JARS 42n3 - Names Of Plants: Sense and Sound - Part Two

Names Of Plants: Sense and Sound - Part Two
Theo Smid
Haywood, California

Before proceeding to the sounds of English, we shall consider sounds that predominate in most non-Germanic languages, the so-called "Continental" pronunciation. The vast majority of languages are characterized by comparatively open vowels: Romance (except French), Slavic (no exceptions), Malayo-Polynesian (i.e. Hawaiian), Japanese and numerous others. The most-open vowel is ah. English English tends toward it in words like dance, while American English favors the a in cat, for which the scribes, around A.D. 800, invented the letter E. At the other extreme are the French u and the German ü. With one exception, the vowels of classical Latin and Greek were rather open; consequently, in most languages the pronunciation of botanical names more closely approximates them. For example, the familiar name, Enrico Caruso, which contains the five vowels, sounds very like Latin, including the trilled r.

The following table follows the sequence of the English alphabet. The small letters were basically established in the script called Carolingian minuscule c.800 (named for Charlemagne, who founded an important "school" headed by the Englishman Alcuin). Roman capital letters can be seen chiseled on the Pantheon, the Arch of Constantine and many other monuments. For those who are interested, Greek letters are included.

a α A aha
ae αι aisle
au αυ house
b β B beta
bs βσ apse
bt βτ apt
c - kin (always)
ch 1 - character
- Χ X Ger. machen
Scot, loch
Russ. Mikhail
d δ Δ delta
e ε E met
- η H Fr. fête
ei ει rein
eu ευ eh'oo
f - fit
g γ Γ go (always)
h - - not in Greek 2
i ι I hit
j 3
k 4 k K kappa
l λ Λ lambda
m µ M mu
n ν N nu
o ο O obey
- ω Ω note
oe οι boy
p π Π pi
ph φ Φ graphic
ps ψ Ψ gypsum
q - quick
r 5 ρ R trill (trilled)
s σ Σ sister
- Final s is different
t τ T tau
th 1 θ Θ thin (theta)
u (v) full
υ Y (approx. form)
Fr. tu, sûr
Ger. Glück
u consonant win (no vee sound)
w 6
x ξ Ξ lax
y 7
z ς Z daze

1 Latin had no aspirates. Between 150-100 B.C. ch, ph, and th were introduced to transliterate Greek words and names, but they gradually lost their aspiration.

2 The h was almost silent in Latin (i.e. holus, green vegetable, was often spelled olus) and is silent in Castillian Spanish (hacienda, ah-the-en'dah). In Greek every word beginning with a vowel was preceded by either a smooth breathing' (silent) or by a rough breathing' (represented in Latin by h). See note 5 for r.

3 J as a symbol for consonantal i, as in yes, first appeared in late manuscripts and printed books. The English sound of J did not exist.

4 Only one word in common use began with k: Kalendae, the first day of each month (whence our calendar).

5 In Greek every word beginning with ρ (r) was preceded by the rough breathing ('ρ) e.g. 'ροδoυ, rose. Since the Latin h was virtually silent, it was placed after the r; thus we have rhododendron. Anglo-Saxon words in English follow the same custom, i.e. what...when...where...whither, except that we are supposed to pronounce them in the Greek manner.

6 The w developed from uu in late manuscripts, which early printers converted into the present letter.

7 In the time of Cicero (106-43 B.C.) most teachers were Greeks and all educated Latins were bilingual. His own secretary, Tiro, a Greek freedman, invented a system of shorthand called notae Tironianae . The Greek sound of u was then added to the Latin alphabet in the form of Y, similar to the Greek capital u, and sumphõnia became symphonia .

Rules for the sounds of Greek and Latin are derived chiefly from commentaries on versification. In Latin the unit of length is one short syllable, equal in music to the eighth note. A long syllable is equal to two short syllables, equal in music to the quarter note. A diphthong is long.

(Names of species that end in -oides often are mispronounced because the oi is considered to be a diphthong, whereas the o is part of the stem, i.e. buxoides . Another problem occurs in Greek names ending in oe, such as Callirhoë and Leucothoë .)

Rules of accent in Latin and English generally are the same, although English leaves its options open. Words of two syllables are stressed on the penult, tan'go , I touch. Words of more than two syllables are stressed on the penult if it is long, ami'cus , friend, but on the antepenult if the penult is short, do'minus , lord or master (cf. Eng. dom'inate).

