Journal of Technology Education

Journal of Technology Education

Current Editor: Chris Merrill,
Previous Editors: Mark Sanders 1989-1997; James LaPorte: 1997-2010

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Volume 3, Number 1
Fall 1991

               Retaining Teachers in Technology Education: Probable Causes, Possible Solutions
                                       Michael D. Wright
                              The International Technology Education
                         Association's (ITEA) Professional Improvement
                         Plan called for a study that would address
                         the technology education teacher retention
                         problem.  As a result, ITEA Task Force E con-
                         ducted a national survey of state supervisors
                         of technology education and ITEA affiliated
                         association presidents to determine probable
                         causes and identify possible actions that
                         could be taken to remedy the situation.
                              The scope of educational activities that
                         should take place in schools has been, and
                         continues to be, a matter of controversy.
                         Most people involved with public schools
                         agree that a major objective of schools is to
                         promote the scholastic achievement of the
                         students (Goodlad, 1984).  There is little
                         doubt that teachers are directly involved in
                         the academic progress of their students.
                              Research has established that a re-
                         lationship exists between teacher satisfac-
                         tion and student achievement (Doyle &
                         Forsyth, 1973; Goodman, 1980; and, Stanton,
                         1974).  In general, the findings tended to
                         indicate that teachers in secondary schools
                         whose students achieve relatively high scho-
                         lastically had higher morale than did teach-
                         ers in schools with relatively low pupil
                         achievement.  Similarly, student achievement
                         tended to increase under teachers with high
                         morale and decreased under teachers with low
                              It appears that teacher morale or satis-
                         faction does make a difference in the scho-
                         lastic achievement of students.  For this
                         reason, teacher satisfaction and a closely
                         related issue, the retention of qualified
                         teachers, has been a concern for several dec-
                         ades.   The literature review progresses from
                         very broad, theory-oriented research to more
                         specific studies concerned with technology
                         teachers.  The term "technology teacher" will
                         be used as a generic term to include indus-
                         trial arts, industrial education, industrial
                         technology, technology education and related
                         JOB SATISFACTION OF TEACHERS
                              Historically, job satisfaction was
                         viewed as a continuum.  Certain factors, if
                         present, contributed to job satisfaction; and
                         if absent, contributed to job dissatisfac-
                         tion, and vice-versa.  Herzberg, Mausner, and
                         Snyderman (1959) developed what has been
                         called the Two-Factor Theory of job satisfac-
                         tion or the Motivation-Hygiene Theory.  In
                         contrast to conventional theory at the time,
                         Herzberg concluded there were certain condi-
                         tions of employment that, if present, acted
                         as job satisfiers (motivators) and other con-
                         ditions that acted as job dissatisfiers (hy-
                         giene factors).  The absence of motivators
                         did not contribute to job dissatisfaction,
                         nor did the absence of hygiene factors con-
                         tribute to job satisfaction or motivation.
                         Fourteen factors were identified as contrib-
                         uting to job satisfaction or dissatisfaction.
                         The factors identified were: achievement, re-
                         cognition, interpersonal relations, responsi-
                         bility, advancement, salary, job security,
                         personal life, status, working conditions,
                         policy and administration, supervision, and
                         the work itself.  Herzberg believed these
                         factors to be universal in the workplace.
                              Several research studies have attempted
                         to replicate and/or apply Herzberg's (1959)
                         famous "Motivation to Work" study in educa-
                         tional settings.  Johnson (1967) identified
                         five factors (achievement, recognition,
                         interpersonal relations, work itself, and re-
                         sponsibility) that had statistical signif-
                         icance in affecting teacher satisfaction.
                         Four factors (policy and administration,
                         working conditions, status, and personal
                         life) were significant in affecting teacher
                         dissatisfaction.  Johnson suggested that
                         "...the personality of the principal seemed
                         to be the factor which controlled the atti-
                         tude of teachers" and that "the findings of
                         this study indicated that the organizational
                         climate of schools contributed to teacher
                         satisfaction--dissatisfaction" (p. 139).
