, 19 May 1995 09:44:11 EDT
Reply-To:     "William C. Anderson" 
Sender:       Electronic Journal Publishing List 
From:         "William C. Anderson" 
Subject:      CONSER documentation for e-serials
 
       This message has been cross-posted to several
         listservs, please excuse the duplication.
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
To:   CONSRLST, SERIALST, COOPCAT, EMEDIA, VPI-EJ
From: Bill Anderson, CONSER Specialist
Re:   Availability of CONSER documentation on *Remote Access
      Computer File Serials*
Date: May 18th
 
As many of you already know, the CONSER Program has been
arduously working to develop documentation for cataloging
electronic serials.  (I'm sure you also understand some of the
challenges in this area.)  Module 31, *Remote Access Computer
File Serials,* prepared by Melissa Beck (UCLA), is ready for
publication and will appear in Update 3 of the _CONSER Cataloging
Manual_, distributed by LC's Cataloging Distribution Service.
This should appear sometime around ALA (i.e., June or July).
 
We are also announcing electronic access to the module via two
methods:
 
     *  World Wide Web via *Tools for Serials Catalogers*
          URL=http://www.library.vanderbilt.edu/eserials.html
 
     *  FTP via LC's FTP site
          ftp ftp.loc.gov
          login as *anonymous*
          cd /pub/collections.services
          get concatman.e_serials.wp51
          (Remember to enter  prior to using the *get*
          command since this is in WordPerfect 5.1)
 
Both the HTML and WordPerfect versions lack some of the figures
included in the print format, but the textual content is
complete.  CONSER would like to express its sincere thanks to Ann
Ercelawn for converting the WP version to HTML on such short
notice (and for maintaining the *Tools for Serials Catalogers*
home page--URL=http://www.library.vanderbilt.edu/serials.html).
 
For those of you who responded to messages distributed by CONSER
members assisting with the module, **Thank you very much.**  All
the input was quite helpful in resolving (at least for now) some
of the knotty issues.  If policy decisions didn't come out quite
the way you expected, well ... stay tuned, this is a rather fluid
environment.
=========================================================================
Date:         Fri, 19 May 1995 09:46:02 EDT
Reply-To:     mwarren@anl.gov
Sender:       Electronic Journal Publishing List 
From:         mwarren@anl.gov
Organization: Argonne National Laboratory
Subject:      Integrated Graphics
 
Hello,
 
This is Mary Warren, the manager of the Technical Communication Services Dept.
at Argonne National Laboratory, a Department of Energy R&D laboratory.  I
joined this newsgroup to get some help with integrating graphics files (created
with any number of different software packages on Macintoshes) into WordPerfect
for Windows 6.1 text files on a Gateway PC.  These merged files are then
printed with a postscript printer.  Does anyone have any advice about choosing
the right formats to save the graphics files be
=========================================================================
Date:         Mon, 22 May 1995 10:27:18 EDT
Reply-To:     James Powell 
Sender:       Electronic Journal Publishing List 
From:         James Powell 
Subject:      Technology For All Americans
X-cc:         www-announce@www0.cern.ch
 
The Scholarly Communications Project and The Technology For All Americans
Project would like to announce the Technology For All Americans home page
located at http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/TAA/TAA.html.
 
Press Information
 
   April 20, 1995
 
   Editorial Contact:
   Rick Satchwell
   Technology for All Americans Project
   1997 S. Main Street, Suite 701
   Blacksburg, VA 24061-0353
   Phone: (703) 953-0203
   Fax: (703) 953-0014
   Email: T.Ed.Stan.Proj@bev.net
 
Technology Education Standards ProjectTo Seek Input from Educators, Parents,
Engineers
 
   What should a 12-year old girl know about technology? How much should
   she understand about genetic engineering, smart transportation
   systems, wireless communications, or robotics?
 
   By the year 2000, technology educators hope to have a literacy program
   in place for students in grades K through 12 to learn about this
   multi-faceted discipline. To reach this goal, a commission of experts
   in the field is currently attempting to define what the standards for
   technology will be.
 
   "Technology is more than having access to a computer in a classroom.
   It is the study of the world as it has been created by humans," says
   William E. Dugger, Jr., a professor of technology education on
   sabbatical from Virginia Tech.
 
   Dugger is directing the efforts of the commission who are working
   through a program entitled Technology for All Americans. The ambitious
   program is funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the
   National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).
 
   The 22-member national commission met recently in Reston, Virginia, to
   discuss the first phase of their work -- the writing of a document
   that explains technology as a discipline and why technological
   literacy is important for all children and adults. This document will
   be a road map for the subsequent development of standards for the K-12
   classroom.
 
   When the commission members have finished the document describing the
   need for technological education of the nation's youngsters, they will
   hold workshops around the country this summer. These hearings will be
   located at seven NASA centers. Hearings will also be held in the fall
   at regional and state technology, science, mathematics, and
   engineering association meetings.
 
   "It is extremely important to us to hear what the public has to say
   about teaching technology in the classroom," Dugger explained. "We
   want the input of engineers, teachers, parents, and anyone else who
   may have an opinion about technological literacy. We want to be able
   to reach a consensus about what these standards should be before they
   are adopted."
 
   The effort is similar to the standards project developed by the
   community of geographers. In the 1980s, it was decided that geography
   standards were needed in the schools. After building a consensus among
   the various interest groups, geography standards were put in place by
   1994. Another model, developed by the National Council of Teachers of
   Mathematics (NCTM) in 1989, is also being used by the commission.
 
   Dugger explained that the technology standards will mimic geography's
   model by actually implementing three sets of standards: grades K-4,
   5-8, and 9-12. Similar to the geography project, the technology
   standards will be based on ongoing consensus, and they will seek out
   various political interests for input.
 
   For further information about the Technology for All Americans
   program, contact Dr. William E. Dugger, Jr., 1997 S. Main Street,
   Suite 701, Blacksburg, VA 24061-0353. Telephone: (703) 953-0203 Fax:
   (703) 953-0014 Email: T.Ed.Stan.Proj@bev.net
 
   # # #
     _________________________________________________________________
 
The Scholarly Communications Project home page is http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/
TAA and many other electronic resources published by University Libraries,
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, are available here.
 
James Powell - Library Automation, University Libraries, VPI&SU
               jpowell@scholar.lib.vt.edu - NeXTMail welcome here
               Owner of VPIEJ-L, a discussion list for Electronic Journals
Archives: http://scholar.lib.vt.edu:80/    gopher://scholar.lib.vt.edu:70/
          file://scholar.lib.vt.edu/~ftp