When a short vowel is followed by a double consonant it is long by position and takes the accent. In English we make a distinction between ph y 'lum and phyl'lum . However, English can be extremely variable because of its widespread borrowing. In the word symphony y has one sound, but in gynecology the g, y and o have two sounds. Dictionaries give three acceptable pronunciations for the a in datum and the plural data: as in ah, cat and day ; and two for the i in finance : as in writ and write. In the following lists some differences between English English and American English will be noted.

Botanical English blends Latin forms and English phonetics. Pronunciations of the possessive endings, -ae and -i, are reversed.

-ae: Latin, as in eye; English, ee.
-i: Latin, ee; English, as in eye.

Adjectival endings in -aceum, -ale, -anum, -are, -atum have a long a , pronounced ah in Latin but ay in English, e.g. R. alutaceum . Adjectival endings in -inum, -itum have a long i, pronounced as eye in English, e.g. R. cinnabarinum , R. vestitum .

However, the cosmopolitan content of botanical literature induces an obligation for the speaker at least to try to acknowledge the native language of a person or place. An example outside the scope of this work but illustrative is Clivia , a name that seems to have an affinity to Latin, but bears the name of the granddaughter of Clive of India, who put "the jewel in the crown."

Attention is called to the consonant ch which is both common and variable. Eng. & Sp., as in Charles, e.g. R. chapmanii . L., G., It., k, e.g. R. charitopes , R. scortechinii (also sch , as in school,e.g. R. schistocalyx , but British speakers make some exceptions). Fr., as in Chevrolet, e.g. R. chevalieri . Ger., as in Bach, e.g. R. fuchsii . The Spanish j, pronounced as h, is common in the U.S. Southwest, e.g. Arctostaphylos pajaroensis .

Notes on Japanese appear in Fred C. Galle, Azaleas , "Transliteration and Pronunciation of Japanese," 413-415.

In Rhododendrons of China , translated by Judy Young and Dr. Lu-sheng Chong, the section "Guide to Pinyin Pronunciation of Chinese," 653-660, should be consulted, although all the older names used a different system. Chinese vernacular names (in translation) of species used here are from that work.

Despite the foregoing, we are living in the "Age of Common Usage".

The system of accentuation used here originated with J.C. Loudon in his Hortus Britannicus (1830), in which the grave (`) indicates a long stressed syllable and the acute (ˊ) marks a short stressed syllable. The method was adopted for Asa Gray's Manual and used by Liberty H. Bailey.

The following lists of meanings and pronunciations of species in the Heath Family will consist of nearly all species of Rhododendron in alphabetical order and other genera (with selected species) following.

Botanical Notation
For those not familiar with botanical notation, a few practices are explained.

The generic name or the specific epithet is followed by the name (usually abbreviated) of the author of the earliest valid citation.

L. = Linnaeus   f. = fillius (son, of author cited).

Jones in Smith = Jones validly published in a work edited by Smith.

Jones ex Smith = Smith validly published a name given by Jones, but not validly published by Jones.

R. maculiferum Franch. ssp. anwheiense (Wils.) Chamberlain = R. anwheiense Wilson was reduced to a subspecies by Chamberlain.

Other explanations appear in The Rhododendron Handbook of The Royal Horticultural Society, 1980, p. 239.