                              Sergiovanni (1966), in another repli-
                         cation of Herzberg's study in an educational
                         setting, interviewed teachers to find out
                         about events associated with their jobs that
                         made them feel unusually good and unusually
                         bad.  According to Sergiovanni's classifica-
                         tion of the teachers' responses, achievement
                         and recognition were ranked first and second
                         as factors contributing to good feelings
                         about the job.
                              Robert Simmons (1970) found three "con-
                         tent" factors (achievement in the job, the
                         work itself, and recognition) that contribute
                         to satisfaction in teaching.  Achievement in
                         teaching contributed most to satisfaction.
                         Recognition from the principal was determined
                         to be a significant part of the recognition
                              In a study of job satisfaction that fo-
                         cused on high school business teachers in
                         Ohio, Lacy (1968) identified 27 factors that
                         were significant for a high level of teacher
                         job satisfaction.  School administration was
                         found to affect teacher job satisfaction.
                         That is, teachers with a high level of job
                         satisfaction indicated, "[they] received re-
                         cognition for a job well done ...  adminis-
                         trators had democratic methods of dealing
                         with teachers" (p. 222).
                              Graham (1985) believes that unreasonable
                         burdens and too little time drive more people
                         from the teaching profession than low sala-
                         ries.  According to Graham, an approach that
                         would make a big difference would be to reor-
                         ganize teachers' days and priorities to save
                         precious time that is lost.  The suggestions
                         offered by Graham centered primarily around
                         working conditions: reduce class size, pro-
                         vide clerical help, reduce non-reaching ac-
                         tivities, give every teacher a student
                         assistant, seek help from parents, and pro-
                         vide monthly, non-teaching work days.
                              Litt and Turk (1985) surveyed high
                         school teachers to identify sources of stress
                         and dissatisfaction that might induce teach-
                         ers to leave teaching.  The results suggested
                         that "the role teachers perceived for them-
                         selves and the school climate, particularly
                         the relationship with administrators, may be
                         extremely important in predicting job stress"
                              The "context" aspects of work (e.g.,
                         working conditions, school policy, and sal-
                         ary) identified by numerous studies, serve
                         only to reduce dissatisfaction in the lower-
                         order needs identified by Maslow (1954); they
                         cannot lead to growth or satisfaction.  The
                         "content" aspects of teaching (e.g. achieve-
                         ment, recognition, and the work itself) cor-
                         respond to esteem and self-actualization, the
                         top of Maslow's hierarchy.  Psychological
                         growth and satisfaction depend upon success-
                         ful job completion, so only those factors
                         that are content centered (intrinsic aspects
                         of teaching) can contribute to satisfaction.
                              Technology teachers have an instruc-
                         tional role that is different from many other
                         teachers.  The nature of their teaching is
                         primarily the problem-solving approach, fre-
                         quently utilizing one-on-one instruction.
                         Technology teachers tend to develop a sense
                         of "ownership" over their labs, partly due to
                         the amount of maintenance and other personal
                         time they have invested in the facility.  Lab
                         sharing for technology teachers can be a
                         source of frustration when needed supplies
                         and/or tools for a class have been used or
                         abused by someone other than the person who
                         ordered and maintained them.  In addition,
                         many technology teachers have skills which
                         can be utilized in business and industry em-
                         ployment at salaries and benefits that are
                         frequently greater than they receive from
                              The Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire
                         (MSQ) was used by Steinbach (1979) to measure
                         the level of job satisfaction for public sec-
                         ondary industrial arts teachers in Minnesota.
                         The evidence from Steinbach's study indicated
                         that certain job reinforcers of industrial
                         arts teachers were significantly associated
                         with their level of satisfaction.  The
                         strongest associations were among the follow-
                         ing characteristics: steady employment, work-
                         ing conditions, position in the community,
                         feeling of accomplishment, supervisory compe-
                         tence, administrative support, judgmental
                         freedom, organizational practices, authority,
                         doing for others, and competitive pay.
                              Wright (1985) interviewed technology
                         teachers to determine if relationships ex-
                         isted between esteem, autonomy, job satisfac-
                         tion, and the intention to quit teaching.
