The Process of Establishing the Industrial Arts and Homemaking - Until 1956
The purpose of this paper was to investigate the internal process of establishing the industrial arts and homemaking through 1956. This was accomplished by analyzing the published documents. Part of the objectives, the teaching method know as the project method, the second group area, items, job examples, and others aspects of vocational education as stated in the 1957 Study Guidance Plan developed by the Vocational Education division in the Ministry of Education, Science and Culture were taken over by the industrial arts and homemaking. This Study Guidance Plan included many area subjects such as, agriculture, industry, commerce, fisheries, homemaking, and vocational guidance and was therefore, too complex and general. Establishment of the industrial arts and homemaking provided a means for overcoming these points.
In 1956 the council for curriculum of secondary education, which was managed by the secondary education division, began to discuss the reconstruction of vocational education and homemaking. A section head of this division was Sugie who had a profound knowledge of technology education. In conference for the section leaders of local boards of education in January 1957, a fairly complicated reconstruction plan for vocational education and homemaking was reported. It was proposed that "this field of study should be qualitatively restricted, the content should be structural and three dimensional, the focus should be on the fundamentals, production technology should be emphasized, and we should organize from the stand point of it being a compulsory subject. If we fractionalize the field it will be vocational technical education." It is known that in 1956 the plan for the reconstruction of vocational education and homemaking was making considerable progress.
Key words : industrial arts, homemaking, vocational education, technology education, secondary education, establishment.