Ch.= Chinese
G. = Greek
L. = Latin
Sp.= Spanish
r. = rhododendron

Rhododendron Species — A
R. aberconwàyi Conway (of Henry Duncan McLaren, 2nd Baron Aberconway, 1879-1953; pres., Horticultural Society, 1931-53; creator of Bodnant Gardens)
R. abietifòlium Sleumer (L. fir-leaf)
R. acróphilum Merrill & Quisumbing y Arguelles (G. akros summit + philos loved)
R. acuminàtum Hooker f. (L. tapering to a protracted point)
R. adenogỳnum Diels (G. aden gland + gune ovary [strictly, belonging to a woman]) intr. 1917
Adenóphorum Group (G. gland + phoros that which is brought)
R. adenópodum Franchet (G. gland + pous, podos foot, i.e. pedicel)
R. adenòsum Davidian (G. & L. very glandular)
R. adinophýllum Men. (G. adinos close, thick + phullon leaf)
R. aequàbile J.J. Smith (L. uniform)
R. afghánicum Aitchison & Hemsley (of Afghanistan)
R. agánniphum Balfour f. & Kingdon Ward (G. aganniphos much snowed on) cult.1933
var. flavorùfum (Balf. f. & Forrest) Chamberlain (L. yellow-reddish)
R. agástum Balf. f. & W.W. Smith (G. agastos admirable) Ch. "charming rhododendron"
R. agathodaèmonis J.J. Smith (G. agathodaimon the Good Genius, to whom a cup of pure wine was drunk as a toast at the end of dinner)
R. alabaménse Rehder (of Alabama) Alabama Azalea, intr. 1883
R. albertseniànum Forr. (of M.O. Albertson of the Chinese Maritime Customs)
R. albiflòrum Hook. (L. white flower) intr. >1837
R. albréchtii Maximowicz (of Dr. M. Albrecht, Russ. naval surg., Russ. consulate, Japan) Miyama Tsutsuji, intr. 1892
R. álbum Blume (L. white)
R. altérnans Sleumer (L. alternating)
R. altícolum Sleumer (L. high-dwelling)
If. alutàceum Balf. f. & W.W. Sm. (L. made of soft leather, i.e. fol.)
var. iòdes (Balf. f. & Forr.) Chamb. (G. iodes rust-colored)
var. russotínctum (Balf. f. & Forr.) Chamb. (L. russet-tinted)
R. amábile Sleumer (L. lovable)
R. amagiànum (hard g) Makino (of Mt. Amagi, Japan) Amagi Tsutsuji
R. amándum Cowan (L. must be loved)
R. ambíguum Hemsl. (L. doubtful - of questionable origin) intr. 1903; Ch. "greet visitor r."
R. àmesiae Rehd. & Wilson (of Mary S. Ames of a prominent family in No. Easton, Mass. - Union Pac. RR & mfg.) Ch. "purple-flowered r."
R. amundseniànum Handel-Mazzetti (of Roald Amundsen, 1872-1928, Norw. explorer; South Pole, 1911)
R. anagalliflòrum Wernham (with flowers like Anagallis , Pimpernel)
R. ánnae Franch. (of a French lady named Anna) Ch. "peach-leaved r."
Laxiflòrum Group (L. loose-flower)
R. annaménse Rehd. (of Annam, central Vietnam)
R. angulàtum J.J. Sm. (L. angled or out-of-the-way)
R. anthopògon D. Don (G. anthos flower + pogon beard) intr. 1820 Ch. "bearded-flower r."
ssp. hypenánthum (Balf. f.) Cullen (G. hupene the underside of the face or the beard + anthos flower) Ch. "hairy-flowered r."
R. anthopogonoídes Max. (G. anthopogon + idea form, likeness) Ch. "intensely fragrant r."
R. anthosphaèrum Diels (G. anthos flower + sphaira a ball, i.e. rounded lobes) Ch. "globe-flowered r."
R. aperántum Balf. f. & Ward (G. aperantos boundless)
R. apoànum Stein (of Mt. Apo, central Mindanao, Philippines)
R. araiophýllum Balf. f. & W.W. Sm. (G. araios thin + phullon leaf)
R. arboréscens (Pursh) Torrey (L. becoming a tree) Tree, Sweet or Smooth Azalea; first described by John Bartram, 1699-1777