                         Wright found that teachers' over-all job sat-
                         isfaction was positively correlated with the
                         PERCEIVED amount of esteem and negatively
                         correlated with the intention to quit teach-
                         ing.  The study also indicated that teachers
                         in small schools have more esteem, but lower
                         salaries, than teachers in medium or large
                         schools.  Building principals could have tre-
                         mendous impact on teachers' perceived esteem,
                         and therefore, their over-all satisfaction
                         AND their intention to remain in teaching.
                              A significant finding from Wright's
                         study was that neither actual salary nor the
                         teacher's satisfaction with their salary was
                         related to the intention to quit teaching.
                         Perceived esteem was the variable most highly
                         correlated with the intention to quit teach-
                              The research related to the variable
                         "esteem" (recognition, praise, status, high-
                         regard), based on Maslow's hierarchy, has
                         identified several distinct groups from which
                         teachers receive esteem (Johnson, 1967; Lacy,
                         1968; Sergiovanni, 1966; Simmons, 1970; and
                         Wright, 1985).  These groups included stu-
                         dents, parents, the community, and school ad-
                         TECHNOLOGY TEACHER TURNOVER
                              There are several studies of technology
                         teachers who had left teaching (Dye, 1981;
                         Edmunds, 1982; Lindsey, 1979; and, Tomlinson,
                         1982).  The results of these studies provide
                         a foundation from which to build.
                              Vocational industrial education teachers
                         in Texas who had quit teaching cited salary
                         as the primary reason (Lindsey, 1979).  In
                         addition, three of the top ten reasons were
                         related to the teachers' relationship with
                         the school administration.
                              In another attempt to identify factors
                         involved in vocational industrial teachers'
                         decision to leave teaching, Dye (1981) iden-
                         tified several characteristics where mobile
                         teachers differed from stable teachers.  Mo-
                         bile teachers were defined as those who had
                         left a teaching position while stable teach-
                         ers were defined as those who remained in
                         teaching.  Low teaching salary was identified
                         as the most significant difference between
                         mobile and stable teachers.  Mobile teachers
                         had a low opinion of teaching salaries,
                         whereas stable teachers had a relatively high
                         opinion of teaching salaries.  Mobile teach-
                         ers were found to feel significantly less
                         support by the local school system than did
                         stable teachers.  The issue again appears to
                         be one of individual perception.
                              Dye's (1981) and Wright's (1985) results
                         would suggest that teacher PERCEPTIONS of
                         conditions are perhaps more important than
                         "actual" conditions in affecting job satis-
                         faction and the intention to continue or dis-
                         continue teaching.  This perception presents
                         a challenge to the building administrator:
                         how do they make technology, or any other,
                         teachers FEEL that they are supported.  Re-
                         gardless of budget appropriations, the build-
                         ing administrator must convey the spirit of
                         program support to the teachers.
                              Technology teacher turnover and filling
                         technology vacancies have become significant
                         problems in many states.  Technology teachers
                         in Illinois, for example, have had a turnover
                         rate as high as 14% per year.  The technology
                         teacher vacancy situation has been further
                         compounded by the reduction in the number of
                         graduates that are certificated and elect to
                         teach technology.  During the ten year period
                         from 1972-1982, the number of persons that
                         graduated with eligibility to teach technol-
                         ogy in Illinois declined by 50%.  In addition
                         to the attrition from teaching by first and
                         second year technology teachers, significant
                         numbers of veteran teachers are approaching
                         retirement age.  In 1980, 17.5% of all indus-
                         trial education teachers in Illinois were 50
                         years or above (Tomlinson, 1982).
                              Similarly, Devier and Wright (1987) as-
                         sessed the status of technology education in
                         Ohio and reported some rather alarming data.
                         In 1987, 25% of all practicing technology
                         teachers in Ohio were either retiring or eli-
                         gible to retire within the next five years
                         (1987-92).  Perhaps even more alarming, 50%
                         of the technology teachers would be retiring
                         or eligible to retire within ten years!
                         (Devier and Wright, 1987).
                              In an effort to determine if the supply
                         of new technology teachers would be able to
                         keep pace with the demand to fill vacancies,
                         Devier and Wright (1988) surveyed teacher ed-
                         ucation institutions and secondary school
                         district superintendents in Ohio.  The
                         projected supply of graduates certified to
                         teach technology, which is down approximately
                         50% from 1980,  cannot meet the retirement
                         rate in the best case scenario.  In the worst
                         case scenario, in which not all graduates de-
                         cide to teach, many teachers elect early re-
                         tirement, and the state mandates a proposed
                         technology education course in the middle
                         grades, the supply will be just one-fourth of
                         the demand!  Although no one can accurately
                         predict demand, it would appear that the cur-
                         rent supply of technology majors in college
                         (1988-92) will fall short of the demand.
                              The effects of school climate are read-
                         ily apparent to the trained observer; yet,
                         school climate is incredibly complex and dif-
                         ficult to assess empirically.  Recent studies
                         have clearly indicated the importance of the
                         principal's leadership style in determining
                         the school climate (Goodlad, 1984; Lipsitz,
                         1984; Sergiovanni & Starrett, 1983; and
                         Wright, 1985).  One manifestation of the
                         school climate is the professional freedom
                         afforded to teachers to carry out their as-
                         signments in support of the school's mission.
                         The importance of achievement, recognition,
                         and organizational climate for teacher satis-
                         faction was documented by Johnson (1967),
                         Lacy (1968), Sergiovanni (1966), and Wright
                         (1985).  These factors, then, may be influ-
                         enced by the principal.  Lipsitz (1984),
                         Sergiovanni and Starrett (1983), Weller
                         (1982), and Wright (1985) concluded that the
                         administrator was one of the key factors in-
                         fluencing teacher morale and satisfaction.
                                   TEACHER RETENTION SURVEY
                         SURVEY DESIGN
                              A research study was designed at the re-
                         quest of the ITEA Board of Directors to iden-
                         tify reasons teachers leave the profession as
                         well as possible solutions to this problem.
                         A questionnaire was developed which listed
                         twelve possible causes of the teacher re-
                         tention problem and ten possible solutions to
                         the problem.  The factors were derived from
                         the literature review and input by profes-
                         sionals in the field.  The respondents were
                         asked to rate these factors on a Likert-type,
                         five choice scale.  A value of "1" referred
                         to either a low probable cause of the teacher
                         retention problem or a low possibility of be-
                         ing a partial solution to the problem, and a
                         value of "5" represented either a strong
                         probable cause of the teacher retention prob-
                         lem or a strong possibility of being a par-
                         tial solution to the problem.
                         The questionnaires were mailed to technology
                         education state supervisors and presidents of
                         ITEA affiliated state associations as well as
                         selected corresponding officials from
                         Canadian Provinces and U.S. Territories.
                         This sample represents a "secondary source"
                         for research focused on teachers.  It was de-
                         termined that this was the most expedient
                         method to collect the data given the opera-
                         tional parameters.  The Advisory Committee
                         concurred with the researchers. The total
                         number mailed was 100, with a nearly equal
                         distribution between supervisors (51) and
                         presidents (49).  The number of instruments
                         returned was 58, of which 56 were usable.
                         Twenty four surveys were returned by associ-
                         ation presidents (47%) and 32 were received
                         from supervisors (61%).
                         DISCUSSION OF THE SURVEY DATA
                              The data obtained from the survey are
                         reported in Tables 1 - 6.  The possible
                         causes of the teacher retention problem are
                         presented first (Tables 1 - 3) followed by
                         the possible solutions (Tables 4 - 6).  The
                         factors which were listed on the question-
                         naire are rank ordered by their mean ratings
                         in Tables 1 & 4.  Tables 2 - 3 and 5 - 6 list
                         additional factors suggested by the two
                         groups of respondents.
                              The write-in responses provided by the
                         state supervisors and association presidents
                         for both possible causes and possible sol-
                         utions were content analyzed.  Four themes
                         emerged from this analysis: Administrative,
                         Professional, Economic, and
                         Classroom/Student.  Write-in responses were
                         usually fragmented, incomplete sentences.