R. arbòreum James E. Smith (L. tree-like) Ch. "tree-like r.''Wallich sent seeds to England in 1818-19 in tins of brown sugar; 1st tree-like r. cultivated
ssp. cinnamòmeum (Wall, ex Lindley) Tagg (L. cinnamon-like, i.e. indumentum)
Campbélliae Group (of the wife of Archibald Campbell, 1805-74, who collected with J.D. Hooker in Sikkim in 1849)
var. ròseum Lindl. (L. rose-colored)
ssp. delavàyi (Franch.) Chamb. (of Père Jean-Marie Delavay, 1838-95, for 10 yrs. a missionary in N.W. Yunnan; sent 200,000 specimens to the Musée d'histoire Naturelle , Paris, including 4,000+ spp., 1,500 of them new, most of which he had collected and pressed alone on "his" mountain, Tsemei-shan. Also Magnolia d-, Abies d-, Osmanthus d-) . Ch. "lantana r."
var. peramoènum (Balf. f. & Forr.) Chamb. (L. thoroughly delightful)
ssp. nilagíricum (Zenker) Tagg (of the Nilagiri Hills, no. India)
ssp. zeylánicum (Booth) Tagg (of Ceylon = Sri Lanka)
R. archboldiànum Sleumer ("after the American millionaire and explorer Archbold and his daughter Anne, who made several 'Archbold' expeditions of the Natural History Museum, New York, possible, both to the Pacific and New Guinea,", Sleumer)
R. arenícolum Sleumer (L. sand-dwelling)
R. arfakiànum Beccari (of Mt. Arfak, e. Vogelkop Penin., n.w. New Guinea)
R. argyrophýllum Franch. (G. arguros silver + phullon leaf) Ch. "silver-leaf r."
Cupulàre Group (L. pertaining to a small keg)
ssp. hypoglaùcum (Hemsl.) Chamb. (G. hupo under + glaukos glaucous) Ch. "powdery-white r."
ssp. nankingénse (Cowan) Chamb. (of Nanking)
ssp. omeiénse (Rehd. & Wils.) Chamb. (of sacred Mt. Omei - Emei-shan - w. Sichuan)
R. armítii F.M. Bailey (of Wm. E. de M. Armit, Belg. 1848-New Guinea 1901, officer of Queensland mounted police in expedition to Papua in 1883; several other expeditions; resident mgr., northern division) Ficus armiti King
R. aspérrimum Sleumer (L. very rough)
R. aspérulum Hutchinson &Ward (L. somewhat rough)
R. ásperum J.J. Sm. (L. rough, i.e. leaves erect, stiff, coriaceous)
R. asteróchnoum Diels (G. astero- of a star + chnoos fine down, as on a peach)
R. atlánticum (Ashe) Rehd. (at the Atlantic) Coastal or Dwarf Azalea; collected by John Clayton in 1743
f. tomolòbum Fern. (G. tome a cutting + lobos lobe of the ear)
R. atropurpúreum Sleumer (L. deep black-purple)
R. atróvirens Franch. (L. deep black-green)
R. augustínii Hemsl. (of Augustine Henry, Co. Antrim 1857-1930, med. officer in China; collected in several provinces and Taiwan; authority on Chinese materia medica; prof, of forestry, Coll. of Science, Dublin) Ch. "hairy-rib r."
ssp. chasmánthum (kas-) (Diels) Cullen (G. chasma chasm, the open mouth + anthos flower) Ch. "open-mouthed r."
f. hàrdyi ( Davidian) R.C. Fang (of Maj. A.E. Hardy of Sandling Park, Kent) Ch. "white-flowered open-mouthed r."
f. rùbrum (Davidian) R.C. Fang (L. red) Ch. "red-flowered open-mouthed r."
R. aùreum Georgi (L. golden)
var. hypópitys (Pojarkova) Chamb. (G. hupo under + pitus a pine-tree)
R. auriculàtum Hemsl. (L. eared, i.e. base of the leaves) intr. 1900 Ch. "ear-leaved r."
R. aurigerànum Sleumer (L. gold-bearing, i.e. its color and also its habitat in the Wau gold-mining area of New Guinea)
R. aurìtum Tagg (L. eared, i.e. the calyx-lobes are reflexed)
R. austrìnum (Small) Rehd. (L. southern) Florida Azalea; disc, by Dr. A.W. Chapman; intr. 1865

Rhododendron Species — B
R. baenitziànum Lauterbach (of Carl G. Baenitz, 1837-1913)
R. bagpbònum Copel f. (of Bago, Davao Prov., Philippines)
R. baìleyi Balf. f. (of Frederick M. Bailey, 1882-1967, Lt.-Col. Indian Army; explorer of w. China, Tibet; collected in Nepal, Sikkim; discovered Meconopsis betonicìfolia ; plants at BM(NH), Edin. No Passport to Tibet , 1957) Ch. "wheel-flower r."
R. bainbridgeànum Jagg & Forr. (of a Mr. Bainbridge, a friend of George Forrest)
R. bàkeri (W.P. Lemon & McKay) H. Hume (of Dr. Wilford Baker, Emory Univ., Atlanta, Ga.) Cumberland or Baker's Azalea intr. 1938
R. balfouriànum Diels (of Sir Isaac B. Balfour, 1853-1922, M.D. Edinburgh; botanist on Transit-of-Venus Expedition to Rodrigues Isl.; prof, of bot., Glasgow; Regius prof., Edinburgh; established the series and subseries)
R. banghamiòrum (J.J. Smith) Sleumer (of Walter and Catherine Bangham, Amer. botanical collectors in Sumatra, 1931-32)
R. barbàtum Wall ex G. Don (L. bearded) Ch. "stiff-thorned r."
R. barkaménse Chamb. (of Barkam Xian = Co., no. cent. Sichuan)
R. basílicum Balf. f. & W.W. Sm. (G. basilikos royal) Ch. "great-leaved r."
R. bathyphýllum Balf. f. & Forr. (G. bathus thick, luxuriant + phullon leaf)
R. beaniànum Cowan (of William J. Bean, 1863-1947, curator at Kew; among publications: Trees and Shrubs Hardy in British Isles , ed. 8, 1970) Ch. "thorny-branch r."
R. beccárii Sleumer (of Odoarda Beccari, 1843-1920, author of Wanderings in the Great Forests of Borneo , 1902, an account of his three visits to Borneo between 1865 and 1877; available from the Royal Horticultural Society (1988))
R. beesiànum Cowan (of the Bees nurserymen in Cheshire) Ch. "broad-bell r."
R. beyerinckiànum Koorder (of M.W. Beyerinck, 1851-1931, Dutch microbiologist)
R. biiiangénse T.L. Ming (of Bijiang Xian = Co., Yunnan) note: Xian means county
R. bláckii Nutt. (of Michael Black, d. 1979, who collected extensively in the eastern highlands of New Guinea)
R. bloembergénii Sleumer (of S. Bloembergen, 1905-, Dutch botanist and collector in Malaysia)
R. blùmei Nutt. (of Carl L. von Blume, 1796-1862)
R. boninénse Nakai (of Bonin Island, Japan), collected by Dr. J.L. Creech, National Arboretum
R. bonvallóttii Bureau & Franch. (of M. Bonvallott, who botanized on the Upper Yangtze and, with Prince Henri d'Orléans, discovered species of Macacus, short-tailed baboons)
R. boòthii Nutt. (of Thomas J. Booth, 1829-post 1861, nephew of Thomas Nuttall; collected in Assam, Bhutan)
R. brachyánthum Franch. (C. brachus short + anthos flower) Ch. "short-flowered r."
ssp. hypolepidòtum (Franch.) Cullen (C. hupo under + lepidotos scaly) Ch. "greenstyle r."
R. brachycárpum D. Don ex G. Don (G. brachus short + karpos fruit)
ssp. faùriei (Franch.) Chamb. (of Përe L.-F. Faurie, Fr. Foreign Missions)
R. brachygỳnum Copel f. (G. brachus short + gune ovary)
R. brachypodàrium Sleumer (G. brachus short + podarion dim. of pous foot, i.e. pedicel)
R. brachýpodum Fang et Liu (G. brachus short + pous, podos foot)
R. bracteàtum Rehd. & Wils. (L. literally, covered with a leaf of gold) Ch. "bract-leaf r."
R. brássii Sleumer (of L.J. Brass, "born in Queensland, Australia; collected for several Archbold Expeditions, mainly in New Guinea and the Solomon Islands. Keen observer; also in Ericaceae." Sleumer)
R. brevínerve Chun & Fang (L. short-veined) Ch. "short-veined r."
R. breviperulàtum (L. short-bud-scaled; perula = dim. of pera a beggar's wallet)
R. brévipes Sleumer (Lat. short-foot)
R. brookeànum Low ex Lindley (of Sir James Brooke, 1803-68, Bengal Army; gov. of Labuan; rajah of Sarawak; consul-general, Borneo)
var. grácile Sleumer (L. slender)
R. bryóphilum Sleumer (G. bruon moss + philos loving)
R. bullifòlium Sleumer (L. bullatus adorned with buttons, i.e. having blister-like prominences + leaf)
R. bùlu Hutchinson (native name reported by Kingdon Ward)
R. bureàvii Franch. (of E. Bureau, 1830-1918, French professor)
R. burjáticum Malyschev (of the Buryats people east of Lake Baykal, A.S.S.R.)
R. burmánicum Hutchinson (of Burma)
R. búrttii P. Woods (of Brian L. Burtt, 1911-, taxonomist who collected many Vireyas)
R. buxifólium Low ex Hooker f. (L. Box-leaf)
R. buxoìdes Sleumer (G. & L. Box + idea/ides form, likeness)