                         Analysis was therefore subject to interpreta-
                         tion and thus used for discussion purposes
                              The data in Table 1 on the possible
                         causes of the teacher retention problem indi-
                         cate that "lack of support by administration"
                         is most important (mean 4.12).  This was the
                         only factor listed with a mean above 4.0.
                         The second and third rated causes were "low
                         salary/lack of benefits" and "budget re-
                         strictions."  These two items both pertain to
                         economic factors.  The second relates to the
                         teacher's personal life and the third relates
                         to the teacher's professional life. The
                         fourth rated factor, "lack of academic
                         freedom/choice of teaching assignments, etc."
                         may also be considered as an Administrative
                         factor.  Thus, two of the top four rated fac-
                         tors are related to administration.
                         TABLE 1
                         PROBLEM (N=56)
                         Rank                Cause             Rating
                         1    Lack of Support By Administration    4.12
                         2    Low Salary/Lack of Benefits          3.91
                         3    Budget Restrictions                  3.88
                         4    Lack of Academic Freedom/Choice of
                              Teaching Assingments, Etc.           3.85
                         5    Student Apathy                       3.52
                         6    Lack of Facilities/Equipment         3.43
                         7    Student Conduct                      3.38
                         8    Lack of Opportunity for Promotion    3.23
                         9    Lack of Basic Job Satisfaction       3.10
                         10   Low Status In Community              2.89
                         11   Extra Duties i.e., Lunchroom Monitor,
                              etc.                                 2.86
                         12   Forced Participation In Extra Curricular
                              Assignments                          2.74
                              Table 2 lists additional causes of the
                         teacher retention problem as reported by
                         state supervisors of technology education.
                         The twenty-four (24) responses were categor-
                         ized according to the four themes estab-
                         lished.  Professional Reasons included seven
                         (7) responses (29%), Economic Reasons seven
                         (7) responses (29%), Administrative Factors
                         six (6) responses (25%), and Student-
                         Classroom Factors totaled four (4) responses
                         TABLE 2
                         Professional Reasons (7)
                         o   Low status among colleagues outside tech-
                             nology education
                         o   Lack of understanding of technology edu-
                             cation revolution
                         o   Difficulty accomplishing necessary public
                             relations work
                         o   Lack of involvement in shaping curric-
                             ulum, school policy
                         o   Lack of opportunity for professional im-
                         o   In-service activities not within reason-
                             able distance
                         o   Lack of financial support for continuing
                         Economic Reasons (7)
                         o   Greater opportunities in industry
                         o   Teachers leave when jobs in industry are
                         o   Stayed in teaching long enough to obtain
                             benefits prior to beginning second career
                         o   Attractive retirement offers
                         o   Lack of summer jobs available
                         o   State economy
                         Administrative / Teaching Schedules / RIFs
                         o   Administrative paperwork
                         o   4 - 5 daily preparations at high school
                         o   Class scheduling (decreases student
                         o   Program reductions - lack of support
                         o   Curriculum not required at junior high,
                             therefore students are not enrolling at
                             high school
                         Classroom / Students (4)
                         o   Lack of support for discipline
                         o   Large class sizes
                         o   Working only with low ability students
                         o   Teacher burnout
                              Table 3 lists additional causes of the
                         teacher retention problem suggested by the
                         ITEA affiliated association presidents.  The
                         nineteen (19) responses were categorized as
                         follows: Professional Reasons - 8 (42%), Ad-
                         ministrative Reasons - 7 (37%), and Economic
                         Reasons - 3 (16%).  By comparison, 29% of the
                         supervisors' responses were related to Eco-
                         nomic Factors.  Both groups reported the
                         largest number of responses related to Pro-
                         fessional Reasons.