Other Ericaceous Genera — A
Agapètes D. Don ex G. Don (G. agapetos beloved) 95 spp. trop. Asia to w. Pacific
A. sérpens (Wight) Sleumer (L. creeping) no. India, Nepal
Agaùria (DC = A. P. de Candolle) Hook. f. (G. agauros stately) 1 sp trop. Afr., Madag.
A. salicifòlia (Commerson ex de Lamarck) Hook. f. (L. willow-leaf)
Andrómeda L. (daughter of Cepheus, king of Ethiopia, and Cassiopeia; fastened to a rock; in the sea; Perseus rescued her from a marine monster sent to devour her; more under Cassiopeia. While plant-hunting in Lapland, 25-yr.-old Linnaeus found a small plant amid rocks that reminded him of Andromeda. He sketched a nude young woman among dragons, venomous snakes and toads..."As the distressed virgin cast down her blushing face...so does the rosy-colored flower hang its head, growing paler and paler till it withers away..." he wrote in his Tour of Lapland .) Bog/Marsh Rosemary. 2 spp. N. Amer., Eur., Asia

R. 'R. W. Rye'
Drawing by Linnaeus

A. glaucophýlla Link (G. & L. glaucous is a vague term usually indicating a gray-blue or gray-green bloom on the leaves)
var. latifòlia (Aiton) Rehd. (L. broad-leaf)
A. polifòlia L. (G. polios gray + L. folia leaves. The accepted origin is Teucrium polium , Germander, which appears in Theophr., Diosc. and Pliny as polion/ polium . Since the leaves are not gray, other explanations have been suggested, such as L. polire to polish, i.e. the glabrous leaves.)
Arbutus (or Arbùtus ) L. (ancient name for Strawberry Tree; Virgil, Georgics , 2, 69) c. 14 spp. w. No. Amer., w. Eur. to Medit.
A. andráchne L. (G. andrachne a wild Strawberry Tree, Pliny, Diosc.) e. Medit.
A. canariénsis Duhamel de Monceau (of the Canary Islands)
A. menzièsii Pursh (of Archibald Menzies, Scot. 1754-1842, surg.-naturalist on Discovery under Capt. George Vancouver, 1792-94) Madrone, Madrono Baja Cal.-B.C.
A. únedo L. (L. a name used by Pliny for an Arbutus , apparently from unam one + edo I eat - and no more. He wrote: "The arbutus or strawberry tree [unedo] bears a fruit that is difficult to digest and injurious to the stomach." Natural History 25, 151.) Strawberry Tree, Cane Apples, sw Ireland & most of Medit. basin.
A. xalapénsis (hala-) HBK — von Humboldt, Bonpland, Kunth (of Jalapa or Xalapa, Vera Cruz State, Mexico) w. Tex.-Guatemala
Arctostáphylos Adanson (G. arktos bear + staphule or -is a bunch of grapes) Bearberry, Manzanita, Kinnikinick. c. 50 spp. w. No. Amer., 2 circumpolar
A. alpìna (L.) Sprengel (L. alpine)
A. andersònii Asa Gray (of Dr. Charles L. Anderson, 1827-1910, of Carson City, Nev., an ardent collector of western plants) Heartleaf Manzanita; coastal Cal.
A. auriculàta Alice Eastwood (L. eared)
A. canéscens Eastw. (L. gray-pubescent) Hoary M.; coastal Cal.
A. cinérea T.J. Howell (L. ash-colored) Del Norte M.
A. columbiàna Piper (of the Columbia R.) Hairy M.
A. crustàcea Eastw. (L. having a crust-like covering) Brittleleaf M.
A. densiflòra M.S. Baker (L. dense-flowers) Sonoma M.
A. glandulòsa Eastw. (L. very glandular) Eastwood M.; Ore.-so. Cal.
A. glaùca Lindley (G. glaukos , in Pindar, 01. 3, 23, describes the olive-leaf; in Virgil, Georgics 4, 182 the willow; in Aeneid , 6, 416, the sedge; from glaux the owl, i.e. its glaring, gray eyes; elsewhere it is applied to light-gray-blue eyes and thus, a light "bloom" on leaves) Bigberry M.; Mt. Diablo (Contra Costa Co.)-so. Cal.
A. hearstiòrum James B. Roof (of the Hearst family); Hearst Ranch, Cal.
A. hoòkeri G. Don (of William Jackson Hooker, 1785-1865, director of Kew, 1841-65; Flora-boreali-americana and many other important works) Monterey M.
A. hoòveri P.V.Weils (of Robert F. Hoover, 1913-, prof., Cal. State Polytechnic Univ., San Luis Obispo)
A. insulàris Greene (L. on an island) Island M., Cal. Channel Islands
A. manzanìta Parry (Sp. little apple) Parry M., Contra Costa-Humboldt cos. & widespread in Cal.
A. maripòsa W. Dudley (Sp. butterfly) Mariposa M., Mariposa-Tuolumne cos.
A. mèdia Greene (L. intermediate)
A. montereyénsis Hoover (of Monterey Co.)
A. morroéns Wieslander & Schreiber (of Morro Bay) Morro M.
A. myrtifòlia Parry (L. myrtle-leaves) lone M. (in Amador Co.)
A. nevadénsis A. Gray (of Nevada) Pinemat M.; also no. Cal.-Wash.
A. nummulària A. Gray (L. pertaining to a money-changer; epithet used in botany and medicine to describe an object shaped like a coin, i.e. leaves) Ft. Bragg M.
A. obispoénsis Eastw. (Sp. of a bishop) Serpentine M., San Luis Obispo Co.
A. otayénsis Wiesl. & Schreib. (of Otay, Cal., at Tijuana)
A. pajaroénsis (pah-hah-ro-) J.E. Adams (Sp. of Pajaro Valley, Monterey Co. Pajaro is a small bird.) Pajaro M.
A. pátula Greene (L. spreading) Greenleaf Manz.
A. pechoénsis W. Dudl. ex Abrams (of Pecho, San Luis Obispo Co.) Pecho M.
A. prínglei Parry (of Cyrus G. Pringle, 1833-1911), Pink-Bracted M.
A. pùmila Nuttall (L. very small) Dune M., around Monterey Bay
A. púngens HBK (L. piercing) Mexican M., and so. Cal. e. to Tex.
A. rùbra (Rehd. &Wils.) Fernald (L. red)
A. rùdis Jepson (L. rough) Shagback M.
A. silvícola Jeps. &Wiesl. (L. woods-dweller) Silverleaf M.
A. stanfordiàna Parry (of Ernest E. Stanford, 1888-, prof, of bot., Coll. [now Univ.] of the Pacific, Stockton), Stanford M., cos. no. of S.F.
A. tomentòsa (Pursh) Lindl. (L. densely woolly) Shaggy-Barked M.
A. ùva-úrsi (L.) Spreng. (L. grape of a bear) Bearberry, Sandberry, Kinnikinick; San Francisco Bay-Alaska; Nfld. Kinnikinick, an Algonquin word meaning "that which is mixed" [for smoking] is used in its northern habitat.)
A. víscida Parry (L sticky )White leaf M., Channel Islands

Other Ericaceous Genera — B
Bruckenthàlia Reichenbach (for Samuel and Michael von Bruckenthal, 18th-c. Austrian nobleman) 1 sp. s.e. Eur., Asia Minor
B. spiculifòlia (Salisbury) Reichenb. (L. spike-leaves) Spike Heath, cult. 1880
Bejària or Befària Mutis ex L. (José Celestino Mutis, 1731-1808, named this genus for Sr. Bejár or Befár, professor of botany at Cadiz.) Tarflower, Andes
Rose, 25 spp. trop. and warm Amer.
B. racemòsa Ventenat (L. with an elongated, indeterminate inflorescence), Tarflower, Fly-Catcher, so. Ga. and Fla.

The author wishes to acknowledge the assistance of the botanical departments of Florida State University, Tallahassee, and Oregon State University, Corvallis, Leach Botanical Garden, Portland, Oregon, the herbarium of the University of California, Berkeley, The Royal Horticultural Society Garden at Wisley, and especially Dr. R.N. Withers, Hawthorn, Victoria, Australia, and Dr. Hermann Sleumer, Leiden, The Netherlands, who supplied information on dozens of species.

Theo Smid, linguist and editor of the California Chapter newsletter, continues sharing his extensive research into botanical nomenclature with ARS Journal readers. "Names of Plants: Sense and Sound - Part One" appeared in the Spring l988 issue (Vol. 42:2). This series will continue in future issues.