                         TABLE 3
                         PRESIDENTS (N=19)
                         Professional Reasons (8)
                         o   Low status on faculty
                         o   No real-life experiences to relate class-
                             room instruction to
                         o   In-service support not available for new
                         o   Lack of teacher's rights
                         o   Too much responsibility placed on
                             teachers: checks for physical, sexual,
                             and drug abuse; morality; etc
                         o   State organization weak, no real support
                             for teachers
                         o   Stress: health effects
                         o   Pressure to make changes
                         Administrative Reasons (7)
                         o   Low support from faculty and guidance
                         o   Higher graduation standards, little time
                             for electives
                         o   Declining enrollments
                         o   Dropped from minimum standards
                         o   Teachers forced out due to cut-backs
                             caused by other course requirements
                         o   Legislative requirements
                         o   Transferred to T & I program
                         Economic Reasons (3)
                         o   Other opportunities arise
                         o   Retirements
                         o   Graduates do not have adequate prepara-
                             tion for jobs
                         Classroom / Students (1)
                         o   Students get off too easy
                              Table 4 lists the mean ratings of the
                         possible solutions to the teacher retention
                         problem identified on the survey.  "Increased
                         funding for education" and "stronger parental
                         support for education" were tied for first
                         with a mean rating of 4.4.  The respondents
                         also felt strongly that school administration
                         should shift their focus from external issues
                         to internal issues (mean 4.18).
                         TABLE 4
                         PROBLEM (N=56)
                         Rank               Solution           Rating
                           1  Increased federal, state, and local
                              financial support of education.     4.40
                           1  Stronger parental support for the   4.40
                              educational process.
                           3  Refocusing of attention on the part 4.18
                              school administration from external
                              issues to internal issues
                              internal issues - teacher support.
                           4  20% increase in all teachers
                              salaries                            3.84
                           5  Use of paraprofessionals for extra
                              duties i.e., lunchroom monitors,
                              etc.                                3.68
                           5  National campaign to reform public
                              opinion of teaching.                3.68
                           7  Less attention to retaining all
                              students in school at all costs and
                              more attention to working with
                              students who want to learn.         3.60
                           8  Relocation of authority in
                              selection of course content,
                              instruction, etc. to allow for all
                              teachers to participate in choices. 3.50
                           9  Creation of broad-based teacher
                              recognition at all levels i.e.
                              teacher of month etc.               3.47
                          10  Development of Master Teacher
                              Hierarchy to create a promotion
                              ladder.                             3.29
                              Table 5 lists additional solutions to
                         the teacher retention problem suggested by
                         the responding supervisors.  The twelve (12)
                         responses were categorized as follows: Admin-
                         istrative Practices - 5 (42%), Professional
                         Activities - 4 (33%), Economic Factors - 2
                         (17%), and Classroom Issues - 1 (8%).
                         TABLE 5
                         Administrative Practices (5)
                         o   Re-establish administrative links with
                             the teaching process
                         o   Publish standards for school board member
                             participation and responsibility
                         o   Vocational education is not just a fed-
                             eral program - support at the local level
                         o   Reduce class sizes to 22:1 (18:1 with
                             mainstreamed special needs students)
                         o   Working relationship of counselors with
                             ALL students and teachers, not just col-
                             lege bound or "academic"
                         Professional Activities (4)
                         o   More participation and support for
                             subject/specialty organizations (ITEA)
                             instead of generic groups (NEA)
                         o   Paid sabbaticals for education, self-
                             improvement, study, and re-certification
                         o   Promotional efforts for technology educa-
                         o   Professional staff development: financial
                             and administrative support for out-of-
                             state travel to national conferences,
                             workshops, and seminars; allow teachers
                             to participate in industry-sponsored
                         Economic Factors (2)
                         o   Benefits package equal to private sector
                         o   Same increase in salary as congress
                         Classroom / Students (1)
                         o   Use paraprofessionals to assist technol-
                             ogy teachers in providing tutorial ser-
                             vices, etc. for special education
                             students who are mainstreamed into regu-
                             lar classroom
                              Table 6 lists additional solutions sug-
                         gested by the association presidents.  The
                         sixteen (16) responses were categorized as
                         follows: Administrative Practices - 9 (56%),
                         Professional Activities - 6 (38%), and Eco-
                         nomic Factors - 1 (6%).
                         TABLE 6
                         PRESIDENTS (N=16)
                         Administrative Practices (9)
                         o   View technology education as vital as the
                             core program
                         o   Program support from the central adminis-
                         o   Support leave time for professional
                             events, conferences
                         o   State support for student organizations
                         o   Require the subject of technology educa-
                         o   Teachers need to have more of an actual
                             hand in decision-making
                         o   Involve local business
                         o   In-service support/availability for new
                         o   Include technology education in the mini-
                             mum standards
                         Professional Activities (6)
                         o   Annual teacher recognition
                         o   Increased teacher enrichment program
                         o   Increased involvement with math, science
                         o   Provision of adequate graduate courses
                         o   National campaign to increase awareness
                             of technology education
                         Economic Factors (1)
                         o   Limit income potential of private sector
                             careers so they aren't so darn tempting
                              A review of Tables 2, 3, 5, and 6 would
                         indicate that, although there is general
                         agreement between the state supervisors and
                         the association presidents, the presidents
                         tended to indicate a higher need for in-
                         creased professionalism which may be enhanced
                         by administrative practices.  Similarly, the
                         presidents tended to place less emphasis on
                         the economic factors than did the supervi-
                              The data from this survey support the
                         literature previously cited.  The causes of
                         the teacher retention problem reported in
                         this study are very similar to those identi-
                         fied in the literature.  Similarly, the pos-
                         sible solutions suggested by the respondents
                         in this survey closely parallel those sol-
                         utions listed in the literature.
                                CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
                              It is difficult to make broad gener-
                         alizations from this study alone.  However,
                         there are several common themes between
                         studies reported in the literature and this
                         study.  It must also be recognized that there
                         are variables over which there is no control.
                         Similarly, there are factors which may be too
                         expensive to address realistically.
                         1.  A primary reason that technology teachers
                             leave the profession is "lack of support
                             by administration."  This was documented
                             in numerous studies cited in the litera-
                             ture review and by this study.
                         2.  Salaries were consistently identified as
                             a source of dissatisfaction. However, re-
                             search has also indicated that perhaps
                             the teachers' PERCEPTION of their salary
                             compared to other professionals or groups
                             may be more significant than actual sal-
                             ary.  Regardless, salaries have been
                             identified as a source of dissatisfac-
                             tion, but not statistically related to
                             the intention to quit teaching.
                         3.  Other possible causes of teachers leaving
                             the profession included budget re-
                             strictions, lack of control over teaching
                             assignments, student apathy, and lack of
                             equipment and facilities.
                         4.  This study identified two main areas of
                             concern that may be possible solutions to
                             the teacher retention problem: adminis-
                             trative practice and professional activ-
                             ities.  Frequently, these two are very
                             closely related.
                              The following are specific recommen-
                         dations that may have a significant effect on
                         teacher satisfaction and retention:
                         1.  A representative from ITEA should meet
                             with each state's secondary school prin-
                             cipal's organization (NASSP) to present
                             the findings of this study.
                         2.  Develop and disseminate a series of
                             monographs (or idea books) that are spe-
                             cifically targeted to teachers with lim-
                             ited facilities and budgets.
                         3.  The ITEA should continue to support leg-
                             islation to increase minimum salary lev-
                             els for teachers.  Salaries should be
                             PERCEIVED as on a par with comparable
                         4.  The author recommends that ITEA endorse a
                             study to determine if the supply of new
                             technology teachers is going to be ade-
                             quate to replace those teachers leaving
                             the field.  Also, are new technology pro-
                             grams being planned for the middle
                             grades, and if so, how many additional
                             teachers will be needed.
                         Michael D. Wright is Associate Professor and
                         Chair, Department of Technology Education,
                         Mankato State University, Mankato, MN.  The
                         author is indebted to Dr. David Devier, Ohio
                         Northern University, for chairing the ITEA
                         Task Force E, conducting the survey, and
                         keeping the Task Force moving forward at a
                         timely rate.  The committee's full report is
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               Journal of Technology Education   Volume 3, Number 1       Fall 1991